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首页 英语基础语法讲义

英语基础语法讲义.doc

英语基础语法讲义

yilia
2011-08-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语基础语法讲义doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

考研英语基础语法扎实的语法功底对于考研解题是很重要的。据总结最令大多数考研学生头疼的基础语法现象主要有以下几项:英语的基本句式、形容词性(定语)从句、名词性从句(主语从句表语从句宾语从句和同位语从句)、副词性(状语)从句、As的用法。下面将对以上语法点详解并通过练习进一步强化对它们的掌握。一、英语的基本句式(一)英语句子的主要成分英语句子主要由主语谓语宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语)定语状语补语(主语补语和宾语补语)表语(主语补语的一种)同位语感叹语插入语等构成。(二)英语的五大句式一)主系表语例如:Youareababy系动词:联系动词(LinkVerb)是一种表示谓语关系的动词作为系动词它本身有词义但不能单独用作谓语后边必须跟表语构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。系动词可以是be动词也可以是某些实义动词。例如:Thedoglooksdangerous五大类常见系动词:)be动词用来表示主语状态。例如:Heisateacher)“持续类”用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度。这类系动词主要有:例如:IamsorrytohavekeptyouwaitingThismatterrestsamystery)“表象类”用来表示"看起来像"这一概念这类系动词主要有:例如:Heseems(tobe)verysad)“感官类”用来表示“感觉”“触觉”等这类系动词主要有:例:Itsoundsreasonable例:DoyoulikethissweaterYes,itverysoftAisfeelingBfeltCfeelsDisfelt)“变化类”这些系动词表示主语变成什么样这类系动词主要有:例如:ItworriedherabitthatherhairwasturninggrayTherumorprovedfalseHisplanturnedoutasuccess二)主语不及物动词(状语)例如:HechangedalotYoucriedloudly注意:该句型可接状语。当一句话中存在多个状语时状语的排列顺序一般为:地点方式目的原因时间(never等频度副词置于句中实义动词前系动词、情态动词等助动词后)。例如:PresidentNixoncametoChinabyaspecialplaneforanofficialvisitattheinvitationofChina’sgovernmentinaftertherehadbeenaboutyearsofseparationbetweenthetwogovernments三)主语谓语(及物动词)宾语例如:Iloveyou注意:当宾语为动词意义时用todo形式或者doing形式。英语中只有少部分动词接doing形式其余均接todo形式还有一些既可接todo形式又可接doing形式没有什么区别但有些接todo形式或doing形式意义有区别应区别记忆。)下列动词常以doing形式作宾语:)下列动词可接todo形式或doing形式作宾语:)下列动词可接todo形式或doing形式作宾语,但意义不同:四)主及物动词间接宾语直接宾语例如:Iwillgiveyouabook=IwillgiveabooktoyouMymothermademeanewdress可以带双宾语的动词主要有:买卖关系:buy,pay,cost给予关系:give,grant,pass,offer,bring,send借还关系:lend,return,owe说服关系:tell,persuade命名选举关系:name,call,elect,select其他关系:wish,envy,make注意:直接宾语与间接宾语对调时应加适当的介词:)                                          等to)                                  等for)of)on五)主语谓语宾语宾补(补充说明宾语状态)例如:Iwillmakeyouhappy注意:)以名词为宾语补足语的动词主要有:若补语是指“一个人可以担任的职位”时便应省略冠词。例如:比较TheyelectedhimPresentHemadeheraservant)以不定式为宾语补足语如果谓语动是感官动词或使役动词to应省略但变被动语态时应补上to。例如:Ioftenseehimhelpothers)现在分词或过去分词也可为宾语补足语:例如:IfoundthemanstealingthemoneyHecan’tmakehimselfunderstoodIheardmynamecalled二、英语的三大类从句从句是相对于主句而言的即它是从属于某一个主句而不能单独作一个句子。在英语中主要有三大类从句即形容词性从句(定语从句)、名词性从句(包括主语从句表语从句宾语从句同位语从句)、副词性从句(即状语从句,包括时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、让步、方式、比较等)。(一)定语从句说到定语从句大家都不感到陌生它是考研题中经常见到的一类从句。例如年考研真题的完形填空题中:Evenwhenhomelessindividualsmanagetofindashelterthatwillgivethemthreemealsadayandaplacetosleepatnight,agoodnumberstillspendthebulkofeachdaywanderingthestreet下面我们来仔细剖析一下这类从句及其用法。一)有关定语从句的基本概念定语从句(AttributiveClause)是一个具有完整的主谓结构并在主句中担任定语的从句它通常置于所修饰的名词或代词之后。先行词(Antecedent)是指被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词它通常位于定语从句之前。例如:TimeandtimeagainthereareseriousaccidentsthatpollutetheairAnyonewhoseesthelionisaskedtotelephonethezooandthepolice注:先行词并不一定都是“词”它除了由名词或代词充当外还可以由下列成分充当:)一个短语例如:Manylife’sproblemswhichweresolvedbyaskingfamilymembers,friendsorcolleaguearebeyondthecapabilityoftheextendedfamilytoresolve())一个分句例如:TheGreeksassumedthatthestructureoflanguagehadsomeconnectionwiththeprocessofthought,whichtookrootinEuropelongbeforepeoplerealizedhowdiverselanguagescouldbe())一个完整的句子例如:Iwaslateforschoolthismorning,whichmademyteacherveryangry如何确定先行词要想正确找到先行词首先要理解定语从句的意思然后根据从句的意思来找在其之前并能与其构成逻辑语义联系的先行词。例如:Forworkersitcanmeananendtothesecurity,benefitsandsenseofthatcamefrombeingaloyalemployee()AexcitementBconvictionCconfidenceDimportance关系词(relativeword)是指引导定语从句的连词。关系词有关系代词who,whom,whose,which和that等关系副词有when,where,why等。关系词不仅在主句和分句间起连接作用而且还代表先行词在定语从句中担任一定的句子成分关系代词作主语、宾语、定语、表语等关系副词作状语。关系代词或关系副词的选用取决于先行词的意义。先行词表人则用who或that表物则用which或that表时间则用when表地方则用where表原因则用why(先行词只可用reason)。关系代词的格则取决于它在从句中的地位。例如:ThisisthebookthatmyfatherboughtmeyesterdayThetimewhenhearrivesisnotknownThefirealsodestroyedcarswhichbelongedtopeoplewhoworkedinthebuilding二)定语从句的种类及关系词的用法:限制性定语从句(restrictiveattributiveclause):在限制性定语从句中从句对先行词起限制作用二者关系密切。如果没有从句将会影响全句的意义因此从句和先行词之间通常不用逗号分开。)先行词表人时关系词由关系代词whowhomwhosethat担任:()在从句中作主语用who或that(以who居多)例如:Hehadsomefriendswhothatworkedintheofficethere()作宾语用whom(需置于从句之首),whothat或省略例如:Theboy(whomwhothat)wesawyesterdaywasJohn’sbrother()作定语用whose(需置于从句之首有时可用ofwhich替换)例如:ThecouplewhosephotoItookatthepartywasverypleasedwithitHehasabookwhosecover(=thecoverofwhich)isverybeautiful注:关系代词作介词宾语时可用whothat或省略但介词须置于从句之后。例如:Thisisthegirl(whothat)Itoldyouoftheotherday书面语中多用whom但介词可置于从句之前或之后。例如:TheteacherfromwhomIlearntmostwhomIlearntmostfromwasMrsZhu如介词与动词已组成短语动词一般则须置于从句之后(与动词不分开)。例如:ThemachinewhichIhavelookedafterfortwentyyears,isstillworkingwellWhose也可置于介词之后作定语介词须置于从句之前。例如:ThebossinwhosedepartmentMrKingworkedhadheardabouttheaccident)先行词表物时关系词由关系代词which或that担任在从句中作主语或宾语(常省略)。例如:HehadmanymerchantshipswhichtradedwithothercountriesTherearesomejobs(that)mencan’tdoverywell注:当关系代词that和which在从句中作介词宾语时用法有些不同。which作介词宾语时介词即可置于从句之首(which紧跟其后)也可置于从句之末(which置于从句之首)单一置于句首较为正式。例如:Onesubjecttowhichcountrymusicoftenreturnsis“thegoodolddays”如介词与动词已组成短语动词一般则须置于从句之后(与动词不分开)。例如:IsthisthewatchwhichhewaslookingforThat作介词宾语时介词只可置于从句之末。例如:Ifitisabookonasubjectthatyouareinterestedin,youwillwantto“chewanddigestit”总之只要介词置于从句之末用whichthat或省略均可。例如:Thatistheexhibition(whichthat)youshouldgoto)先行词表时间时关系词由关系副词when担任在从句中作时间状语。例如:Thiswasatatimewhentherewasnoradio,TVorcinema)先行词表地方时关系词由关系副词where担任在从句中作地点状语。例如:Todaymanyofthemliveinspecialareaswheretheycancontinuetheirwayoflife)先行词表原因时(只有reason一词)关系词由关系副词why担任在从句中作原因状语先行词在句中常省略。例如:Idonotknow(thereason)whytheyquarreled注:关系副词when和where有时可用“介词+which”代替why可用forwhich代替。例如:ThereareoccasionswhenonemustyieldBeijingistheplacewhereIwasborn Isthisthereasonwhyherefusedouroffer先行词虽然是时间或地点但若在定语从句中作主语或宾语时要用关系代词。例如:比较:ThefactorywherehisfatherworkedhasclosedThefactorywhichthatwasbuiltinhasclosed比较:I’llneverforgetthedayswhenwelivedtogetherI’llneverforgetthedays(that)wespentinAustralia比较:Thereason(why)shewasillwasthatshehadeatenbadmeatThereason(that)hegaveforhisabsencewasobviouslyfabricated非限制性定语从句(nonrestrictiveattributiveclause):  在非限制性定语从句中从句与先行词关系比较松散用逗号隔开。)先行词表人时关系词由关系代词whowhomwhose担任(that不能担任非限制性定语从句的关系词):()在从句中作主语用who例如:MartinLutherKing,Jr,whowontheNobelPeacePrizein,wasanimportantpoliticalleaderintheUSA()作宾语用whom(需置于从句之首),who例如:Thatman,whomwhoImetyesterday,isafilmdirector()作定语用whose(需置于从句之首)例如:Mybrother,whosearmshadbeenbrokenbythepolice,wasnottakentothehospital注:关系代词作介词宾语时可用whom介词须置于从句之首。例如:ThesepapersbelongtoBernard,withwhomIamsharingaroomwhom常作of属格的宾语。例如:About,people,manyofwhomwereEuropeans,workedontheprojectwhose也可置于介词之后作of属格宾语中的定语。例如:IdecidedtowriteaboutChaplin,oneofwhosefilmsIhadseenseveralyearsbefore)先行词表物时关系词由关系代词which担任(that不能担任非限制性定语从句的关系词)在从句中作主语或宾语。例如:Thedam,whichisthebiggestintheworld,is,meterslong注:关系代词which在从句中可用作介词宾语介词可置于从句之首或从句之末并常用作of属格的宾语。例如:Itwaslikesteppingintoasecretartmuseum,inwhichweweretheonlyvisitorsNorthIslandisfamousforanareaofhotsprings,someofwhichthrowhotwaterhighintotheair)先行词表时间时关系词由关系副词when担任在从句中作时间状语。例如:Agriculturefirststartedabout,yearsago,whenpeoplebegantogrowcropsintherivervalleysoftheNileinEgypt,intheMiddleEastandinIndia)先行词表地方时关系词由关系副词where担任在从句中作地点状语。例如:HereturnedtoDublin,whereheformedhisownpopgroup判断是否由that来引导定语从句)习惯上要用that引导的定语从句()当先行词是指物的all,little,few,much,any,anything,everything,nothing,none,theone时或先行词被all,little,few,much,any,every,no等修饰时。例如:AllthatcanbedonehasbeendoneHewilltellyoueverythingthatheheardaboutit()先行词是序数词或最高级形容词时或者先行词被序数词(包括last,next)、最高级形容词及theonly,thevery等修饰时。例如:ThisisthefirstfilmthatIhaveseensinceIcamehere()先行词包括人和物时。例如:Theyoftentalkaboutthepeopleandthethingsthattheyareinterestedin()当主句是以who或which开头的疑问句时为了避免重复多用that引导。例如:WhichisthehousethatcaughtfirelastnightWhoistheladythatisplayingthepiano)习惯上不用that引导的定语从句()在非限制性定语从句中不以能用that引导。例如:YesterdayImetMary,whoseemedveryexcided()直接在介词后作宾语时不能用that引导要用whom,whose或which且不能省略。例如:ThehouseinwhichweliveisnotlargeIknowtheyoungmanwithwhomyoulive但当介词放在从句的末尾时可以用that替代which,who替代whom也可以省略关系代词。例如:Thehouse(whichthat)weliveinisnotlargeIknowtheman(whomwhothat)youlivewith()当先行词是指人的all,any,few,one(s),anyone,everyone,those,people,he等时只能用who。例如:Noneisblindasthosewhowon'tseeAnyonewhoisoversixteenisallowedin()当先行词与关系代词之间有较复杂的短语或从句隔开时。例如:IwastheonlypersoninmyofficewhowasinvitedAnewmasterwillcometomorrowwhowillteachyouGerman由whatas引导的定语从句)what引导的定语从句what作为关系代词时用法很特殊被看作是先行词和关系代词的结合体。一般情况下被理解为thethingsthatallthat或somethingthat在句中充当主语或宾语等名词性成分。它引导从句时前面不应该再出现先行词。例如:ForWilliams,thoseactivitiesbecamewhathecalls“electronicheroin”…()what单独使用后不接名词表示物或人例如:SheisnotwhatsheusedtobeOnedifficultyisthatalmostallofwhatiscalledbehavioralsciencecontinuestotracebehaviortostatesofmind,feelings,traitsofcharacter,humannature,andsoon()()what后接名词“所有的……尽可能多的……”例如:Heclaimstobeanexpertinastronomy,butinfactheisquiteignorantonthesubjectWhatlittleheknowsaboutitisoutofdateandinaccurate())关系代词as引导的定语从句as可引导限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句根本区别在于:前者as只用在一些固定结构如suchthesameas修饰的先行词后面而后者没有结构要求。例如:Ascanbeseenfromthecomparisonofthesefigures,theprincipleinvolvestheactiveparticipationofthepatientinthemodificationofhiscondition()定语从句  ThehouseweliveisnotbigAinthatBwhichCinwhich            Dthat  HetalkedaboutthelecturersandschoolshehadvisitedAthat                BwhichCwho                  Dwhom  ThescientisttheteacheristalkingisleavingforBeijingAtohim              BwhomCto                    Dtothat  Iwhoyourteacher,willteachMarxismasatruthtoyouAis                  BareCwere                Dam  theycoulddowastoworkhardAAll                  BAllwhatCAllwhich            DThat  Doyouknowthereasonhedidn’tcomeAthat                BwhichCfor                  Dwhy  TheroomwindowsfacesouthishisAthat                  BwhichCwhose              Dwho’s  Thepark,wevisitedyesterday,isveryniceAwhere                BwhichCthat                  Dwhen  Thepark,wemetwithhim,isveryniceAwhere                BwhichCthat                  Dwhen  ThefirsttimeIsawherwasinAwhen                  BwhichCthat                  Das  PayattentiontoallIdoAwhich                BinwhichCwhat                  Dthat  I’vereadallthebooksyougavemeAwhich                  BthemCwhat                  Dthat  IsthereanythingIcandoforyouAwhat                  BwhichCthat                  Dit  ThewomanchildhadfallenillwasadoctorAwho                  BherCwhose                D  ThepenI’musingishersAwhichit              BthatitCit                  D  IhavethesametroubleyouhaveAthat                BwhichCas                    Dwhat  It’stheverybookIwanttofindAwhich                BthatCit                    Dso  HeistheonlyoneoftheboyswhoEnglishforfouryearsAhaslearnt              BhavelearntClearn                Dlearning  ThisisoneofthebooksworthreadingAthatis                  BwhichareCitwas                Dtheyarebeen  ThisisthebestfilmbeenshownthisyearAwhichhas              BwhichhaveCthathas              Dthathave  Canyoutellmethereasonyoudidn’tcomeforyesterdayAwhy                    BhowCwhich                Dwhat  ThatisthereasonhecametoseeyouAwhen                    BthatCwhich                Dforwhich  DoyoustillrememberthedaywespenttogetherlastmonthAthat                    BinwhichCwhen                  Dwhere  Oct,wasthedaytheNewChinawasfoundedAthat                    BinwhichCwhen                  Dwhere  I’veneverseensuchalazyboyyouareAwhich                  BwhoCthat                    Das  ThereweremanygreatleadersinthehistoryAbrahamLincolnwasthegreatestoneAinwhich                  BinwhomCofwhich                  Dofwhom  Shanghai,Ihavevisitedtwice,hasalargepopulationAwhere                    BwhichCwhat                    Dthat  Thestudentsdidn’tlikethewayshewasdressedA                        BwhichCwhat                      Dhow  IamdeterminedtolearnmysubjectsinthewayyouhavedoneAinwhich                    BbywhatCwhat                      Dwhere  I’lldotohelpyouAallIcan                    BallwhatIcanCallthoseImanage              DallwhichIcan(二)名词性从句名词性从句主要有四类即主语从句表语从句宾语从句和同位语从句。引导名词性从句的常用连词如下图所示:名词从句的引导词对应的句子类型是否做成分连词that陈述句that在从句中不作成分(只起连接作用后接陈述句)连词whether,if一般疑问句whether,if在从句中不作成分连接副词when,where,why,how连接代词who,whom,what,which,whose特殊疑问句when,where,why,how在从句中作状语who,whom,what在从句中作主语宾语或补语which,whose在从句中作定语后面接名词注:要特别关注这些连词在句中是否充当句子成分。这是考试的重点。例如:ConcernswereraisedwitnessesmightbeencouragedtoexaggeratetheirstoriesincourttoensureguiltyverdictsAwhatBwhenCwhichDthat一)主语从句在主句中担任主语的从句叫做主语从句(SubjectClause)。主语从句可以由陈述分句、疑问分句和名词定语分句担任。例如:WhenhewasbornisunknownWhathedidlastnightisbeinginvestigatedThatmanyhandsmakelightworkisawellknownsaying主语从句中应注意:主语从句一般用it作形式主语放在句首而将主语从句放到句末。例如:ItispossiblethathehasstolenthecarIsn’titstrangethatheshouldnothavepassedthetest附:考研中常见的主语从句句型(作文中也经常用到):)It过去分词that从句It'sreportedthat…据报道……It'sbelievedthat…人们相信……)Itis形容词that从句Itisclear(显然……)possibleorlikely(很可能……)natural(很自然……))Itis名词短语that从句Itisapitythat可惜的是……Itisafactthat事实是……)It不及物动词that从句Itseems(似乎……)follows(因此……由此可见……)happens(碰巧……))其他重要结构Itdawnsupononsbthat…某人突然想起……Itoccurstosbthat…某人突然想起……Itmakesnodifferencethat………无所谓Itdoesn’tneedtobebotheredthat…不必担忧……Itisoflittleconsequencethat………无关紧要if引导主语从句时只能用it作形式主语放在句首而将if引导的主语从句放到句末。例如:ItisuncertainifhewillleaveforBeijingtomorrowthat引导主语从句放在句首时that不可省但在句末口语中可省。例如:Thattheseasarebeingoverfishedhasbeenknownforyears()Thathewasillyesterdayisknownnow连词whether以及连接代词或连接副词引导主语从句只能放在句首。例如:Whethertheeyesare"thewindowofthesoul"isdebatablethattheyareintenselyimportantininterpersonalcommunicationisafactWhohasbrokentheglassisunknownWhathewantsisallhereHowwellthepredictionswillbevalidatedbylaterperformancedependsupontheamount,reliability,andappropriatenessoftheinformationusedandontheskillandwisdomwithwhichitisinterpreted主语从句中主句的谓语动词一般用第三人称单数形式但what引导主语从句的主句谓语动词的形式须根据句子的意思来判断。例如:HowheworkeditoutisstillasecretWhattheymakeinthisfactoryareTVsets二)表语从句在主句中担任表语的从句叫做表语从句(PredictiveClause)。表语从句可以由陈述分句、疑问分句和名词定语分句担任通常置于系动词之后。例如:MyideaisthathecanteachchildrenEnglishinthisschoolThequestioniswhetherweshallrunoutoffoodsoonThatishowAnniecametobewithusAreportconsistentlybroughtbackbyvisitorstotheUSishowfriendly,courteous,andhelpfulmostAmericansweretothem()表语从句中应注意:连接词that一般不能省略但当主句中含动词do的某种形式时that可以省略。例如:WhatIwanttodois(that)Icangouptohimandthankhim当句子的主语是:advice,demand,decision,desire,idea,insistence,instruction,order,plan,proposal,recommendation,request,requirement,suggestion,wish等名词时表语从句须用虚拟语气即:shoulddo。例如:Myadviceisthatyoushouldgotoapologizetohim三)宾语从句在主句中担任宾语的从句叫做宾语从句。宾语从句有三种即直接宾语从句形容词宾语从句和介词宾语从句。直接宾语从句即在及物动词(双宾语动词)后作宾语它可以由陈述分句、疑问分句、名词定语分句和感叹分句担任。例如:Doyourememberallthoseyearswhenscientistsarguedthatsmokingwouldkillusbutthedoubtersinsistedthatwedidn'tknowforsure()ProfLee'sbookwillshowyouhowwhatyouhaveobservedcanbeusedinothercontextsIthought(that)itwasgoingtobeinteresting,butinfactitwasn’tHewantedtoseeforhimselfwhattheproblemsareGoodness!NowIseewhatyou’retalkingaboutNow,youknowhowimportantyouaretoyoufamily形容词宾语从句它可以由陈述分句、疑问分句担任。例如:I’msorrythatyouarenothappyyetinyournewschoolI’mafraid(that)alltheseofficesarenonsmokingofficesI’mnotsureifshewouldbewillingtomeetus介词宾语从句它只能由疑问分词和名词定语分句担任。例如:Iwillgivethisdictionarytowhoeverwantstohaveit()WeneedtothinkabouthowmuchweshouldchargeourcustomersforusingthephonesTheywereastonishedbywhattheyfound宾语从句中须注意:.that在口语中常被省略但在正式的文体中不能省并且它一般不能引导介词的宾语从句但可引导except,but,in等少数介词的宾语从句。例如:Ididn’tknow(that)hewasLiLeiIwilldoanythingIcantohelpyouexceptthatI’mill.宾语从句之后带有补足语成分时一般须用it作形式宾语把宾语从句放到句末即“动词it形式宾语宾语补足语that从句”此时的that不能省。例如:Theboyhasmadeitclearthattheycan’tplaywithhistoysYouhaveallhearditrepeatedthatmenofscienceworkbymeansofinductionanddeduction,thatbythehelpoftheseoperations,they,inasortofsense,managetoextractfromnaturecertainnaturallaws,andthatoutofthese,bysomespecialskilloftheirown,theybuilduptheirtheories().动词advise,ask,demand,desire,insist(坚决主张),order,propose,request,suggest(建议)等代的宾语从句须用虚拟语气即:(should)do的形式。例如:Heaskedthatwe(should)gettherebeforenineo’clockTheteacheradvisedusthatwe(should)notwasteourtime.宾语从句的时态与主句的时态须呼应。即:)当主句谓语动词的时态是现在时或将来时从句的谓语动词可用任何所需要的时态表示。例如:HealwayssaysthatheisourgoodfriendWhentheteacherknowswhatwehavedone,hewillsaythatwehavedoneagooddeed)当主句谓语动词的时态为过去时从句的谓语动词须用响应的过去时。例如:Hedidn’ttellushecamefromShanghaiHesaidhehadreadthebook)但当从句的内容是客观真理或客观事实而不受时间的限制时即使主句谓语动词为过去时从句仍用一般现在时。例如:ChairmanMaosaidthatalltheimperialistsarepapertigersWhe

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