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首页 1615年大阪之战

1615年大阪之战.pdf

1615年大阪之战

jason
2011-08-06 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《1615年大阪之战pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

STEPHENTURNBULLtookhisfirstdegreeatCambridgeUniversity,andreceivedaPhDfromLeedsUniversityforhisworkonJapanesereligioushistoryHisworkhasbeenrecognizedbytheawardingoftheCanonPrizeoftheBritishAssociationforJapaneseStudiesandaJapanFestivalLiteraryAwardHeiscurrentlyanHonoraryResearchFellowattheDepartmentofEastAsianStudiesattheUniversityofLeedsRICHARDHOOKwasborninandtrainedatReigateCollegeofArtAfternationalservicewithstBn,Queen'sRoyalRegiment,hebecamearteditorofFindingOutduringthesHehasworkedasafreelanceillustratoreversince,earninganinternationalreputationparticularlyforhisdeepknowledgeofNativeAmericanmaterialculture,andhasillustratedmorethanOspreytitlesRichardismarriedandlivesinSussexhisthreechildrenAdam,Jason,andChristaareallprofessionallyactiveinvariousartisticdisciplinesOsakaThelastbattleofthesamuraiOsakaThelastbattleofthesamuraiCampaign•OsakaThelastbattleofthesamuraiStephenTurnbull•IllustratedbyRichardHookFirstpublishedinGreatBritaininbyOspreyPublishing,MidlandHouse,WestWay,Botley,OxfordOXPH,UKParkAvenueSouth,NewYork,NY,USAEmail:infoospreypublishingcom©OspreyPublishingLtdAllrightsreservedApartfromanyfairdealingforthepurposeofprivatestudy,research,criticismorreview,aspermittedundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,electrical,chemical,mechanical,optical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthecopyrightownerEnquiriesshouldbeaddressedtothePublishersStephenTurnbullhasassertedhisrightundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,,tobeidentifiedastheAuthorofthisWorkACIPcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:ISBN:PagelayoutbyTheBlackSpotTypesetinHelveticaNeueandITCNewBaskervilleIndexbyGlynSutcliffeMapsbyTheMapStudioDbird'seyeviewsbyTheBlackSpotOriginatedbyUnitedGraphics,SingaporePrintedinChinathroughWorldPrintLtdForacatalogueofallbookspublishedbyOspreyMilitaryandAviationpleasecontact:NORTHAMERICAOspreyDirect,coRandomHouseDistributionCenter,HahnRoad,Westminster,MDEmail:infoospreydirectcomALLOTHERREGIONSOspreyDirectUK,POBoxWellingborough,Northants,NNFA,UKEmail:infoospreydirectcoukwwwospreypublishingcomAuthor'sdedicationToOliverBrayshawAuthor'snoteFollowingconventionalJapaneseusage,allnamesaregivenwiththefamilynamefirstDateshavebeenconvertedfromthelunarcalendartotheGregoriancalendarusingBramsen'sJapaneseChronologicalTablesAsEnglandhadnotadoptedtheGregoriancalendarbytheearlythcentury,thedatesappearingonthelettersoftheEastIndiaCompanyhavebeenmodifiedaccordinglybyaddingtendaysForthefurtherconvenienceofthereader,thespellinginthequotationsfromEastIndiaCompanydocumentshasalsobeenmodernizedDatesofbirthanddeatharegivenwhereknownAllpicturesarefromtheauthor'sowncollectionArtist'snoteReadersmaycaretonotethattheoriginalpaintingsfromwhichthecolourplatesinthisbookwerepreparedareavailableforprivatesaleAllreproductioncopyrightwhatsoeverisretainedbythePublishersAllenquiriesshouldbeaddressedto:ScorpioGallery,POBox,Hailsham,EastSussexBNSLThePublishersregretthattheycanenterintonocorrespondenceuponthismatterGlossaryoftermsdaimyoJapanesefeudallordjokamachicastletownsakokuthe'closedcountry'policyadoptedbyJapaninkokumeasureofwealthexpressedthroughtheyieldofricefieldsninjasecretagentroninsamuraiwhohaslosthismastereitherbydeathordispossessionsamuraimemberofJapan'smilitaryclasssashimonoidentifyingdevice,usuallyaflag,wornonthebackofasuitofarmourseppukusuicidebydisembowelment,popularlyknownasharakinShogunthemilitarydictatorofJapan,apostcreatedbyMinamotoYoritomoin(becauseoftheterm'sfamiliarityinEnglishitwillappearhereasShogun)shoshidaitheTokugawaShogun'sGovernorofKyotoyashikimansionWeightsandmeasuresThetay,awordusedbytheEastIndiaCompanyforthepricesofgoods,wastheanglicizationofthetradenamefortheChineseounce(taef),equivalenttothofacattyAlthoughoftenreckonedatsd,theratevariedaccordingtothepriceofsilverThetaywasthereforestrictlyameasureofweight,aswasonepecul,whichwascatties,aweightofkg(¹lb)thiswasoftenusedformeasuringquantitiesofgunpowderTheusualfiguregivenforthecontentsofabarrelofgunpowderwaskg(b),otherwiseknownasaquintal,withtheactualweightofthebarrelmakingthetotalweighttoatleastkg(lb)Inthetext,anyreferencestopeculandbarrelareroughlyequivalentJapaneseweightsusedforcannonrefertotheweightoftheshotfired,ieusingmultiplesofthekanme,aweightofkg(¾lb),andthemonme,thofakanmeCONTENTSINTRODUCTIONORIGINSOFTHECAMPAIGNTheAgeofWarringStates•TheheirtomisfortuneGunpowder,treasonandplots•ForwhomthebelltollsCHRONOLOGYOPPOSINGCOMMANDERSTokugawaCommanders•OsakaCommanders•OthercommandersOPPOSINGARMIESTHEWINTERCAMPAIGNOpposingplans•Ordersofbattle•ThedefencesofOsakaSecuringpositions•TheartillerybombardmentThepeacenegotiationsTHESUMMERCAMPAIGNOpposingplans•Ordersofbattle•TheadvancetoOsakaThebattleofTennoji•ThefallofOsakaCastleAFTERMATHTHEBATTLEFIELDTODAYBIBLIOGRAPHYINDEXINTRODUCTIONOPPOSITETheoutcomeofthesiegeofOsakaCastlewasreportedinabroadsheet,thusmakingthesiegethefirsteventinJapanesehistorytobereportedinanythingresemblinganewspaperThesceneshowsthetriumphantTokugawasamuraipursuingdefeatedwarriorsandterrifiedtownspeople,whopleadformercyInthebackgroundthekeepofOsakaCastleisshownonfireheOsakacampaignorrathercampaigns,becauseitconsistedoftwodistinctwinterandsummeroperationsholdsauniqueplaceinJapanesehistoryThebattleofTennojiin,withwhichthefightingatOsakaconcluded,wastobethelastoccasioninwhichtwoarmiesofsamuraiwouldengageoneanotherinapitchedbattleItalsosawthefinalappearanceonthefieldofwarofTokugawaIeyasu,whosevictoryatOsakasecuredhisfamily'shegemonyforthenexttwoandahalfcenturiesButtheOsakacampaignwasalsonotableforanumberoffirstsBecausethefallofOsakaCastlewaspublicizedbymeansofawoodblockprintedbroadsheet,thecampaignbecamethefirsteventinJapanesehistorytobereportedinanythingresemblinganewspaperItwasalsothefirstmajoroccurrenceinJapantobedescribedintheEnglishlanguagethiswasthroughthereportsandletterspreparedbytheEastIndiaCompanyfromitstradingpostinJapanItwasentirelyappropriatethattheyshoulddoso,becauseartillerysuppliedbytheEastIndiaCompanyplayedadecisiveroleinthefallofthecastlewhenitwasusedinthefirstlongrangebombardmentinJapanesehistoryTORIGINSOFTHECAMPAIGNTHEAGEOFWARRINGSTATESheperiodofJapanesehistorybetweenandisknownbyanalogywithancientChinaastheSengokuJidai('AgeofWarringStates')ThroughoutthistimeJapansufferedfromsporadiccivilwarsbetweenpowerfuldaimyo(feudallords),alongprocessthatwasfinallybroughttoanendbytheconflictatOsakaIntheirstruggleforsurvivaltherivalwarlordscompletelyignoredboththenominalruleofJapan'ssacredemperorandthesupposedruleoftheShogun,ormilitarydictator,apositioncreatedinThepoweroftheShogunshaddeclinedrapidlyduringtheAgeofWarringStates,andthepostwastemporarilyabolishedinFromthatyearonwards,however,JapanhadmovedtowardsreunificationundertwoparticularlyoutstandinggeneralsThefirsttotakestepsinthisdirectionwasthebrilliantOdaNobunaga(),buthewaskilledinasurpriseattackinThemanwhosucceededhimwascalledToyotomiHideyoshi()Hewasanaccomplishedgeneral,andbyHideyoshihadconqueredthewholeofJapanHethenoverreachedhimselfwithadisastrouswaragainstChinathatwasfoughtontheKoreanpeninsulaHideyoshidiedininthemannerthatalldictatorsdread,becausehissonandheirToyotomiHideyori()wasthenonlyfiveyearsoldVerysoonJapanspiltonceagainintoarmedcampsOnonesidewasaloosecoalitionofdaimyowhonominallysupportedHideyori,whileontheotherwerethesupportersofhisdeadliestrival:TokugawaIeyasu()TokugawaIeyasuwasoneofhistory'sgreatsurvivorsTakenasahostagewhenachild,andmadetofightforoneofJapan'sleastsuccessfuldaimyowhenayoungman,hegraduallyassertedhisindependenceandalliedhimselfinturnwithNobunagaandHideyoshiHisterritoryineasternJapan,presentedtohimbyagratefulHideyoshi,allowedhimtoavoidserviceinKorea,andthisensuredthathistroopswereinbettershapethanmanyofhisrivalswhohadsufferedinthatconflictBythesummerofIeyasu'spotentialwasrecognizedbyall,includingthePortuguesetraders,whohadregulardealingswithhimandwhosereportspaintavividpictureoftheturmoilJapanwasthenexperiencingSpainandPortugalhadexistedasajointmonarchysince,apoliticalunitythathadenhancedthemonopolyofJapanesetradethatthetwocountriesenjoyedbetweenandJapanesearquebuses,copiedfromPortugueseoriginalsbroughtinandthenmassproduced,hadmadeaconsiderableimpactontheconductofJapanesewarfareIn,however,ProtestantrivalsjoinedtheSpanishandPortuguesewhenaDutchshipvisitedJapanforthefirsttimeThefivevesselsthatmadeuptheinauguralfleetleftRotterdamonJune,ThekeepandwallsofOsakaCastleatsunsetbutonlyonemadeittoJapan,havingbecomethefirstshipofanynationtodosoviatheStraitsofMagellanThevesselwastheLiefde,whicharrivedoffBungoprovinceinKyosho,themainislandofsouthernJapan,onAprilTocompleteatrioof'firsts',alsoonboardtheLiefdewasthefamousWilliamAdams,thefirstEnglishmanevertosetfootinJapanThethreatthatthisarrivalposedtotheexistingIberiantradinghegemonybecameimmediatelyapparentwhenthePortugueseinsistedtoanyonewhowouldlistentothemthattheLandoftheRisingSunhadjusttakendeliveryof'apartyofpiraticalheretics'ThisunflatteringcomplaintwasmadeveryforciblytoTokugawaIeyasu,whoisreferredtobyAdamsas'thegreatkingoftheland'aprescientstatement,forthiswaseffectivelywhatLordTokugawawasshortlytobecomeAswellasapprehendingthecrew,IeyasuconfiscatedthearmamentoftheLiefdeforhisownusesThehaulconsistedofascoreorsocannon,arquebuses,,cannonballs,quintalsofgunpowderandfirearrows,someofwhichmayhavebeenusedathisdecisivevictoryatSekigaharaonOctoberThishugebattledestroyedtherivalcoalition,andthreeyearslaterTokugawaIeyasurevivedthepostandtitleofShogunHemadehisowncastletown,whichlaymilestotheeast,intoJapan'snewadministrativecapitalItwascalledEdo,andprovedtobeahighlysuccessfulchoice,asmaybejudgedfromthefactthatEdoisnowknownasTokyoTHEHEIRTOMISFORTUNEIeyasu'sdestructionatSekigaharaoftherivalcoalitionofdaimyohadonenotablefeature:theabsenceofanydirectinvolvementinthenameofToyotomiHideyori,thechildwhoseinheritancelayattherootofthestruggleIeyasualsomadenohostilemovesagainstHideyoriduringthecourseoftheSekigaharacampaignInsteadbothHideyoriandhisinfluentialmother,Hideyoshi'swidowYodogimi,weresuccessfullysidelinedbypoliticalmanoeuvresundertakenprimarilybyKatagiriKatsumoto,whohadbecomeHideyori'spersonalguardianinfollowingthedeathofMaedaToshiieKatsumoto'seffortswererewardedbyIeyasu,whodoubledhisterritoriesandmovedhimtoadifferentprovinceThelatteroutcomewasaphenomenonexperiencedbymanyotherdaimyofollowingthebattleofSekigahara,althoughitwasnotalwaysapositiveexperienceTheywereshiftedaroundJapanlikepiecesinagameofchess,withthesizeoftheirlandholdingsbeingeitherincreasedordecreasedaccordingtowhichsidetheyhadsupportedTheseweretheluckyonesOtherswereeitherforcedtoshavetheirheadsandbecomemonks,orsimplydeprivedofthoseheadsbytheswingofasamuraiswordToyotomiHideyori,forcedintoneutralityduringtheconflict,sawhisrevenuesfixedat,koku,andwasallowedtoretainashisresidencehislatefather'smasterpieceofOsakaCastleTokugawaIeyasu'sdecisiontomakeEdointoJapan'sadministrativecapitaldidnotmeanthathehadneglectedtoestablishafirmpowerbasefortheTokugawafamilyintheKyotoOsakaareaInfactthereversewastrue,becausenotonlydidIeyasurebuildandstrengthenHideyoshi'sFushimiCastletothesouthofKyoto,whereitcontrolledallAstatueofTokugawaIeyasuonthesiteofhiscastleofOkazakiHeisshownwearingthearmourheworeatthebattleofNagakutein,andiscarryinghismaedate(helmetbadge)traffictowardsOsaka,healsocreatedanewcastleintheheartoftheimperialcityitselfNijoCastle,ofwhichthesurvivingpalaceistodayoneofKyoto'sfinesttouristattractions,wasbuiltveryneartotheimperialpalaceandbecamethebasefortheShoshidai:theTokugawaShogun'sGovernorofKyotoHischieffunctionwastokeepclosecontroloftheactivitiesofJapan'sdivineemperorandhiscourtEdo,bycontrast,becamethefocalpointforcontrollingthedaimyoManyofthemhadalreadyexperiencedconsiderabledisruptiontotheirlivesbybeingmovedtodistantprovincesIntheyearsfollowingIeyasu'striumphtheyhadtosufferthefurtherhumiliationofbeinginvited,thenrequested,andfinallyforcedtosendtheirwivesandchildrentoliveinEdoundertheprotectionofthebenevolentShogunBythetimeofthethirdTokugawaShogunthisglorifiedhostagesystemwastobecomethemostsuccessfulmeansofsocialcontrolthattheTokugawaweretoexerciseIntheprocesswasjustbeginning,buttheexperienceofToyotomiHideyorihadalreadygivenseveralcluesastohowitwoulddevelopInadditiontoconfiningHideyoriinsideOsakaCastle,IeyasuhadentangledhimwithinthebondsofmatrimonyMarriagebetweendaimyofamilieshadlongbeenregardedasavitaltoolofsocialengineeringIeyasuwasnoexceptiontothisview,andhadusedmarriagetocementaunionbetweenhisfamilyandthehouseofToyotomiIeyasu'slastconsorthadbeenHideyoshi'ssisterHissonHidetada,thesecondTokugawaShogun,wasmarriedtoasisterofYodogimi,andin,attheageoften,HideyoriwasmarriedtoHidetada'sdaughterThismeantthattheOsakacampaignbecameawarbetweenToyotomiHideyoriandthemanwhowasatthesametimehisuncle,hisgreatuncleandhisgrandfatherinlawYodogimi,unsurprisingly,hadnottakenkindlytothedisinheritingofhersonHideyoribythisopportunistfromEdo,butitwasbeforeshegaveventtoherfeelingsinpublicInthatyearIeyasuretiredfromTokugawaIeyasuatthebattleofSekigahara,shownincommandwithinthemaku(fieldcurtain)thepostofShoguninfavourofhissonHidetadaGreatcelebrationswereheld,andHideyoriwasinvitedtojoininthefestivitiesYodogimi,whowasverysuspiciousofIeyasu'smotives,refusedtolethimleaveOsakaAnanecdotetellsusthatshestatedthatsheandheryearoldsonwouldratherdisembowelthemselvesthanleavethesafetyofthemightyfortressIncertainaccountsthiscommentisattributedtotheyear,whichwastobetheonlyyearinwhichHideyoriwassuccessfullyprisedfromhismother'sgraspThemeetingbetweenIeyasuandHideyoriinprovedtobeamemorableencounterPriortotheevent,IeyasutookgreatpainstoassuretheToyotomifamilyofhispeacefulintentions,totheextentofplacingtwoofhisownsonsYoshinaoagedandthenineyearoldYorinobuintothecareoftwotrustworthydaimyoastokenhostagesTheinterviewwithHideyoriwasheldatNijoCastleandlastedtwohours,anditwasrecordedthatIeyasuwasgreatlyimpressedbythebearinganddemeanouroftheyoungmanInthelightofsubsequentdevelopmentsitistemptingtoreadgreatsignificanceintotheconversationatNijoCastle,whichwastobethelasttimethatthetworivalsevercamefacetofaceTokugawaIeyasuwasthenyearsoldHisownheirHidetadawasfairlycompetentinhispositionasShogun,butIeyasu'scontinuedandenormousinfluenceonthedevelopmentofTokugawapowerindicatesthathisconfidenceinHidetadawassomewhatlessthantotalOneveryreassuringfactorforIeyasuwasthecomfortingthoughtthatthesuccessorofthegreatHideyoshiwasamereslipofaladwhowasnomoretheequalofhisfatherthanwasHidetadaofhisThroughoutHideyori'schildhoodhisguardianKatagiriKatsumotohadcarefullypropagatedthismythofhiseffeminateweaknessasawayofdissuadinganydisgruntleddaimyoandSekigaharahadprovidedmanywhofellintothatcategoryfromentertainingrebelliousthoughtsIfIeyasuhadeverbelievedinthemythhimself,thenthetwohourshespentatNijoCastleincompletelydispelleditHerewasauniqueandtalentedyoungmanwho,aloneinJapan,hadthelineageandthepersonalitytochallengetheTokugawaFromthatmomenton,Hideyori'sfatewassealedTheimageofToyotomiHideyoriaseffeminateanduselesswascarefullypropagatedbytheTokugawaintheyearspriortoOsakaThishangingscrollcontinuesthethemeThegreatandintimidatingsouthernwallofOsakaCastle,surroundedbythesouthernwetmoatThissightislittlechangedfromOneofthemassivegatehousesthatprotectedtheinnerdefencesofOsakaCastleThisisnottosaythatIeyasuhadpreviouslyignoredthepotentialthreatfromHideyoriHehad,infact,beenengagedonalongandlargelysuccessfulcampaigntoforceHideyoritospendsomeofthelavishfortunethathisfatherhadamassed,muchofwhichwassittinginOsakaCastleintheformofgoldbullionThemajoritemofexpendituretowhichHideyoriwasdirectedwastherebuildingoftheGreatBuddhaofKyotoIthadbeenToyotomiHideyoshi'spetprojectAsearlyas,whenthereunificationofJapanwaswellinsight,Hideyoshihadconceivedtheideaofcreatingasup

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