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首页 House of the Seven Gables

House of the Seven Gables.pdf

House of the Seven Gables

carol
2011-07-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《House of the Seven Gablespdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ELECBOOKCLASSICSHouseoftheSevenGablesNathanielHawthorneISBN©TheElectricBookCompanyTheElectricBookCompanyLtdCambridgeDrive,LondonSEAJ,UKwwwelecbookcomTheHouseoftheSevenGablesNathanielHawthorneElecbookClassicsContentsClickonnumbertogotopageINTRODUCTORYNOTEPREFACEITheOldPyncheonFamilyIITheLittleShopWindowIIITheFirstCustomerIVADayBehindtheCounterVMayandNovemberVIMaule’sWellVIITheGuestVIIIThePyncheonofTodayIXCliffordandPhoebeXThePyncheonGardenXITheArchedWindowXIITheDaguerreotypistXIIIAlicePyncheonXIVPhoebe’sGoodByXVTheScowlandSmileXVIClifford’sChamberXVIITheFlightofTwoOwlsTheHouseoftheSevenGablesNathanielHawthorneElecbookClassicsXVIIIGovernorPyncheonXIXAlice’sPosiesXXTheFlowerofEdenXXITheDepartureTheHouseoftheSevenGablesNathanielHawthorneElecbookClassicsINTRODUCTORYNOTENSeptemberoftheyearduringtheFebruaryofwhichHawthornehadcompleted“TheScarletLetter,”hebegan“TheHouseoftheSevenGables”Meanwhile,hehadremovedfromSalemtoLenox,inBerkshireCounty,Massachusetts,whereheoccupiedwithhisfamilyasmallredwoodenhouse,stillstandingatthedateofthisedition,neartheStockbridgeBowl“Isha’n’thavethenewstoryreadybyNovember,”heexplainedtohispublisher,onthestofOctober,“forIamnevergoodforanythingintheliterarywaytillafterthefirstautumnalfrost,whichhassomewhatsuchaneffectonmyimaginationthatitdoesonthefoliagehereaboutmemultiplyingandbrighteningitshues”ButbyvigorousapplicationhewasabletocompletethenewworkaboutthemiddleoftheJanuaryfollowingSinceresearchhasdisclosedthemannerinwhichtheromanceisinterwovenwithincidentsfromthehistoryoftheHawthornefamily,“TheHouseoftheSevenGables”hasacquiredaninterestapartfromthatbywhichitfirstappealedtothepublicJohnHathorne(asthenamewasthenspelled),thegreatgrandfatherofNathanielHawthorne,wasamagistrateatSaleminthelatterpartoftheseventeenthcentury,andofficiatedatthefamoustrialsforwitchcraftheldthereItisofrecordthatheusedpeculiarseveritytowardsacertainwomanwhowasamongtheaccusedandthehusbandofthiswomanprophesiedthatGodwouldtakerevengeuponhiswife’spersecutorsThiscircumstancedoubtlessfurnishedahintforthatpieceoftraditioninthebookwhichrepresentsaPyncheonofaformergenerationashavingpersecutedoneMaule,whodeclaredthatGodwouldgivehisenemy“bloodtodrink”ItbecameaconvictionwithTheHawthornefamilythatacursehadbeenpronounceduponitsmembers,ITheHouseoftheSevenGablesNathanielHawthorneElecbookClassicswhichcontinuedinforceinthetimeofTheromanceraconvictionperhapsderivedfromtherecordedprophecyofTheinjuredwoman’shusband,justmentionedand,hereagain,wehaveacorrespondencewithMaule’smaledictioninThestoryFurthermore,thereoccursinThe“AmericanNoteBooks”(August,),areminiscenceofTheauthor’sfamily,tothefollowingeffectPhilipEnglish,acharacterwellknowninearlySalemannals,wasamongthosewhosufferedfromJohnHathorne’smagisterialharshness,andhemaintainedinconsequencealastingfeudwiththeoldPuritanofficialButathisdeathEnglishleftdaughters,oneofwhomissaidtohavemarriedthesonofJusticeJohnHathorne,whomEnglishhaddeclaredhewouldneverforgiveItisscarcelynecessarytopointouthowclearlythisforeshadowsthefinalunionofthosehereditaryfoes,thePyncheonsandMaules,throughthemarriageofPhoebeandHolgraveTheromance,however,describestheMaulesaspossessingsomeofthetraitsknowntohavebeencharacteristicoftheHawthornes:forexample,“solongasanyoftheraceweretobefound,theyhadbeenmarkedoutfromothermennotstrikingly,noraswithasharpline,butwithaneffectthatwasfeltratherthanspokenofbyanhereditarycharacteristicofreserve”Thus,whilethegeneralsuggestionoftheHawthornelineanditsfortuneswasfollowedintheromance,thePyncheonstakingtheplaceofTheauthor’sfamily,certaindistinguishingmarksoftheHawthorneswereassignedtotheimaginaryMauleposterityThereareoneortwootherpointswhichindicateHawthorne’smethodofbasinghiscompositions,theresultinthemainofpureinvention,onthesolidgroundofparticularfactsAllusionismade,inthefirstchapterofthe“SevenGables,”toagrantoflandsinWaldoCounty,Maine,ownedbythePyncheonfamilyInthe“AmericanNoteBooks”thereisanentry,datedAugust,,whichspeaksoftheRevolutionarygeneral,Knox,andhislandgrantinWaldoCounty,byvirtueofwhichtheownerhadhopedtoTheHouseoftheSevenGablesNathanielHawthorneElecbookClassicsestablishanestateontheEnglishplan,withatenantrytomakeitprofitableforhimAnincidentofmuchgreaterimportanceinthestoryisthesupposedmurderofoneofthePyncheonsbyhisnephew,towhomweareintroducedasCliffordPyncheonInallprobabilityHawthorneconnectedwiththis,inhismind,themurderofMrWhite,awealthygentlemanofSalem,killedbyamanwhomhisnephewhadhiredThistookplaceafewyearsafterHawthorne’sgradationfromcollege,andwasoneofthecelebratedcasesoftheday,DanielWebstertakingpartprominentlyinthetrialButitshouldbeobservedherethatsuchresemblancesasthesebetweensundryelementsintheworkofHawthorne’sfancyanddetailsofrealityareonlyfragmentary,andarerearrangedtosuittheauthor’spurposesInthesamewayhehasmadehisdescriptionofHepzibahPyncheon’ssevengabledmansionconformsonearlytoseveralolddwellingsformerlyorstillextantinSalem,thatstrenuouseffortshavebeenmadetofixuponsomeoneofthemastheveritableedificeoftheromanceAparagraphinTheopeningchapterhasperhapsassistedthisdelusionthattheremusthavebeenasingleoriginalHouseoftheSevenGables,framedbyfleshandbloodcarpentersforitrunsthus:“Familiarasitstandsinthewriter’srecollectionforithasbeenanobjectofcuriositywithhimfromboyhood,bothasaspecimenofthebestandstateliestarchitectureofalongpastepoch,andasthesceneofeventsmorefullofinterestperhapsthanthoseofagrayfeudalcastlefamiliarasitstands,initsrustyoldage,itisthereforeonlythemoredifficulttoimaginethebrightnoveltywithwhichitfirstcaughtthesunshine”HundredsofpilgrimsannuallyvisitahouseinSalem,belongingtoonebranchoftheIngersollfamilyofthatplace,whichisstoutlymaintainedtohavebeenThemodelforHawthorne’svisionarydwellingOthershavesupposedthatthenowvanishedhouseofTheidenticalPhilipEnglish,whoseblood,aswehavealreadynoticed,becamemingledwiththatoftheTheHouseoftheSevenGablesNathanielHawthorneElecbookClassicsHawthornes,suppliedthepatternandstillathirdbuilding,knownastheCurwenmansion,hasbeendeclaredtheonlygenuineestablishmentNotwithstandingpersistentpopularbelief,TheauthenticityofallthesemustpositivelybedeniedalthoughitispossiblethatisolatedreminiscencesofallthreemayhaveblendedwiththeidealimageinthemindofHawthorneHe,itwillbeseen,remarksinthePreface,alludingtohimselfinthethirdperson,thathetrustsnottobecondemnedfor“layingoutastreetthatinfringesuponnobody’sprivaterightsandbuildingahouseofmaterialslonginuseforconstructingcastlesintheair”Morethanthis,hestatedtopersonsstilllivingthatthehouseoftheromancewasnotcopiedfromanyactualedifice,butwassimplyageneralreproductionofastyleofarchitecturebelongingtocolonialdays,examplesofwhichsurvivedintotheperiodofhisyouth,buthavesincebeenradicallymodifiedordestroyedHere,aselsewhere,heexercisedthelibertyofacreativemindtoheightentheprobabilityofhispictureswithoutconfininghimselftoaliteraldescriptionofsomethinghehadseenWhileHawthorneremainedatLenox,andduringthecompositionofthisromance,variousotherliterarypersonagessettledorstayedforatimeinthevicinityamongthem,HermanMelville,whoseintercourseHawthornegreatlyenjoyed,HenryJames,Sr,DoctorHolmes,JTHeadley,JamesRussellLowell,EdwinPWhipple,FrederikaBremer,andJTFieldssothattherewasnolackofintellectualsocietyinthemidstofthebeautifulandinspiringmountainsceneryoftheplace“Intheafternoons,nowadays,”herecords,shortlybeforebeginningthework,“thisvalleyinwhichIdwellseemslikeavastbasinfilledwithgoldenSunshineaswithwine”and,happyinthecompanionshipofhiswifeandtheirthreechildren,heledasimple,refined,idylliclife,despitetherestrictionsofascantyanduncertainincomeAletterwrittenbyMrsHawthorne,atthistime,toamemberofherfamily,givesincidentallyaglimpseofthescene,whichmayproperlyfindaTheHouseoftheSevenGablesNathanielHawthorneElecbookClassicsplacehereShesays:“Idelighttothinkthatyoualsocanlookforth,asIdonow,uponabroadvalleyandafineamphitheaterofhills,andareabouttowatchthestatelyceremonyofthesunsetfromyourpiazzaButyouhavenotthislovelylake,nor,Isuppose,thedelicatepurplemistwhichfoldstheseslumberingmountainsinairyveilsMrHawthornehasbeenlyingdowninthesunshine,slightlyfleckeredwiththeshadowsofatree,andUnaandJulianhavebeenmakinghimlooklikethemightyPan,bycoveringhischinandbreastwithlonggrassblades,thatlookedlikeaverdantandvenerablebeard”Thepleasantnessandpeaceofhissurroundingsandofhismodesthome,inLenox,maybetakenintoaccountasharmonizingwiththemellowserenityoftheromancethenproducedOfthework,whenitappearedintheearlyspringof,hewrotetoHoratioBridgethesewords,nowpublishedforthefirsttime:“‘TheHouseoftheSevenGables’inmyopinion,isbetterthan‘TheScarletLetter:’butIshouldnotwonderifIhadrefinedupontheprincipalcharacteralittletoomuchforpopularappreciation,noriftheromanceofthebookshouldbesomewhatatoddswiththehumbleandfamiliarsceneryinwhichIinvestitButIfeelthatportionsofitareasgoodasanythingIcanhopetowrite,andthepublisherspeaksencouraginglyofitssuccess”FromEngland,especially,camemanywarmexpressionsofpraise,afactwhichMrsHawthorne,inaprivateletter,commentedonasthefulfillmentofapossibilitywhichHawthorne,writinginboyhoodtohismother,hadlookedforwardtoHehadaskedherifshewouldnotlikehimtobecomeanauthorandhavehisbooksreadinEnglandGPLTheHouseoftheSevenGablesNathanielHawthorneElecbookClassicsPREFACEHENawritercallshisworkaRomance,itneedhardlybeobservedthathewishestoclaimacertainlatitude,bothastoitsfashionandmaterial,whichhewouldnothavefelthimselfentitledtoassumehadheprofessedtobewritingaNovelThelatterformofcompositionispresumedtoaimataveryminutefidelity,notmerelytothepossible,buttotheprobableandordinarycourseofman’sexperienceTheformerwhile,asaworkofart,itmustrigidlysubjectitselftolaws,andwhileitsinsunpardonablysofarasitmayswerveasidefromthetruthofthehumanhearthasfairlyarighttopresentthattruthundercircumstances,toagreatextent,ofthewriter’sownchoosingorcreationIfhethinkfit,also,hemaysomanagehisatmosphericalmediumastobringoutormellowthelightsanddeepenandenrichtheshadowsofthepictureHewillbewise,nodoubt,tomakeaverymoderateuseoftheprivilegesherestated,and,especially,tomingletheMarvelousratherasaslight,delicate,andevanescentflavor,thanasanyportionoftheactualsubstanceofthedishofferedtothepublicHecanhardlybesaid,however,tocommitaliterarycrimeevenifhedisregardthiscautionInthepresentwork,theauthorhasproposedtohimselfbutwithwhatsuccess,fortunately,itisnotforhimtojudgetokeepundeviatinglywithinhisimmunitiesThepointofviewinwhichthistalecomesundertheRomanticdefinitionliesintheattempttoconnectabygonetimewiththeverypresentthatisflittingawayfromusItisalegendprolongingitself,fromanepochnowgrayinthedistance,downintoourownbroaddaylight,andbringingalongwithitsomeofitslegendarymist,whichthereader,accordingtohispleasure,mayeitherdisregard,orallowittofloatalmostimperceptiblyaboutthecharactersandeventsforthesakeofapicturesqueWTheHouseoftheSevenGablesNathanielHawthorneElecbookClassicseffectThenarrative,itmaybe,iswovenofsohumbleatextureastorequirethisadvantage,and,atthesametime,torenderitthemoredifficultofattainmentManywriterslayverygreatstressuponsomedefinitemoralpurpose,atwhichtheyprofesstoaimtheirworksNottobedeficientinthisparticular,theauthorhasprovidedhimselfwithamoral,thetruth,namely,thatthewrongdoingofonegenerationlivesintothesuccessiveones,and,divestingitselfofeverytemporaryadvantage,becomesapureanduncontrollablemischiefandhewouldfeelitasingulargratificationifthisromancemighteffectuallyconvincemankindor,indeed,anyonemanofthefollyoftumblingdownanavalancheofillgottengold,orrealestate,ontheheadsofanunfortunateposterity,therebytomaimandcrushthem,untiltheaccumulatedmassshallbescatteredabroadinitsoriginalatomsIngoodfaith,however,heisnotsufficientlyimaginativetoflatterhimselfwiththeslightesthopeofthiskindWhenromancesdoreallyteachanything,orproduceanyeffectiveoperation,itisusuallythroughafarmoresubtileprocessthantheostensibleoneTheauthorhasconsideredithardlyworthhiswhile,therefore,relentlesslytoimpalethestorywithitsmoralaswithanironrod,or,rather,asbystickingapinthroughabutterfly,thusatoncedeprivingitoflife,andcausingittostiffeninanungainlyandunnaturalattitudeAhightruth,indeed,fairly,finely,andskilfullywroughtout,brighteningateverystep,andcrowningthefinaldevelopmentofaworkoffiction,mayaddanartisticglory,butisneveranytruer,andseldomanymoreevident,atthelastpagethanatthefirstThereadermayperhapschoosetoassignanactuallocalitytotheimaginaryeventsofthisnarrativeIfpermittedbythehistoricalconnection,which,thoughslight,wasessentialtohisplan,theauthorwouldverywillinglyhaveavoidedanythingofthisnatureNottospeakofotherobjections,itexposestheromancetoaninflexibleandexceedinglyTheHouseoftheSevenGablesNathanielHawthorneElecbookClassicsdangerousspeciesofcriticism,bybringinghisfancypicturesalmostintopositivecontactwiththerealitiesofthemomentIthasbeennopartofhisobject,however,todescribelocalmanners,norinanywaytomeddlewiththecharacteristicsofacommunityforwhomhecherishesaproperrespectandanaturalregardHetrustsnottobeconsideredasunpardonablyoffendingbylayingoutastreetthatinfringesuponnobody’sprivaterights,andappropriatingalotoflandwhichhadnovisibleowner,andbuildingahouseofmaterialslonginuseforconstructingcastlesintheairThepersonagesofthetalethoughtheygivethemselvesouttobeofancientstabilityandconsiderableprominencearereallyoftheauthor’sownmaking,oratallevents,ofhisownmixingtheirvirtuescanshednolustre,northeirdefectsredound,intheremotestdegree,tothediscreditofthevenerabletownofwhichtheyprofesstobeinhabitantsHewouldbeglad,therefore,ifespeciallyinthequartertowhichhealludesthebookmaybereadstrictlyasaRomance,havingagreatdealmoretodowiththecloudsoverheadthanwithanyportionoftheactualsoiloftheCountyofEssexLENOX,January,TheHouseoftheSevenGablesNathanielHawthorneElecbookClassicsITheOldPyncheonFamily

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