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首页 福柯《疯癫与文明》(英文版).pdf

福柯《疯癫与文明》(英文版).pdf

福柯《疯癫与文明》(英文版).pdf

上传者: july_711 2011-06-28 评分 5 0 106 14 482 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《福柯《疯癫与文明》(英文版)pdf》,可适用于哲学、历史领域,主题内容包含MADNESSANDCIVILIZATIONAHistoryofInsanityintheAgeofReasonAlsobyMichelFoucau符等。

MADNESSANDCIVILIZATIONAHistoryofInsanityintheAgeofReasonAlsobyMichelFoucaultTheOrderofThings:AnArchaeologyoftheHumanSciencesEnglishRussianTheArchaeologyofKnowledge(andTheDiscourseonLanguage)RussianTheBirthoftheClinic:AnArchaeologyofMedicalPerceptionRussianI,PierreRiviere,havingslaughteredmymother,mysister,andmybrotherACaseofParricideintheNineteenthCenturyDisciplineandPunish:TheBirthofthePrisonTheHistoryofSexuality,Volumes,(russ)(russ)and(russ)HerculineBarbin,BeingtheRecentlyDiscoveredMemoirsofaNineteenthCenturyFrenchHermaphroditePowerKnowledge(russ):SelectedInterviewsandOtherWritings,TheFoucaultReader(editedbyPaulRabinow)TranslatedfromtheFrenchbyRICHARDHOWARDVintageBooksADIVISIONOFRANDOMHOUSENewYorkMADNESSANDCIVILIZATIONAHistoryofInsanityintheAgeofReasonMICHELFOUCAULTThistranslationisoftheeditionabridgedbytheauthorandpublishedinthePlonseriesHowever,theauthorhasaddedsomeadditionalmaterialfromtheoriginaledition,includingthechapter"PassionandDelirium"LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataFoucault,MichelMadnessandcivilizationTranslationofFolieetderaisonhistoiredelafolieIncludesbibliographicalreferencesPsychiatryHistoryMentalillnessITitleManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaCINTRODUCTIONMICHELFOUCAULThasachievedsomethingtrulycreativeinthisbookonthehistoryofmadnessduringthesocalledclassicalage:theendofthesixteenthandtheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturiesRatherthantoreviewhistoricallytheconceptofmadness,theauthorhaschosentorecreate,mostlyfromoriginaldocuments,mentalillness,folly,andunreasonastheymusthaveexistedintheirtime,place,andpropersocialperspectiveInasense,hehastriedtorecreatethenegativepartoftheconcept,thatwhichhasdisappearedundertheretroactiveinfluenceofpresentdayideasandthepassageoftimeToomanyhistoricalbooksaboutpsychicdisorderslookatthepastinthelightofthepresenttheysingleoutonlywhathaspositiveanddirectrelevancetopresentdaypsychiatryThisbookbelongstothefewwhichdemonstratehowskillful,sensitivescholarshipuseshistorytoenrich,deepen,andrevealnewavenuesforthoughtandinvestigationNooversimplifications,noblackandwhitestatements,nosweepinggeneralizationsareeverallowedinthisbookfollyisbroughtbacktolifeasacomplexsocialphenomenon,partandparcelofthehumanconditionMostofthetime,forthesakeofclarity,weexaminemadnessthroughoneofitsfacetsasMFoucaultanimatesonefacetoftheproblemaftertheother,healwayskeepsthemrelatedtoeachotherTheendoftheMiddleAgesemphasizedthecomic,butjustasoftenthetragicaspectofmadness,asinTristanandIseult,forexampleTheRenaissance,with(v)Erasmus'sPraiseofFolly,demonstratedhowfascinatingimaginationandsomeofitsvagariesweretothethinkersofthatdayTheFrenchRevolution,Pinel,andTukeemphasizedpolitical,legal,medical,orreligiousaspectsofmadnessandtoday,oursocalledobjectivemedicalapproach,inspiteofthebenefitsthatithasbroughttothementallyill,continuestolookatonlyonesideofthepictureFollyissohumanthatithascommonrootswithpoetryandtragedyitisrevealedasmuchintheinsaneasylumasinthewritingsofaCervantesoraShakespeare,orinthedeeppsychologicalinsightsandcriesofrevoltofaNietzscheCorrectlyorincorrectly,theauthorfeelsthatFreud'sdeathinstinctalsostemsfromthetragicelementswhichledmenofallepochstoworship,laughat,anddreadfollysimultaneouslyFascinatingasRenaissancemenfoundittheypaintedit,praisedit,sangaboutititalsoheraldedforthemdeathofthebodybypicturingdeathofthemindNothingismoreilluminatingthantofollowwithMFoucaultthemanythreadswhicharewoveninthiscomplexbook,whetheritspeaksofchangingsymptoms,commitmentprocedures,ortreatmentForexample:heseesadefiniteconnectionbetweensomeoftheattitudestowardmadnessandthedisappearance,betweenand,ofleprosyInthemiddleofthetwelfthcentury,Francehadmorethan,leprosariums,andEnglandandScotlandforapopulationofamillionandahalfpeopleAsleprosyvanished,inpartbecauseofsegregation,avoidwascreatedandthemoralvaluesattachedtotheleperhadtofindanotherscapegoatMentalillnessandunreasonattractedthatstigmatothemselves,buteventhiswasneithercomplete,simple,norimmediateRenaissancemendevelopedadelightful,yethorriblewayofdealingwiththeirmaddenizens:theywereputonashipandentrustedtomarinersbecausefolly,water,andsea,aseveryonethen"knew,"hadanaffinityforeach(vi)otherThus,"ShipsofFools"crisscrossedtheseasandcanalsofEuropewiththeircomicandpatheticcargoofsoulsSomeofthemfoundpleasureandevenacureinthechangingsurroundings,intheisolationofbeingcastoff,whileotherswithdrewfurther,becameworse,ordiedaloneandawayfromtheirfamiliesThecitiesandvillageswhichhadthusridthemselvesoftheircrazedandcrazy,couldnowtakepleasureinwatchingtheexcitingsideshowwhenashipfullofforeignlunaticswoulddockattheirharborsTheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturiessawmuchsocialunrestandeconomicdepression,whichtheytriedtosolvebyimprisoningtheindigentswiththecriminalsandforcingthemtoworkThedementedfittedquitenaturallybetweenthosetwoextremesofsocialmaladjustmentandiniquityAniceandhallowedtraditionhaslabeledTukeandPinelasthesaviorsofthementallyill,butthetruthofthematterisnotsosimpleManyothershadtreatedthemwithkindness,pleadingthattheybelongedfirstandforemostwiththeirfamilies,andforatleasttwohundredyearsbeforetheios,legislationhadbeenconsideredorpassedtosegregatecriminalsandindigentsfromfoolsButthislegislationwasprompted,asoftenasnot,byadesiretoprotectthepoor,thecriminal,themanimprisonedfordebts,andthejuveniledelinquentfromthefrighteningbestialityofthemadmanAsthemadmanhadreplacedtheleper,thementallyillpersonwasnowasubhumanandbeastlyscapegoathencetheneedtoprotectothersWhiletheQuakerTukeappliedhisreligiousprinciples,firsttodemented"friends"andlatertofoesalso,partlytoconvertthem,thegreatPinelwasnotsureattimesthathewasdealingwithsickpeopleheoftenmarveledattheirunbelievableenduranceofphysicalhardship,andoftencitedtheabilityofschizophrenicwomentosleepnakedinsubfreezingtemperatureswithoutsufferinganyilleffectsWerenotthese(vii)peoplemorehealthy,moreresistantthanordinaryhumanbeingsDidn'ttheyhavetoomuchanimalspiritinthemNaturally,itisimpossibletodiscussabookascomplexasMadnessandCivilizationwithoutoversimplifyinganddoingitaninjusticeItisataleofnuances,relativevalues,anddelicateshadingsYet,itisanimpressivemonument:inadispassionatemanneritmarshalsoverwhelmingevidencetodispelmoreeffectivelythanmanypreviousattemptsthemythofmentalillness,andreestablishesfollyandunreasonintheirrightfulplaceascomplex,humantoohumanphenomenaTherootsandsymptomsoffollyarebeinglookedfortodayinpsychology,medicine,andsociology,buttheywereandstillareaspresentandimportantinart,*religion,ethics,andepistemologyMadnessisreallyamanifestationofthe"soul,"avariableconceptwhichfromantiquitytothetwentiethcenturycoveredapproximatelywhatcametobeknown,afterFreud,astheunconsciouspartofthehumanmindOnlytimewilltellhowmuchbetterstudentsofthepsychecanlookatthefuture,afterreadingthissoberingrecreationofyesteryear'smadnessandtheineffectiveattemptsofhumanitytotreatitbyamputation,projections,prejudices,andsegregationJOSEBARCHILON,MD*Myonlyquarrelwiththebookisthelackofemphasisonthehumoristicelementsinpsychosesandneuroses:ie,thepatientlaughsathimself,orlaughsattheworldthroughhisillnessThefearanddreadofmadnessisasrealafactorinsocialandmedicalattitudesormeasuresasanxiety,symptoms,andresistanceincopingwithimpulsesfromtheindividualunconsciouseventhoughtheauthordoesnotexplicitlycomparemadnesswiththeunconscious,heequatesmadnessanddreamactivitysothattheinferenceisclearenough(viii)PREFACEPASCAL:"Menaresonecessarilymad,thatnottobemadwouldamounttoanotherformofmadness"AndDostoievsky,inhisDIARYOFAWRITER:"Itisnotbyconfiningone'sneighborthatoneisconvincedofone'sownsanity"Wehaveyettowritethehistoryofthatotherformofmadness,bywhichmen,inanactofsovereignreason,confinetheirneighbors,andcommunicateandrecognizeeachotherthroughthemercilesslanguageofnonmadnesstodefinethemomentofthisconspiracybeforeitwaspermanentlyestablishedintherealmoftruth,beforeitwasrevivedbythelyricismofprotestWemusttrytoreturn,inhistory,tothatzeropointinthecourseofmadnessatwhichmadnessisanundifferentiatedexperience,anotyetdividedexperienceofdivisionitselfWemustdescribe,fromthestartofitstrajectory,that"otherform"whichrelegatesReasonandMadnesstoonesideortheotherofitsactionasthingshenceforthexternal,deaftoallexchange,andasthoughdeadtooneanotherThisisdoubtlessanuncomfortableregionToexploreitwemustrenouncetheconvenienceofterminaltruths,andneverletourselvesbeguidedbywhatwemayknowofmadnessNoneoftheconceptsofpsychopathology,evenandespeciallyintheimplicitprocessofretrospections,canplayanorganizingroleWhatisconstitutiveistheactionthatdividesmadness,andnotthescienceelaboratedoncethisdivisionismadeandcalmrestoredWhatisoriginativeisthecaesurathatestablishesthedistancebetweenreasonandnonreasonreason'ssubjugationofnonreason,wrest(ix)ingfromititstruthasmadness,crime,ordisease,derivesexplicitlyfromthispointHencewemustspeakofthatinitialdisputewithoutassumingavictory,ortherighttoavictorywemustspeakofthoseactionsreexaminedinhistory,leavinginabeyanceallthatmayfigureasaconclusion,asarefugeintruthweshallhavetospeakofthisactofscission,ofthisdistanceset,ofthisvoidinstitutedbetweenreasonandwhatisnotreason,withouteverrelyinguponthefulfillmentofwhatitclaimstobeThen,andthenonly,canwedeterminetherealminwhichthemanofmadnessandthemanofreason,movingapart,arenotyetdisjunctandinanincipientandverycrudelanguage,antedatingthatofscience,beginthedialogueoftheirbreach,testifyinginafugitivewaythattheystillspeaktoeachotherHeremadnessandnonmadness,reasonandnonreasonareinextricablyinvolved:inseparableatthemomentwhentheydonotyetexist,andexistingforeachother,inrelationtoeachother,intheexchangewhichseparatesthemInthesereneworldofmentalillness,modemmannolongercommunicateswiththemadman:ononehand,themanofreasondelegatesthephysiciantomadness,therebyauthorizingarelationonlythroughtheabstractuniversalityofdiseaseontheother,themanofmadnesscommunicateswithsocietyonlybytheintermediaryofanequallyabstractreasonwhichisorder,physicalandmoralconstraint,theanonymouspressureofthegroup,therequirementsofconformityAsforacommonlanguage,thereisnosuchthingorrather,thereisnosuchthinganylongertheconstitutionofmadnessasamentalillness,attheendoftheeighteenthcentury,affordstheevidenceofabrokendialogue,positstheseparationasalreadyeffected,andthrustsintooblivionallthosestammered,imperfectwordswithoutfixedsyntaxinwhichtheexchangebetweenmadnessandreasonwasmadeThelanguageofpsychiatry,(x)whichisamonologueofreasonaboutmadness,hasbeenestablishedonlyonthebasisofsuchasilenceIhavenottriedtowritethehistoryofthatlanguage,butratherthearchaeologyofthatsilenceTheGreekshadarelationtosomethingthattheycalled******ThisrelationwasnotmerelyoneofcondemnationtheexistenceofThrasymachusorofCollidessufficestoproveit,eveniftheirlanguagehasreachedusalreadyenvelopedinthereassuringdialecticofSocratesButtheGreekLogoshadnocontraryEuropeanman,sincethebeginningoftheMiddleAges,hashadarelationtosomethinghecalls,indiscriminately,Madness,Dementia,InsanityPerhapsitistothisobscurepresencethatWesternreasonowessomethingofitsdepth,asthe******|oftheSocraticreasonersowessomethingtothethreatof******Inanycase,theReasonMadnessnexusconstitutesforWesterncultureoneofthedimensionsofitsoriginalityitalreadyaccompaniedthatculturelongbeforeHieronymusBosch,andwillfollowitlongafterNietzscheandArtaudWhat,then,isthisconfrontationbeneaththelanguageofreasonWherecananinterrogationleaduswhichdoesnotfollowreasoninitshorizontalcourse,butseekstoretraceintimethatconstantverticallywhichconfrontsEuropeanculturewithwhatitisnot,establishesitsrangebyitsownderangementWhatrealmdoweenterwhichisneitherthehistoryofknowledge,norhistoryitselfwhichiscontrolledbyneithertheteleologyoftruthnortherationalsequenceofcauses,sincecauseshavevalueandmeaningonlybeyondthedivisionArealm,nodoubt,wherewhatisinquestionisthelimitsratherthantheidentityofacultureTheclassicalperiodfromWillistoPinel,fromthefrenziesofRacine'sOrestetoSade'sJulietteandtheQuinta(xi)delSordoofGoyacoverspreciselythatepochinwhichtheexchangebetweenmadnessandreasonmodifiesitslanguage,andinaradicalmannerInthehistoryofmadness,twoeventsindicatethischangewithasingularclarity:,thecreationoftheHopitalGeneralandthe"greatconfinement"ofthepoor,theliberationofthechainedinmatesofBicetreBetweenthesetwouniqueandsymmetricalevents,somethinghappenswhoseambiguityhasleftthehistoriansofmedicineataloss:blindrepressioninanabsolutistregime,accordingtosomebutaccordingtoothers,thegradualdiscoverybyscienceandphilanthropyofmadnessinitspositivetruthAsamatteroffact,beneaththesereversiblemeanings,astructureisformingwhichdoesnotresolvetheambiguitybutdeterminesitItisthisstructurewhichaccountsforthetransitionfromthemedievalandhumanistexperienceofmadnesstoourownexperience,whichconfinesinsanitywithinmentalillnessIntheMiddleAgesanduntiltheRenaissance,man'sdisputewithmadnesswasadramaticdebateinwhichheconfrontedthesecretpowersoftheworldtheexperienceofmadnesswascloudedbyimagesoftheFallandtheWillofGod,oftheBeastandtheMetamorphosis,andofallthemarveloussecretsofKnowledgeInourera,theexperienceofmadnessremainssilentinthecomposureofaknowledgewhich,knowingtoomuchaboutmadness,forgetsitButfromoneoftheseexperiencestotheother,theshifthasbeenmadebyaworldwithoutimages,withoutpositivecharacter,inakindofsilenttransparencywhichrevealsasmuteinstitution,actwithoutcommentary,immediateknowledgeagreatmotionlessstructurethisstructureisoneofneitherdramanorknowledgeitisthepointwherehistoryisimmobilizedinthetragiccategorywhichbothestablishesandimpugnsit(xii)CONTENTSI"StultiferaNavis"IITheGreatConfinementIIITheInsaneIVPassionandDeliriumVAspectsofMadnessVIDoctorsandPatientsVIITheGreatFearVIIITheNewDivisionIXTheBirthoftheAsylumConclusionNotesMADNESSANDCIVILIZATIONAHistoryofInsanityintheAgeofReasonI"StultiferaNavis"ATtheendoftheMiddleAges,leprosydisappearedfromtheWesternworldInthemarginsofthecommunity,atthegatesofcities,therestretchedwastelandswhichsicknesshadceasedtohauntbuthadleftsterileandlonguninhabitableForcenturies,thesereacheswouldbelongtothenonhumanFromthefourteenthtotheseventeenthcentury,theywouldwait,solicitingwithstrangeincantationsanewincarnationofdisease,anothergrimaceofterror,renewedritesofpurificationandexclusionFromtheHighMiddleAgestotheendoftheCrusades,leprosariumshadmultipliedtheircitiesofthedamnedovertheentirefaceofEuropeAccordingtoMathieuParis,therewereasmanyas,ofthemthroughoutChristendomInanycase,around,whenLouisVIIIestablishedthelazarhouselawforFrance,morethan,appearedontheofficialregistersTherewereinthe()dioceseofParisalone:theseincludedBourgleReine,Corbeil,SaintValere,andthesinisterChampPourri(RottenField)includedalsowasCharentonThetwolargestwereintheimmediatevicinityofParis:SaintGermainandSaintLazare:weshallheartheirnamesagaininthehistoryofanothersicknessThisisbecausefromthefifteenthcenturyon,allwereemptiedinthenextcenturySaintGermainbecameareformatoryforyoungcriminalsandbeforethetimeofSaintVincenttherewasonlyoneleperleftatSaintLazare,"SieurLanglois,practitionerinthecivilcourt"ThelazarhouseofNancy,whichwasamongthelargestinEurope,hadonlyfourinmatesduringtheregencyofMariedeMedicisAccordingtoCatel'sMemoires,therewerehospitalsinToulouseattheendofthemedievalperiod:sevenwereleprosariumsbutatthebeginningoftheseventeenthcenturywefindonlythreementioned:SaintCyprian,AmaudBernard,andSaintMichaelItwasapleasuretocelebratethedisappearanceofleprosy:intheinhabitantsofReimsformedasolemnprocessiontothankGodforhavingdeliveredtheircityfromthisscourgeForacenturyalready,royalauthorityhadundertakenthecontrolandreorganizationoftheimmensefortunerepresentedbytheendowmentsofthelazarhousesinadecreeofDecember,,FrancoisIhadacensusandinventorytaken"toremedythegreatdisorderthatexistsatpresentinthelazarhouses"inhisturn,HenriIVinanedictofprescribedarevisionoftheiraccountsandallotted"thesumsobtainedfromthisinvestigationtothesustenanceofpoornoblemenandcrippledsoldiers"ThesamerequestforregulationisrecordedonOctober,,buttheexcessrevenueswerenowtobeusedforfeedingthepoorInfact,thequestionoftheleprosariumswasnotseededinFrancebeforetheendoftheseventeenthcenturyandtheproblem'seconomicimportanceprovokedmorethanoneconflictWeretherenotstill,intheyear,lazar()housesintheprovinceofDauphinaloneOnFebruary,,LouisXIVassignedtotheOrdersofSaintLazareandMontCameltheeffectsofallthemilitaryandhospitalorderstheywereentrustedwiththeadministrationofthelazarhousesofthekingdomSometwentyyearslater,theedictofwasrevoked,andbyaseriesofstaggeredmeasuresfromMarchtoJulythegoodsofthelazarhouseswerethenceforthassignedtootherhospitalsand

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