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首页 德军步兵2.pdf

德军步兵2.pdf

德军步兵2.pdf

上传者: jason 2011-08-06 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《德军步兵2pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含GermanInfantryman()EasternFrontDAVIDWESTWOODhasbeeninterestedinthearmedfor符等。

GermanInfantryman()EasternFrontDAVIDWESTWOODhasbeeninterestedinthearmedforcesoftheWehrmachtforaslongashecanrecallHehaspreviouslyresearchedordersofbattleontheGermanarmyofWorldWarII,andhaswrittenatitleonKriegsmarinesubmarinesHeiscurrentlyworkingonanillustratedhistoryofthemilitaryrifleHeismarriedandlivesinDerbyshire,UK,wherehepursueshispassionforflyfishingELIZABETHSHARPtrainedinFineArtattheLeicesterCollegeofArtandTechnology,UK,inthesShehasbeenafullmemberoftheSocietyofEquestrianArtistsformanyyears,andhasservedontheExecutiveCommitteeofthatsocietyforseveraloftheseElizabethhasproducedartworkforclientsfromallovertheworld,andshealsoenjoyssculptureWarriorOSPREYPUBLISHINGGermanInfantryman()EasternFrontDavidWestwoodIllustratedbyElizabethSharpFirstpublishedinGreatBritaininbyOspreyPublishing,ElmsCourt,ChapelWay,Botley,OxfordOXLp,UnitedKingdomEmail:infoospreypublishingcomOspreyPublishingLtdAllrightsreservedApartfromanyfairdealingforthepurposeofprivatestudy,research,criticismorreview,aspermittedundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,electrical,chemical,mechanical,optical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthecopyrightownerEnquiriesshouldbeaddressedtothePublishersACIPcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNEditor:TomLowresDesign:KenVailGraphicDesign,Cambridge,UKIndexbyAlanThatcherOriginatedbyTheElectronicPageCompany,Cwmbran,UKPrintedinChinathroughWorldPrintLtdFORACATALOGUEOFALLBOOKSPUBLISHEDBYOSPREYMILITARYANDAVIATIONPLEASECONTACT:OspreyDirectUK,POBox,Wellingborough,Northants,NNFA,UKEmail:infoospreydirectcoukOspreyDirectUSA,coMBIPublishing,POBox,ProspectAve,Osceola,WI,USAEmail:infoospreydirectusacomwwwospreypublishingcomArtist'snoteReadersmaycaretonotethattheoriginalpaintingsfromwhichthecolourplatesinthisbookwerepreparedareavailableforprivatesaleAllreproductioncopyrightwhatsoeverisretainedbythePublishersAllenquiriesshouldbeaddressedto:stangraphaolcomStantonGraphics,StantonCourt,Denton,Grantham,Lincolnshire,NGJT,UKThePublishersregretthattheycanenterintonocorrespondenceuponthismatterAuthor'sdedicationOncemore,tomyfriendsJasonandStephanievonZerneckinNewYorkfortheirindulgenceswhilstmywifeandIstayedwiththem,especiallyforamomentontheBrooklynBridgewhenIpersonallyfeltascoldasaLandserbeforethebattleofMoscowinDecemberAuthor'snoteAllphotographsarecourtesyofJasonvonZerneckAngelraybooksFRONTCOVERDuringtheRussiancampaigntheGermanArmydidnot!:laveaspeciallydesignedwinteruniformHereweseesignallerslayinglandlinesinthesnowsbeforeMoscowTheabsenceofanywintercamouflagewassignificant,allowingtheRussianstoseeandshootattheGermansOftentroopsstolesheets,butthesesoongotfilthyandwereasbadastheuniformforvisibility(courtesyofJasonvonZerneckIAngelraybooks)CONTENTSINTRODUCTIONINFANTRYREGIMENTORGANISATION,Horses•RationsMARCHINGTHEEARLYFIGHTINGOPERATIONSFIELDOPERATIONSDURINGTHECAMPAIGNHillthCompanycounterattacksduringasnowstorm,NovemberHoldingoutagainstRussianarmourInfantrysucceedswheretanksfailed,DecemberIIBattalion'sfinalstruggleintheStalingradpocket,JanuaryIIBattalion'sstandatVerkhneGolubaya,NovemberTHEHORRORSOFWARMorale•Atrocities•Fieldhospitals•RaspufifsaandiceTHEREASONSFORFAILUREBIBLIOGRAPHYCOLOURPLATECOMMENTARYINDEXGERMANINFANTRYMAN()EASTERNFRONTINTRODUCTIONThefallofFranceandthewithdrawalofmostoftheBritishExpeditionaryForceinMayandJunelefttheGermansincontrolofmostofnorthwestEuropeTheyhadoccupiedCzechoslovakiaandAustriabloodlesslyTheyattackedand,withRussianhelp,conqueredPolandTheythensuccessfullyinvadedNorway,Belgium,Holland,Luxembourg,DenmarkandFranceandplacedthemundermilitaryandciviliancontrolThisgaveGermany,withPolandintheeasttotheRussoGermandemarcationline,commandofthewholenorthwesternEuropeancontinentalcoastlinefromtheeasternBaltictotheSpanishborderontheAtlanticOceanInanduptoAprilBritainstoodaloneinEurope:intheMediterraneanGermanysoontookYugoslavia,GreeceandtheimportantstrategicislandofCreteInNorthAfrica,however,theItalianArmywasnotdoingtoowell,soHitlersentGermantroopsandaGermangeneralErwinRommeltoputthingsinorderHitlermadesomehalfheartedmovestowardspreparingforaninvasionofGreatBritain,butwhentheLuftwaffefailedtogainairsuperiority,theinvasionwaspostponedand,althoughthreatsweremaintained,therewasnoseriousintentioninHitler'smindtomountaninvasionInanyeventhisnavycouldnotmakeupforthefailureoftheLuftwaffetodefeattheRoyalAirForceHitlerhadalwayshadtheeastinmindHewasconvincedthattheGermanReichneededtoexpandthatthisexpansionwouldbeattheexpenseofsovereignnationswasofnoconsequencetohimRussiahadenteredintoapactwithhiminAugust,justbeforetheinvasionofPoland,securinghisinvasionagainstRussianreprisalsandactuallyopeningthebackdoortoaRussianinvasionofPolandThishadgivenhimtheopportunitytogetthePolishcampaignoutofthewaybeforetheWesternpowerscouldreactandinterveneInlate,afterhissuccessfulinvasionofwesternEurope,HitlerturnedhisattentionbacktotheeastTheGermangeneralstaffwascomingincreasinglyunderhiscompletecontrol,anditwastoldtoprepareplansforaninvasionofRussiaDespiteobviousobjectionstotheprospectofatwofrontwar(rarelyargued,andneverconvincingly,inconferenceswithHitler)astrategywaspreparedAsplanningprogressedtheOberkommandoderWehrmacht(OKWSupremeArmedForcesCommand)begantohopethatthecampaignwouldbeasswiftasthosealreadyundertakeninPolandandthewestThesuddenimpositionofafurthercampaignintheBalkansinAprilthrewthetimingoftheRussianoperationoutofbalance,butalsoconfirmedthegrowingbeliefamongtheGermansthattheRussianswouldbedefeatedasquicklyaseveryotherarmytheGermanshadfoughtagainstuptothenThispresumptionbecameacredo:theGermanarmedforceswoulddefeatRussiainamatteroftwoorthreemonthsUnfortunatelyfortheaverageLandsertheRussianshadnotbeentold,nor,ominously,hadtheGodsofRussianweatherPreparationsfortheinvasiontookmonths,anddespitewarningsfromRichardSorge(theRussianspyinTokyo)andWinstonChurchill,StalinwasunwillingtoacceptthattheGermanshaddesignsonRussiaHislackofmilitarypreparationledtoasituationonJunewhereRussiancommanderswereafraidtoopenfireontheinvadingGermanswithoutapprovalfromaboveTheonlyeffectiveapprovalhadtocomefromtheverytop,andStalin,forsomedays,wasincommunicadoINFANTRYREGIMENTORGANISATION,TheGermaninfantryregimentinwaslittlechangedfromthatwhichwentintoPolandinDivisionsconsisted(withtheexceptionofWavedivisionsandlater)ofthreeinfantryregiments,eachofthreebattalionsTheregimentalorganisationwasamirror,onasmallscale,ofthedivisionalorganisation,inthateveryregimenthadaninfantry(andfieldengineer)component,anartillerycomponentandantitankelements,togetherwithalltheservicesneededtosupplytheteetharmswithammunition,food,waterandthemyriadotheritemsneededtokeeptheregimenteffectiveinthefieldRegimentalheadquartersincludedthecommandingofficerandhisstaffofficers,asupplytrain(includingtheregimentalmedicalofficer,thevet,thearmourer,theblacksmithandthefieldkitchen)whichwaspartlymotorisedUnderthecommandofthisHQwerethefieldengineerplatoon,themountedreconnaissanceplatoon(abolishedSeptember),theintelligenceplatoon(includingsignalsplatoon)andtheband(actingasstretcherbearersinbattle)Thethreebattalionsofinfantrywerethemselvesdividedintothreeriflecompanies,amachineguncompany,infantryengineerplatoon,supplytroopsandapacktrainTheregimentalsohadthefollowingunderitscommand:aninfantryguncompany,anantitankcompany(fromMarchknownasPanzerjiiger)andalightinfantrysupplycolumnAllregimentalvehicleswerehorsedrawnwiththeexceptionofthemachineguncompanyineachinfantrybattalionAllrearservices(butchery,bakery,postalservices,ammunitiontrainsetc)weredependentuponhorsedrawnwagonsThustheGermanArmythatmarchedintoRussia(asopposedtothearmouredandmechanisedunitswhichdrove)couldproceedatapproximatelythesamepaceasaRomanlegionnearlytwothousandyearsearlierThisfactalonewastocontributetoproblemsthatwerenevereffectivelyresolvedHorsesEachinfantrymanintheGermanArmywasfamiliarwiththeplatoonhorsethisbeastwenteverywherewiththeplatoon,p'ullingtheplatooncartintowhichpackswereloadedtogetherwithanyextraitemsthatAninfantryhorsestableinGermanyEachstall(left)hasthehorsetackhungonthepartition,readyforuseThesaddlesshownarethestandardGermanArmyArmeesattelissuedforalldrafthorsesThehorsedrivercouldsitonhishorsetocontrolit,asdidtheartilleryhorsedriversGroomingwasanessentialdailytaskNotetheapronwornbythegroom,andthetwosaddlestoleftandrightsoldierscouldmanagetoloadOftenthecartsinthewesthadcarriedthebootyoftheconqueror,forexample:Frenchwines,Dutchcheeses,BelgianchocolatesIntheeast,however,thewagonscarriedthebareessentials,fortherewaslittleloottobehad,andwarmclothingsoonbecamemoreimportantthananyfinewineTheGermanArmywentintoRussiawithover,horses,yetonlyafewthousandtanksIneverycompanyeighthorsedrawnwagonswereneededformovement,plusafurthercompanywagonatregimentalleveltocarryextra(heavy)companyequipmentTheseeightwagonswereusedasfollows:threeonehorsewagonstocarrythemachinegunsandmortarsforthethreeheavyplatoonsofthecompanytwofourhorsewagons:oneforammunition,oneforthefieldkitchen(laterreducedtoatwohorsewagon)andtwotwohorsewagonsforbackpacks,andonetwohorsewagonforrationsThismeantthatanumberofmen(inall,includingNCOsincharge)spentthem~orityoftheirtimelookingafterhorsesanddrivingwagonsThewagonsthemselveswereofgooddesign,buttheconcept,inasocalledmobilearmy,wasarchaicTheotherproblemsthatarosefortheGermanArmyinRussiawerethevulnerabilityofthehorsestotheintensecold,andtheneedforconstantTheinfantrywagonwithtwohorses,driverandtwoseatedmenTheGefreiterisinchargeofthewagonanditshorsesThisistheHfversionthelaterHfmetalwagonwassoheavyitearnedthenickname'horsemurderer'suppliesoffodderfortheanimalswhenthearmyitselfwasdesperateforammunition,clothingandothersuppliesFurthermorethehorseswereveryeasilyinjuredTrainingforhorsehandlerswaslessintensethanthatforcavalrymen,butinvolvedacquiringabasicabilitytoride,thecareofthehorseinthefield,anddietarytrainingtoensurethattheanimalswerefedandcaredforandsowereabletopulltheirloadsRationsTheGermanArmy,likeallothers,hadrationscaleslaiddownforbothmenandhorsesHowever,oncetheRussiancampaignhadstarted,rationsupplieswereoftenerratic,andthemeninthefieldhadtoscavengeforthemselvesQuiteoftenthehorsesbecamefood,especiallyduringthesiegeoftheencircledArmyatStalingradThefollowingisanintelligencereportonrationscalesItappliedwheneverpossible,butwasnevermorethanaguidewhenmeanswereinshortsupply:'aHumanrationsscalesThedailyrationquantity(Portionsatz)istheamountoffoodconsumedbyonemanforonedayItconsistsofthreemeals,thenoonmealamountingtoonehalfofthetotal,theeveningmealtoonethird,andthenextmorning'sbreakfasttoonesixthTheArmedForcesHighCommandhaslaiddownanoverallplanspecifyingthemaximumamountofanyrationitemthatmaybeservedTheamountdependsupontwofactors:thedutyclassofthemanreceivingtheration,andthecomponentclassoftheparticularitembeingserved'TherearefourmaintypesofrationsservedtotroopsRationI(Verpflegungssatzl)isfortroopscommittedtocombat,forthosethatarerecuperatingfromcombat,andfortroopsstationedinNorwaynorthofNorthRationIIisforoccupationandlineofcommunicationtroopsRationIIIisforgarrisontroopswithinGermanyRationIVgoestoofficeworkersandnurseswithinGermanyHospitalcasesmayfallwithinanyoftheseclassesdependingontheseriousnessofthecasesThemostimportantitemsofthecomponentclassesareasfollows:(a)bread(b)meats,soybeanflour,cheese,fish,andeggs(c)vegetables(d)puddingsandmilk(e)salt,mustard,vinegar,andotherseasonings(f)spicessuchaspepper,cinnamon,andcloves(g)butter,lard,marmalades,fats,andbreadspreads(h)coffeeandtea(i)sugarU)spiritsandwines(k)tobaccoSubstituteissuesmaybemadewithinacomponentclassbutnotamongdifferentcomponentclassesThusthedailymaximumallowanceofvegetablesforasoldierisgramsofdriedvegetables,or,gramsofkidneybeans,orgramsofsaltedvegetables,orequivalentquantitiesofanyofaboutothersubstitutesItisnotpossibletopredictwhichitemswillbeservedonanygivendayThefollowingchart,however,setsforthalikelybreakdownofthesemaximumrationallowances'REPRESENTATIVEBREAKDOWNOFMAXIMUMRATIONALLOWANCESINGRAMSPERDAYItemRationDutyClass(weightsingrams)ClassRationIRationIIRationIIIRationIVRyebread(a)Freshmeatwithbones(b)Soybeanflour(b)Headlessfish(b)Freshvegetablesandfruits(c)Potatoes(c)Legumes(c)Puddingpowder(d)Sweetenedcondensedskimmedmilk(d)Salt(e)Otherseasonings(e)Spices(~Fatsandbreadspreads(g)Coffee(h)Sugar(i)Supplementaryallowances(i)TotalMaximumRationingrams,,,,TotalMaximumRationinIbsWine(insummer)(quarts))Cigarettes(pieces)(k)'bSpecialtypesofhumanrations()Marchration(Alarmverpflegung)ThemarchrationisacoldfoodrationissuedfornotmorethanthreeorfourconsecutivedaystounitsintransiteitherbycarrieroronfootItconsistsofapproximatelygramsofbread,gramsofcoldmeatorcheese,gramsofbreadspreads,gramsofcoffee(orgramsoftea),gramsofsugar,andcigarettesThusithasatotalweightofaboutgrams()Ironration(EisernePortion)Anironrationconsistsofgramsofbiscuits,gramsofcoldmeat,ofpreservedvegetables,ofcoffee,andofsaltTotalweightisgramswithoutpackingandgramswithpackingAnironhalfrationiscomposedofgramsofbiscuitsandgramsofpreservedmeat:thusitstotalweightisgramswithoutpackingandgramswithpacking()CombatPackage(Grosskampfpacken)andCloseCombatPackage(Nahkampfpacken)TheGermanshavebeguntousethesetypesofrationfortroopsengagedincombatTheyincludechocolatebars,fruitbars,sweets,cigarettesandpossiblybiscuits'cAnimalrationsAnanimalrationistheamountoffoodconsumedbyonehorse,draftox,dog,orcarrierpigeonforonedayThequantityofananimalrationallowance(Rationssatz)dependsonthetypeofanimal,theareainwhichitisserving,andthecontentoftherationitisbeingfedHorses,forinstance,aredividedintofourgroups:drafthorsesoftheheaviestbreed,drafthorsesofheavybreed,saddlehorsesandlightdrafthorses,andsmallhorsesOntheEasternFront,drafthorsesoftheheaviestbreedreceiveamaximumrationallowanceof,gramsofoats,,gramsofhay,and,gramsofstraw(including,gramsofbeddingstraw)TheallotmentstootherhorsegroupsareproportionatelylessOnfrontsotherthantheEasternFronttheallotmentsforallhorsesaregenerallysmallerInaddition,substitutessuchaspreservedforage,barley,corn,etc,maychangetherationweightIfthehorseisbeingfedanironration,itisgivenasingleitemsuchasoatsorhayorstraw'dRationsinthefieldLocalstoresobtainedbypurchaseorconfiscationplayagreaterpartinthesupplyofrationsinthefield(FeldportionenformenandFeldrationenforanimals)thanisthecaseforanyotherclassofsupplyItispartoftheGermanplanningprincipletoliveoffthelandasmuchasAnessentialsupplystrawforthehorsesHeretwowagonsstandinlightsnow,withtwosmallerwagonsaheadThetroopsarestillwellenoughdressedfortheweatherThephotographwastakeninNovemberonthewaytoMoscowOrdinarilytherearetwofullandtwoironhorserationscarriedeitheronthehorseorinunitsupplycolumnsOtherrationsarecarriedbythearmyandthedivision'RationscarriedinanarmyforeachmanFullrationspossibleandtoobtainonlytheremainingrequirementsfromstocksprocuredthroughchannelsTheGermansfullyappreciatethedifficultyofemployingsuchmethodsduringperiodsofcombatanddonotcountuponlocalstoresduringoperativeperiodsUsuallyanormalreserveofaboutdays'rationsforeachmanofanarmyismaintainedwithinthearmyTherationsconsistoffullandironrations,althoughthelattermaybeeatenonlyuponthereceiptofspecialordersIronrations(half)atotalofaboutWiththemanOnacombatvehicleInthefieldkitchenIntheunitrationtrainInthedivisiontrainInthearmydumpsandtrainTrucksandapanjewagonandponyenrouteforMoscowinDecemberThesmallRussianponieswereverycapableinsnow,aswasthewagonThetrucksarestilloperational,butwillsoonbestoppedbymuchdeepersnowAnotherviewofapanjewagonwithtwoponiesThemenarestillwellwrapped,butspringhasarrivedandnowthehorseswillhavetocopenotwithsnowbutwiththemudfromthemeltedsnowForstaffplanningpurposes,theweightsofrationsarecomputedbytheGermansasfollows:'TypeofrationsHumanrations:StandardrationwithpackingIronrationwithpackingIronhalfrationwithpackingHorserationsStandardrationIronoatrationIronhayrationIronstrawrationWeights(grams),,,,,Weight(pounds)'Atrainloadofhaybaledandreadyfor

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