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首页 Improved Learning in a Large-Enrollment(s 2011ma…

Improved Learning in a Large-Enrollment(s 2011may).pdf

Improved Learning in a Large-En…

纤雨清轩
2011-07-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Improved Learning in a Large-Enrollment(s 2011may)pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

DOI:science,()Science,etalLouisDeslauriersImprovedLearninginaLargeEnrollmentPhysicsClassThiscopyisforyourpersonal,noncommercialuseonlyclickingherecolleagues,clients,orcustomersby,youcanorderhighqualitycopiesforyourIfyouwishtodistributethisarticletoothersherefollowingtheguidelinescanbeobtainedbyPermissiontorepublishorrepurposearticlesorportionsofarticles):July,wwwsciencemagorg(thisinfomationiscurrentasofThefollowingresourcesrelatedtothisarticleareavailableonlineathttp:wwwsciencemagorgcontentfullhtmlversionofthisarticleat:includinghighresolutionfigures,canbefoundintheonlineUpdatedinformationandservices,http:wwwsciencemagorgcontentsupplDChtmlcanbefoundat:SupportingOnlineMaterialhttp:wwwsciencemagorgcontentfullhtml#reflist,ofwhichcanbeaccessedfree:citesarticlesThisarticlehttp:wwwsciencemagorgcgicollectioneducationEducationsubjectcollections:ThisarticleappearsinthefollowingregisteredtrademarkofAAASisaSciencebytheAmericanAssociationfortheAdvancementofScienceallrightsreservedThetitleCopyrightAmericanAssociationfortheAdvancementofScience,NewYorkAvenueNW,Washington,DC(printISSNonlineISSN)ispublishedweekly,exceptthelastweekinDecember,bytheScienceonJuly,wwwsciencemagorgDownloadedfromAcknowledgmentsThisworkwassupportedbytheBelgianFondsNationaldelaRechercheScientifique(FNRS),EuropeanCommission,MindScienceFoundation,McDonnellFoundation,FrenchSpeakingCommunityConcertedResearchAction(ARC),FondationLéonFrédéricq,andNationalInstitutesofHealthMABandOGareResearchFellows,MBandCSPostdoctoralFellows,andSLSeniorResearchAssociateattheFNRSMIG,VL,andKFaresupportedbytheWellcomeTrustSupportingOnlineMaterialwwwsciencemagorgcgicontentfullDCMaterialsandMethodsSOMTextFigSTableSReferencesDecemberacceptedAprilscienceImprovedLearninginaLargeEnrollmentPhysicsClassLouisDeslauriers,,EllenSchelew,CarlWieman*†‡WecomparedtheamountsoflearningachievedusingtwodifferentinstructionalapproachesundercontrolledconditionsWemeasuredthelearningofaspecificsetoftopicsandobjectiveswhentaughtbyhoursoftraditionallecturegivenbyanexperiencedhighlyratedinstructorandhoursofinstructiongivenbyatrainedbutinexperiencedinstructorusinginstructionbasedonresearchincognitivepsychologyandphysicseducationThecomparisonwasmadebetweentwolargesections(N=andN=)ofanintroductoryundergraduatephysicscourseWefoundincreasedstudentattendance,higherengagement,andmorethantwicethelearninginthesectiontaughtusingresearchbasedinstructionThetraditionallectureapproachremainstheprevailingmethodforteachingscienceatthepostsecondarylevel,althoughthereareagrowingnumberofstudiesindicatingthatotherinstructionalapproachesaremoreeffective(–)Atypicalstudyinthedomainofphysicsdemonstrateshowstudentlearningisimprovedfromoneyeartothenextwhenaninstructorchangeshisorherapproach,asmeasuredbystandardconceptbasedtestssuchastheForceConceptInventory()ortheinstructor’sownexamsInourstudiesoftwofullsessionsofanadvancedquantummechanicsclasstaughteitherbytraditionalorbyinteractivelearningstyle,studentsintheinteractivesectionshowedimprovedlearning,butbothsections,interactiveandtraditional,showedsimilarretentionoflearningtomonthslater()Here,wecomparelearningproducedbytwocontrastinginstructionalmethodsinalargeenrollmentsciencecourseThecontrolgroupwaslecturedbyamotivatedfacultymemberwithhighstudentevaluationsandmanyyearsofexperienceteachingthiscourseTheexperimentalgroupwastaughtbyapostdoctoralfellowusinginstructionbasedonresearchonlearningThesameselectedlearningobjectiveswerecoveredbybothinstructorsinaweekperiodTheinstructionaldesignfortheexperimentalsectionwasbasedontheconceptof“deliberatepractice”()forthedevelopmentofexpertiseThedeliberatepracticeconceptencompassestheeducationalideasofconstructivismandformativeassessmentInourcase,thedeliberatepracticetakestheformofaseriesofchallengingquestionsandtasksthatrequirethestudentstopracticephysicistlikereasoningandproblemsolvingduringclasstimewhileprovidedwithfrequentfeedbackThedesigngoalwastohavethestudentsspendalltheirtimeinclassengagedindeliberatepracticeat“thinkingscientifically”intheformofmakingandtestingpredictionsandargumentsabouttherelevanttopics,solvingproblems,andcritiquingtheirownreasoningandthatofothersAlloftheactivitiesaredesignedtofittogethertosupportthisgoal,includingmovingthesimpletransferoffactualknowledgeoutsideofclassasmuchaspossibleandcreatingtasksandfeedbackthatmotivatestudentstobecomefullyengagedAsthestudentsworkthroughthesetasks,theyreceivefeedbackfromfellowstudents()andfromtheinstructorWeincorporatemultiple“bestinstructionalpractices,”butwebelievetheeducationalbenefitdoesnotcomeprimarilyfromanyparticularpracticebutratherfromtheintegrationintotheoveralldeliberatepracticeframeworkThisstudywascarriedoutinthesecondtermofthefirstyearphysicssequencetakenbyallundergraduateengineeringstudentsattheUniversityofBritishColumbiaThiscalculusbasedcoursecoversvariousstandardtopicsinelectricityandmagnetismThecourseenrollmentwasstudents,whoweredividedamongthreesectionsEachsectionhadhoursoflectureperweekThelectureswereheldinalargetheaterstylelecturehallwithfixedchairsbehindbenchesgroupinguptofivestudentsThestudentsalsohadweeklyhomeworkassignments,instructionallaboratories,andtutorialsandrecitationswheretheysolvedproblemsthisworkwasgradedThereweretwomidtermexamsandafinalexamAllcoursecomponentswerecommonacrossallthreesections,exceptforthelectures,whichwerepreparedandgivenindependentlybythreedifferentinstructorsDuringweek,westudiedtwosectionswhoseinstructorsagreedtoparticipateFortheweeksprecedingthestudy,bothsectionsweretaughtinasimilarmannerbytwoinstructors(AandB),bothwithaboveaveragestudentteachingevaluationsandmanyyearsexperienceteachingthiscourseandmanyothersBothinstructorslecturedusingPowerPointslidestopresentcontentandexampleproblemsandalsoshoweddemonstrationsMeanwhile,thestudentstooknotes“Clicker”(or“personalresponsesystem”)questions(averageperclass,rangeto)wereusedforsummativeevaluation(whichwascharacterizedbyindividualtestingwithoutdiscussionorfollowupotherthanasummaryofthecorrectanswers)StudentsweregivenparticipationcreditforsubmittinganswersBeforetheexperiment,avarietyofdatawerecollectedonthestudentsinthetwosectionsCarlWiemanScienceEducationInitiative,UniversityofBritishColumbia,Vancouver,BC,CanadaDepartmentofPhysicsandAstronomy,UniversityofBritishColumbia,Vancouver,BC,Canada*OnleavefromtheUniversityofBritishColumbiaandtheUniversityofColorado†TowhomcorrespondenceshouldbeaddressedEmail:gilbertwiemangmailcom‡ThisworkdoesnotnecessarilyrepresenttheviewsoftheOfficeofScienceandTechnologyPolicyortheUnitedStatesgovernmentTableMeasuresofstudentperceptions,behaviors,andknowledgeControlsectionExperimentalsectionNumberofstudentsenrolledMeanBEMAscore()(week)TTMeanCLASSscore()(startofterm)(agreementwithphysicist)TTMeanmidtermscoreTTMeanmidtermscoreTTAttendancebeforeexperiment*TTAttendanceduringexperimentTTEngagementbeforeexperiment*TTEngagementduringexperimentTT*AveragevalueofmultiplemeasurementscarriedoutinaweekintervalbeforetheexperimentEngagementalsovariesoverlocationintheclassroomnumbersgivenarespatialandtemporalaveragesMAYVOLSCIENCEwwwsciencemagorgREPORTSonJuly,wwwsciencemagorgDownloadedfrom(Table)Studentstooktwomidtermexams(identicalacrossallsections)Inweek,studentstooktheBriefElectricityandMagnetismAssessment(BEMA),whichmeasuresconceptualknowledge()Atthestartoftheterm,studentstooktheColoradoLearningAttitudesaboutScienceSurvey(CLASS)(),whichmeasuresastudent’sperceptionsofphysicsDuringweeksand,wemeasuredstudentattendanceandengagementinbothsectionsAttendancewasmeasuredbycountingthenumberofstudentspresent,andengagementwasmeasuredbyfourtrainedobserversineachclassusingtheprotocoldiscussedinthesupportingonlinematerial(SOM)()Theresultsshowthatthetwosectionswereindistinguishable(Table)Thisinitselfisinteresting,becausethepersonalitiesofthetwoinstructorsareratherdifferent,withinstructorA(controlsection)beingmoreanimatedandintenseTheexperimentalinterventiontookplaceduringthehoursoflectureinthethweekThoseclassescoveredtheunitonelectromagneticwavesThisunitincludedstandardtopicssuchasplanewavesandenergyofelectromagneticwavesandphotonsThecontrolsectionwastaughtbyinstructorAusingthesameinstructionalapproachasinthepreviousweeks,excepttheyaddedinstructionstoreadtherelevantchapterinthetextbookbeforeclassTheexperimentalsectionwastaughtbytwoinstructorswhohadnotpreviouslytaughtthesestudentsTheinstructorswerethefirstauthorofthispaper,LD,assistedbythesecondauthor,ESInstructorAandLDhadagreedtomakethisalearningcompetitionLDandinstructorAagreedbeforehandwhattopicsandlearningobjectiveswouldbecoveredAmultiplechoicetest(seeSOM)wasdevelopedbyLDandinstructorAthattheyandinstructorBagreedwasagoodmeasureofthelearningobjectivesandphysicscontentThetestwaspreparedattheendofweekMostofthetestquestionswereclickerquestionspreviouslyusedatanotheruniversity,oftenslightlymodifiedBothsectionsweretoldthattheywouldreceiveabonusofofthecoursegradeforthecombinationofparticipatinginclickerquestions,takingthetest,and(onlyintheexperimentalsection)turningingrouptasksolutions,withtheapportionmentofcreditacrossthesetasksleftunspecifiedIncontrasttoinstructorA,theteachingexperienceofLDandEShadbeenlimitedtoservingasteachingassistantsLDwasapostdoctoralresearcherworkingintheCarlWieman(thirdauthorofthispaper)ScienceEducationInitiative(CWSEI)andhadreceivedtraininginphysicseducationandlearningresearchandmethodsofeffectivepedagogywhileassistingwiththeteachingofsixcoursesEShadatypicalphysicsgraduatestudentbackgroundexceptforhavingtakenaseminarcourseinphysicseducationTheinstructionalapproachusedintheexperimentalsectionincludedelementspromotedbyCWSEIanditspartnerinitiativeattheUniversityofColorado:preclassreadingassignments,preclassreadingquizzes,inclassclickerquestionswithstudentstudentdiscussion(CQ),smallgroupactivelearningtasks(GT),andtargetedinclassinstructorfeedback(IF)Beforeeachofthethreeminclasses,studentswereassignedathreeorfourpagereading,andtheycompletedashorttruefalseonlinequizonthereadingToavoidstudentresistance,atthebeginningofthefirstclass,severalminuteswereusedtoexplaintostudentswhythematerialwasbeingtaughtthiswayandhowresearchshowedthatthisapproachwouldincreasetheirlearningAtypicalscheduleforaclasswasthefollowing:CQ,minIF,minCQ,minIF,minCQ(continued),minIF,minRevoteCQ,minCQ,minIF,minGT,minIFwithademonstration,minGT(continued),minandIF,minThetimedurationforaquestionoractivityincludestheamountoftimethestudentsspentdiscussingtheproblemandaskingnumerousquestionsTherewasnoformallecturinghowever,guidanceandexplanationswereprovidedbytheinstructorthroughouttheclassTheinstructorrespondedtostudentgeneratedquestions,toresultsfromtheclickerresponses,andtowhattheinstructorheardbylisteninginonthestudentstudentdiscussionsStudents’questionscommonlyexpandeduponandextendedthematerialcoveredbytheclickerquestionsorsmallgrouptasksThematerialshownontheslidesusedinclassisgivenintheSOM,alongwithsomecommentaryaboutthedesignelementsandpreparationtimerequiredAtthebeginningofeachclass,thestudentswereaskedtoformgroupsoftwoAfteraclickerquestionwasshowntotheclass,thestudentsdiscussedthequestionwithintheirgroups(whichoftenexpandedtothreeormorestudents)andsubmittedtheiranswerusingclickersWhenthevotingwascomplete,theinstructorshowedtheresultsandgavefeedbackThesmallgrouptaskswerequestionsthatrequiredawrittenresponseStudentsworkedinthesamegroupsbutsubmittedindividualanswersattheendofeachclassforparticipationcreditInstructorAobservedeachoftheseclassesbeforeteachinghisownclassandchosetousemostoftheclickerquestionsdevelopedfortheexperimentalclassHowever,InstructorAusedtheseonlyforsummativeevaluation,asdescribedaboveLDandEStogetherdesignedtheclickerquestionsandsmallgrouptasksLDandEShadnottaughtthisclassbeforeandwerenotfamiliarwiththestudentsBeforethefirstclass,theysolicitedtwovolunteersenrolledinthecoursetopilottestthematerialsThevolunteerswereaskedtothinkaloudastheyreasonedthroughtheplannedquestionsandtasksResultsfromthistestingwereusedtomodifytheclickerquestionsandtaskstoreducemisinterpretationsandadjustthelevelofdifficultyThisprocesswasrepeatedbeforethesecondclasswithonevolunteerDuringtheweekoftheexperiment,engagementandattendanceremainedunchangedinthecontrolsectionIntheexperimentalsection,studentengagementnearlydoubledandattendanceincreasedby(Table)ThereasonfortheattendanceincreaseisnotknownWehypothesizethatofthemanystudentswhoattendedonlypartofanormalclass,moreofthemwerecapturedbythehappeningsintheexperimentalsectionanddecidedtostayandtoreturnforthesubsequentclassesThetestwasadministeredinbothsectionsinthefirstclassafterthecompletionofthehourunitThecontrolsectionhadcoveredthematerialrelatedtoallofthequestionsonthetestTheexperimentalsectioncoveredonlyofthequestionsintheallottedtimeTwodaysbeforethetestwasgiven,thestudentsinbothsectionswereremindedofthetestandgivenlinkstothepostingsofallthematerialusedintheexperimentalsection:thepreclassreadingassignmentsandquizzestheclickerquestionsandthegrouptasks,alongwithanswerstoalloftheseThestudentswereencouragedbyemailandinclasstotrytheirbestonthetestandweretoldthatitwouldbegoodpracticeforthefinalexam,buttheirperformanceonthetestdidnotaffecttheircoursegradeFewstudentsineithersectionfinishedinlessthanmin,withtheaveragebeingaboutminThetestresultsareshowninFigFortheexperimentalsection,studentsattendedclasstotakethetest,whereasdidsointhecontrolsectionTheaveragescoreswereTinthecontrolsectionandTintheexperimentalsectionRandomguessingwouldproduceascoreof,sothestudentsintheexperimentalsectiondidmorethantwiceaswellonthistestasthoseinthecontrolsectionThetestscoredistributionsarenotnormal(Fig)AceilingeffectisapparentintheexperiFigHistogramofstudentscoresforthetwosectionswwwsciencemagorgSCIENCEVOLMAYREPORTSonJuly,wwwsciencemagorgDownloadedfrommentalsectionThetwodistributionshavelittleoverlap,demonstratingthatthedifferencesinlearningbetweenthetwosectionsexistforessentiallytheentirestudentpopulationThestandarddeviationcalculatedforbothsectionswasabout,givinganeffectsizeforthedifferencebetweenthetwosectionsofstandarddeviationsAsreviewedin(),otherscienceandengineeringclassroomstudiesreporteffectsizeslessthanAneffectsizeof,obtainedwithtrainedpersonaltutors,isclaimedtobethelargestobservedforanyeducationalintervention()ThisworkmayobtainlargereffectsizesthaninthispreviousworkbecauseofthedesignandimplementationthatmaximizedproductiveengagementTheclickerquestionsandgrouptasksweredesignednotonlytorequireexplicitexpertreasoningbutalsotobesufficientlyinterestingandpersonallyrelevanttomotivatestudentstofullyengageAnotherfactorcouldbethatpreviousworkprimarilyusedendoftermtests,andtheresultsonthosetestsreflectallthelearningthatstudentsdoinsideandoutsideofclass,forexample,thelearningthattakesplacewhiledoinghomeworkandstudyingforexamsInourintervention,theimmediatelowstakestestmoredirectlymeasuredthelearningachievedfrompreclassreadingandclassitself,intheabsenceofsubsequentstudyWeareoftenaskedaboutthepossiblecontributionsoftheHawthorneeffect,whereanychangeinconditionsissaidtoresultinimprovedperformanceAsdiscussedincitationsintheSOM,theoriginalHawthorneplantdataactuallyshownosucheffect,nordoexperimentsineducationalsettings()Aconcernfrequentlyvoicedbyfacultyastheyconsideradoptingactivelearningapproachesisthatstudentsmightopposethechange()Aweekafterthecompletionoftheexperimentandexam,wegavestudentsintheexperimentalsectionanonlinesurvey(seeSOM)studentscompletedthesurveyForthesurveystatement“IreallyenjoyedtheinteractiveteachingtechniqueduringthethreelecturesonEMwaves,”oftherespondentsagreed(stronglyagreed,agreed)andonlydisagreedForthestatement“IfeelIwouldhavelearnedmoreifthewholephysicscoursewouldhavebeentaughtinthishighlyinteractivestyle”agreedandonlydisagreedThus,thisformofinstructionwaswellreceivedbystudentsInconclusion,weshowthatuseofdeliberatepracticeteachingstrategiescanimprovebothlearningandengagementinalargeintroductoryphysicscourseascomparedwithwhatwasobtainedwiththelecturemethodOurstudycomparessimilarstudents,andteacherswiththesamelearningobjectivesandthesameinstructionaltimeandtestsThisresultislikelytogeneralizetoavarietyofpostsecondarycoursesReferencesandNotesRJBeichn

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