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首页 《工厂女孩》Factory Girls - From Village to City in a …

《工厂女孩》Factory Girls - From Village to City in a Changing China - Leslie T. Chang.pdf

《工厂女孩》Factory Girls - From Vill…

土人唐璐
2011-07-01 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《《工厂女孩》Factory Girls - From Village to City in a Changing China - Leslie T. Changpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

CONTENTSTITLEPAGEDEDICATIONMAPPARTONETheCityGoingOutTheCityToDiePoorIsaSinTheTalentMarketFactoryGirlsTheStelewithNoNameSquareandRoundEightMinuteDateAssemblyLineEnglishPARTTWOTheVillageTheVillageTheHistorianinMyFamilyTheSouthChinaMallLoveandMoneyTheTomboftheEmperorPerfectHealthSOURCESACKNOWLEDGMENTSCOPYRIGHTFormyparentsPARTONETheCityGoingOutWhenyoumetagirlfromanotherfactory,youquicklytookhermeasureWhatyearareyouyouaskedeachother,asifspeakingnotofhumanbeingsbutofthemakesofcarsHowmuchamonthIncludingroomandboardHowmuchforovertimeThenyoumightaskwhatprovinceshewasfromYouneveraskedhernameTohaveatruefriendinsidethefactorywasnoteasyGirlsslepttwelvetoaroom,andinthetightconfinesofthedormitwasbettertokeepyoursecretsSomegirlsjoinedthefactorywithborrowedIDcardsandnevertoldanyonetheirrealnamesSomespokeonlytothosefromtheirhomeprovinces,butthathadrisks:Gossiptraveledquicklyfromfactorytovillage,andwhenyouwenthomeeveryauntieandgrannywouldknowhowmuchyoumadeandhowmuchyousavedandwhetheryouwentoutwithboysWhenyoudidmakeafriend,youdideverythingforherIfafriendquitherjobandhadnowheretostay,yousharedyourbunkdespitetheriskofatenyuanfine,about$,ifyougotcaughtIfsheworkedfaraway,youwouldgetupearlyonararedayoffandridehoursonthebus,andattheotherendyourfriendwouldtakeleavefromworkthistime,thefineonehundredyuantospendthedaywithyouYoumightstayatafactoryyoudidn’tlike,orquitoneyoudid,becauseafriendaskedyoutoFriendswroteletterseveryweek,althoughthegirlswhohadbeenoutlongerconsideredthatchildishTheysentmessagesbymobilephoneinsteadFriendsfelloutoftenbecauselifewaschangingsofastTheeasiestthingintheworldwastolosetouchwithsomeoneThebestdayofthemonthwaspaydayButinawayitwastheworstday,tooAfteryouhadworkedhardforsolong,itwasinfuriatingtoseehowmuchmoneyhadbeendockedforsillythings:beingafewminuteslateonemorning,ortakingahalfdayoffforfeelingsick,orhavingtopayextrawhenthewinteruniformsswitchedtosummeronesOnpayday,everyonecrowdedthepostofficetowiremoneytotheirfamiliesGirlswhohadjustcomeoutfromhomewerecrazyaboutsendingmoneyback,buttheoneswhohadbeenoutlongerlaughedatthemSomegirlssetupsavingsaccountsforthemselves,especiallyiftheyalreadyhadboyfriendsEveryoneknewwhichgirlswerethebestsaversandhowmanythousandstheyhadsavedEveryoneknewtheworstsavers,too,withtheirlipglossandsilvermobilephonesandheartshapedlocketsandtheirmanypairsofhighheeledshoesThegirlstalkedconstantlyofleavingWorkerswererequiredtostaysixmonths,andeventhenpermissiontoquitwasnotalwaysgrantedThefactoryheldthefirsttwomonthsofeveryworker’spayleavingwithoutapprovalmeantlosingthatmoneyandstartingalloversomewhereelseThatwasafactoffactorylifeyoucouldn’tknowfromtheoutside:GettingintoafactorywaseasyThehardpartwasgettingoutTheonlywaytofindabetterjobwastoquittheoneyouhadInterviewstooktimeawayfromwork,andanewhirewasexpectedtostartrightawayLeavingajobwasalsothebestguaranteeofgettinganewone:ThepressingneedforaplacetoeatandsleepwasincentivetofindworkfastGirlsoftenquitafactoryingroups,findingcourageinnumbersandpledgingtojoinanewfactorytogether,althoughthatusuallyturnedouttobeimpossibleTheeasiestthingintheworldwastolosetouchwithsomeone***ForalongtimeLuQingminwasaloneHeroldersisterworkedatafactoryinShenzhen,aboomingindustrialcityanhourawaybybusHerfriendsfromhomewerescatteredatfactoriesupanddownChina’scoast,butMin,asherfriendscalledher,wasnotintouchwiththemItwasamatterofpride:Becauseshedidn’tliketheplaceshewasworking,shedidn’ttellanyonewhereshewasShesimplydroppedoutofsightHerfactory’snamewasCarrinElectronicsTheHongKong–ownedcompanymadealarmclocks,calculators,andelectroniccalendarsthatdisplayedthetimeofdayincitiesaroundtheworldThefactoryhadlookedrespectablewhenMincameforaninterviewinMarch:tilebuildings,acementyard,ametalaccordiongatethatfoldedshutItwasn’tuntilshewashiredthatshewasallowedinsideWorkersslepttwelvetoaroominbunkscrowdednearthetoiletstheroomsweredirtyandtheysmelledbadThefoodinthecanteenwasbad,too:Amealconsistedofrice,onemeatorvegetabledish,andsoup,andthesoupwaswateryAdayontheassemblylinestretchedfromeightinthemorninguntilmidnightthirteenhoursonthejobplustwobreaksformealsandworkerslaboredeverydayforweeksonendSometimesonaSaturdayafternoontheyhadnoovertime,whichwastheironlybreakTheworkersmadefourhundredyuanamonththeequivalentoffiftydollarsandclosetodoublethatwithovertime,butthepaywasoftenlateThefactoryemployedathousandpeople,mostlywomen,eitherteenagersjustoutfromhomeormarriedwomenalreadypastthirtyYoucouldjudgethequalityoftheworkplacebywhowasmissing:youngwomenintheirtwenties,theeliteofthefactoryworldWhenMinimaginedsittingontheassemblylineeverydayforthenexttenyears,shewasfilledwithdreadShewassixteenyearsoldFromthemomentsheenteredthefactoryshewantedtoleave,butshepledgedtostickitoutsixmonthsItwouldbegoodtotoughenherselfup,andheroptionswerelimitedfornowThelegalworkingagewaseighteen,thoughsixteenandseventeenyearoldscouldworkcertainjobsforshorterhoursGenerallyonlyanemployerthatfreelybrokethelaborlaw“theveryblackestfactories,”MincalledthemwouldhiresomeoneasyoungasshewasHerfirstweekonthejob,MinturnedseventeenShetookahalfdayoffandwalkedthestreetsalone,buyingsomesweetsandeatingthembyherselfShehadnoideawhatpeopledidforfunBeforeshehadcometothecity,shehadonlyavaguenotionofwhatafactorywasdimly,sheimagineditasalivelysocialgathering“Ithoughtitwouldbefuntoworkontheassemblyline,”shesaidlater“Ithoughtitwouldbealotofpeopleworkingtogether,busy,talking,andhavingfunIthoughtitwouldbeveryfreeButitwasnotthatwayatall”TalkingonthejobwasforbiddenandcarriedafiveyuanfineBathroombreakswerelimitedtotenminutesandrequiredasignuplistMinworkedinqualitycontrol,checkingtheelectronicgadgetsastheymovedpastontheassemblylinetomakesurebuttonsworkedandplasticpiecesjoinedandbatterieshookedupastheyshouldShewasnotamodelworkerShechatteredconstantlyandsangwiththeotherwomenonthelineSittingstillmadeherfeeltrapped,likeabirdinacage,soshefrequentlyrantothebathroomjusttolookoutthewindowatthegreenmountainsthatremindedherofhomeDongguanwasafactorycitysetinthelushsubtropics,andsometimesitseemedthatMinwastheonlyonewhonoticedBecauseofher,thefactorypassedarulethatlimitedworkerstoonebathroombreakeveryfourhoursthepenaltyforviolatorswasfiveyuanAftersixmonthsMinwenttoherboss,amaninhistwenties,andsaidshewantedtoleaveHerefused“Yourperformanceontheassemblylineisnotgood,”saidMin’sboss“Areyoublind”“EvenifIwereblind,”Mincountered,“Iwouldnotworkundersuchanungratefulpersonasyou”Shewalkedoffthelinethenextdayinprotest,anactthatbroughtahundredyuanfineThefollowingday,shewenttoherbossandaskedagaintoleaveHisresponsesurprisedher:Staythroughthelunarnewyearholiday,whichwassixmonthsaway,andshecouldquitwiththetwomonths’backpaythatthefactoryowedherMin’sbosswasgamblingthatshewouldstayWorkersfloodfactorytownslikeDongguanafterthenewyear,andcompetitionforjobsthenisthetoughestAfterthefight,Min’sbossbecamenicertoherHeurgedherseveraltimestoconsiderstayingtherewaseventalkofapromotiontofactoryfloorclerk,thoughitwouldnotbringanincreaseinpayMinresisted“Yourfactoryisnotworthwastingmywholeyouthhere,”shetoldherbossShesignedupforacomputerclassatanearbycommercialschoolWhentherewasn’tanovertimeshift,sheskippeddinnerandtookafewhoursoflessonsinhowtotypeonakeyboardorfilloutformsbycomputerMostofthefactorygirlsbelievedtheyweresopoorlyeducatedthattakingaclasswouldn’thelp,butMinwasdifferent“Learningisbetterthannotlearning,”shereasonedShephonedhomeandsaidshewasthinkingofquittingherjobHerparents,whofarmedasmallplotoflandandhadthreeyoungerchildrenstillinschool,advisedagainstit“Youalwayswanttojumpfromthisplacetothatplace,”herfathersaidGirlsshouldnotbesoflightyStayinoneplaceandsavesomemoney,hetoldherMinsuspectedthiswasnotthebestadvice“Don’tworryaboutme,”shetoldherfather“Icantakecareofmyself”Shehadtwotruefriendsinthefactorynow,LiangRongandHuangJiao’e,whowerebothayearolderthanMinTheywashedMin’sclothesforheronthenightsshewenttoclassLaundrywasaconstantchorebecausetheworkershadonlyafewchangesofclothesInthehumiddarknightsaftertheworkdayended,longlinesofgirlsfiledbackandforthfromthedormitorybathroomscarryingbucketsofwaterOnceyouhadfriends,lifeinthefactorycouldbefunOnrareeveningsoff,thethreegirlswouldskipdinnerandgorollerskating,thenreturntowatchalatemovieatthefactoryAsautumnturnedintowinter,thecoldintheunheateddormskeptthegirlsawakeatnightMindraggedherfriendsintotheyardtoplaybadmintonuntiltheywerewarmenoughtofallasleepThelunarnewyearfellinlateJanuaryWorkersgotonlyfourdaysoff,notenoughtimetogohomeandcomeoutagainMinholedupinherdormandphonedhomefourtimesintwodaysAftertheholidayshewenttoherbossagain,andthistimeheletherleaveLiangRongandHuangJiao’ecriedwhenMintoldthemhernewsInacityofstrangers,theyweretheonlyoneswhoknewaboutherdepartureTheybeggedhertostaytheybelievedthatconditionsatotherfactorieswerenobetter,andthattoleaveortostaywouldbethesameintheendMindidnotthinksoShepromisedshewouldreturnforavisitaftershegotpaidathernewjobMinleftthatsamedaywithafewclothesinabackpackandthetwomonths’wagesthatthefactoryowedherShedidnottakehertowelsandbeddingwithherthosethingshadcostmoney,butshecouldn’tbearthesightofthemanymoreIntenmonthsontheassemblyline,Minhadsenthomethreethousandyuanabout$andmadetwotruefriendsSheshouldhavebeenscaredButallsheknewwasthatshewasfree***InthevillagewhereLuQingminwasborn,almosteveryonesharedherfamilynameNinetyhouseholdslivedthere,plantingrice,rape,andcottononsmallplotsoflandMin’sfamilyfarmedhalfanacreandatemostofwhattheygrewHerfutureappearedsetwhenshewasstillachild,anditcenteredonatenetofrurallife:AfamilymusthaveasonMin’smotherhadfourgirlsbeforefinallygivingbirthtoaboyinthoseearlyyearsofthegovernmentpolicylimitingfamiliestoonechild,enforcementwaslaxinmuchofthecountrysideButfivechildrenwouldbringheavyfinancialburdensastheeconomyopenedupinthesandthecostoflivingroseAsthesecondoldestchild,MinwouldbearmanyofthoseburdensShedislikedschoolanddidpoorlyAslongasshecouldremember,shewasintroubleSheclimbedtheneighbors’treestostealtheirplumsifshewascaughtshegotabeatingOncewhenhermotherorderedhertodochores,Minrefused“TherearesomanypeopleathomeWhydoIhavetodoit”HermotherchasedherforaquartermileandhitherwithastickShewasgoodathavingfunShelearnedhowtoswimandtodriveatruckshelovedrollerskatingandhidherinjuriesfromhermother“Ihavefalleneverywaythereistofall,”Minsaid“Butyoucan’tthinkaboutthat”Shewasherfather’sfavoriteOnesummer,herentedatruckandshetraveledthecountrysidewithhim,sellingwatermelonsfromtheirfarmTheydroveduringthedayandsleptinthetruckatnightitbecameoneofMin’sfondestmemoriesMostmigrantsassociatedtheplacetheycamefromwithpovertyandbackwardness,andsomewereevenreluctanttosaythenameoftheirvillageButlongafterMincametothecity,shestilltalkedaboutherhometownasifitweresomethingbeautifulInthelates,bothofMin’sparentswentouttoworktoearnmoneyfortheirchildren’sschoolingHerfatherworkedinashoefactoryonthecoast,butpoorhealthdrovehimbackLaterhermotherwentoutforayearMinboardedatamiddleschoolinanearbytownbutreturnedhomeeveryweekendtocookandwashclothesforherfatherandtheyoungerchildrenAlmostalltheyoungpeopleinhervillagehadgoneoutWhenMinwasstillinmiddleschool,heroldersister,Guimin,wenttoworkinafactoryinDongguanSoonafter,Minfailedthenationalhighschoolentranceexamandherparentsconsideredhavinghergoout,tooGuiminphonedhomeandurgedthemtokeepMininschoolGuimin’sfactorywages,shesaid,wouldhelpcoverthetuitionTheirparentsagreed,andMinenrolledinatwoyearvocationalhighschoolThatmadeheroneofthemosteducatedpeopleinthevillagemoreeducatedthanGuimin,whohadsacrificedherownschoolingtohelpthefamilyGuimincamehomeforthelunarnewyearholidayandtookMinawaywithherwhensheleftMinhadonemoresemesterofschool,butshewantedtosavethetuitionandgetajumponthejobhuntShewasthrilledtobeleavinghomeshehadneverriddenonatrainorseenafactory“Iwantedtogetoutearly,learnsomethings,andseetheworld,”shesaidInDongguan,GuiminrentedacheaphotelroomforMinandfoundherajobinaJapanesefactorythatmadeliquidcrystaldisplaysMinworkedthereforamonthandleftShehadneverbeeninaplacewhereshedidn’tknowanyone,andshewassolonelyshecouldn’tbearitShereturnedtothehotelandfoundajobatanotherfactorybutdidn’ttakeitHersisterofferedtocontinuepayingforthehotelroom,butMinfeltherselfbecomingaburdenAtabusstation,shespottedahelpwantedflyerforaqualitycontroljobontheassemblylineofanelectronicsfactoryShedialedthenumberontheadmanywerejustscamstotrickmigrantsoutoftheirmoneyandthepersonwhoansweredthephonegaveMindirectionstothefactoryItwasathreehourbusridetothesoutheasttipofDongguanandCarrinElectronics,theplacewhereMinspentherhardyearaloneTheminutesheenteredthefactorygrounds,MinrealizedtheplacewasworsethantheJapanesefactoryshehadjustleftbehindButitwastoolatetoturnback,andshedidnotwanttoaskhersister’shelpagainShewasgettingusedtobeingonherownitwasbetterthatway***Migrantworkersuseasimpletermforthemovethatdefinestheirlives:chuqu,togooutTherewasnothingtodoathome,soIwentoutThisishowamigrantstorybeginsThecitydoesnotofferthemaneasylivingThepayforhardlaborislowoftenlowerthantheofficialminimumwage,whichrangesbetweenfiftyandeightydollarsamonthWorkhoursfrequentlystretchbeyondthelegallimitoffortyninehoursperweekGethurt,sick,orpregnant,andyou’reonyourownLocalgovernmentshavelittleincentivetoprotectworkerstheirjobistokeepthefactoryownershappy,whichwillbringinmoreinvestmentandtaxrevenueButsufferinginsilenceisnothowmigrantworkersseethemselvesTocomeoutfromhomeandworkinafactoryisthehardestthingtheyhaveeverdoneItisalsoanadventureWhatkeepstheminthecityisnotfearbutpride:ToreturnhomeearlyistoadmitdefeatTogooutandstayoutchuquistochangeyourfateMigrantsaretheruraleliteTheyareyounger,bettereducated,andmoreenterprisingthanthepeopletheyleavebehindThecitypeople’snameforthemliudongrenkou,floatingpopulationsuggestsanaimlessmob,butmostmigrantsleavehomewithaworkobjectiveinmind,inthecompanyofarelativeorfellowvillagerwhoalreadyknowsthewayAndmostoftoday’syoungmigrantsdon’tcomefromthefarm:TheycomefromschoolFarmingissomethingtheyhavewatchedtheirparentsdoMigrationwasanaccidentalconsequenceofeconomicreformsIn,theChinesegovernmentsetupahouseholdregistrationsystemthatassignedeachpersonruralorurbanresidencyCitydwellerswereallocatedjobs,housing,andrationcouponsforfoodandothernecessitiesresidentsofthecountryside,withnoneoftheseprivileges,werestuckonthefarmInthelates,reformsallowedfarminghouseholdstosellpartoftheirharvestonthemarketratherthansupplyingitalltothestateAgriculturalproductionsoaredSuddenly,foodwasavailableinlocalmarketsacrossthecountry,andruralresidentscouldsurviveindependentlyinthecitiesforthefirsttimeAgovernmentdirectivepermittedfarmerstosettleinsmallmarkettownstobeonthemovewasnolongeracrimeMigrationpickedupspeed,andby,thecountryhadsixtymillionmigrants,manyofthemdrawntotheboomingfactoriesandcitiesofthecoastTodayChinahasmillionmigrantworkersInfactories,restaurants,constructionsites,elevators,deliveryservices,housecleaning,childraising,garbagecollecting,barbershops,andbrothels,almosteveryworkerisaruralmigrantInlargecitieslikeBeijingandShanghai,migrantsaccountforaquarterofthepopulationinthefactorytownsofsouthChina,theypowertheassemblylinesofthenation’sexporteconomyTogethertheyrepresentthelargestmigrationinhumanhistory,threetimesthenumberofpeoplewhoemigratedtoAmericafromEuropeoveracenturyYetthegovernmenthasbeenslowtoacknowledgetherealityofmigrationForyears,migrantsinthecitieshadtododgethepolicethosecaughtwithoutresidencypermitswerefinedorsenthomeFinallyin,theStateCouncil,China’scabinet,issuedacomprehensivedocumentcallingmigrationkeytothecountry’sdevelopmentItbannedjobdiscriminationagainstmigrantsandadvocatedbetterworkingconditionsforthemandschoolingfortheirchildrenOnthebrickwallsofruralvillages,promigrationslogansappeared:GOOUTFORMIGRANTWORK,RETURNHOMETODEVELOPLABORFLOWSOUT,MONEYFLOWSBACKMigrationisemptyingvillagesofyoungpeopleAcrosstheChinesecountryside,thoseplowingandharvestinginthefieldsareelderlymenandwomen,chargedwithrunningthefarmandcaringfortheyo

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《工厂女孩》Factory Girls - From Village to City in a Changing China - Leslie T. Chang

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