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Facebook Meets the Virtualized Enterprise.pdf

Facebook Meets the Virtualized …

上传者: llyy
7次下载 0人收藏 暂无简介 简介 2011-06-26 举报

简介:云计算 双边市场

FacebookMeetstheVirtualizedEnterpriseRogerCurry,CameronKiddle,NaydenMarkatchev,RobSimmondsandTingxiTanGridResearchCentre,UniversityofCalgaryCalgary,Alberta,Canada{curry,kiddlec,nayden,simmonds,txtan}@cpsc.ucalgary.caMartinArlittandBruceWalkerHPLabs,PaloAlto,U.S.A.{martin.arlitt,bruce.walker}@hp.comAbstract“Web2.0”and“cloudcomputing”arerevolutionizingthewayITinfrastructureisaccessedandmanaged.Web2.0technologiessuchasblogs,wikisandsocialnetworkingplatformsprovideInternetuserswitheasiermechanismstoproduceWebcontentandtointeractwitheachother.CloudcomputingtechnologiesareaimedatrunningapplicationsasservicesovertheInternetonascalableinfrastructure.InthispaperweexploretheadvantagesofusingWeb2.0andcloudcomputingtechnologiesinanenterprisesettingtoprovideemployeeswithacomprehensiveandtransparentenvironmentforutilizingapplications.Todemonstratetheeffectivenessofthisapproachwehavedevelopedanenvi-ronmentthatusesasocialnetworkingplatformtoprovideaccesstoalegacyapplication.Theapplicationishostedonaninternalcloudcomputinginfrastructurethatadaptsdy-namicallytouserdemands.Initialfeedbacksuggeststhisapproachprovidesanimproveduserexperiencewhilesim-plifyingmanagementandincreasingeffectiveutilizationoftheunderlyingITresources.1.IntroductionThe“Web2.0”erahasbroughtustechnologiessuchasblogs,wikisandsocialnetworkingplatforms.Thesetechnologiesprovideusersmorefeaturerichenvironments,makeiteasierforuserstogenerateandshareWebcontent,andincreaseonlinesocialconnectivity.ThepopularityofsocialnetworkingsitessuchasFacebook[7]isaclearindi-cationoftheperceivedvalueofthesetechnologies.Webelievethatanimproveduserexperiencewouldalsobebeneficialinanenterprisesetting,asitwouldmaketasksmoreenjoyableandlesstimeconsuming.Itwouldlikelyalsoappealtothenewgenerationofenterpriseemployees,whoareintimatelyfamiliarwiththeWeb2.0experience.However,suchtechnologieshavenotbeenwidelyadoptedinenterprisesduetoconcernsoversecurity,produc-tivityandsuitabilityintheworkplace.Infact,manybusi-nessesblockemployeesfromusingsocialnetworkingsitesattheworkplace[19].Thepurposeofthispaperisto(1)examinethelessonswehavelearnedfromtheWeb2.0era,(2)articulatetheneedsofenterprisesand(3)recommendanITmodelthatmergesthetwoinanacceptablemanner.Wehaveimplementedademonstratortoillustratethepotentialbenefitstoenterprisesoftheapproachwearerecommending.Theremainderofthepaperisorganizedasfollows.Sec-tion2describeslessonswehavelearnedfromtheWeb2.0eraandSection3examinestheITrequirementsofenter-prises.OurproposedITmodel,whichleveragesthebenefitsofWeb2.0whileaddressingtheneedsofenterprises,ispre-sentedinSection4.Section5introducesourdemonstrator,whichhighlightstheutilityofourapproach.WeconcludeourpaperinSection6,withasummaryofourworkandfuturedirections.Amoredetailedreportofthisworkispro-videdin[6].2.LessonsLearnedfromWeb2.0Inthepastfewyears,the“Web2.0”wavehasprovidednew,simplewaysforuserstocreateandsharecontentorapplications,andcommunicatewithoneanother.Theseca-pabilitieshavebeenenabledbytoolssuchasblogs,wikis,andsocialnetworkingplatforms.Ourparticularinterestisinonlinesocialnetworking.SitessuchasFacebook[7]andMySpace[15]havebecomeextremelypopularwithInternetusers,inpartbecauseofthesimplifiedinterfacestheypro-videtodesiredcapabilities.SimpleyetpowerfulinterfacesareextremelyvaluableastheymakethepowerofITacces-sibletoalmosteveryone,withlittleornotrainingrequired.The“Web2.0”wavehasalsobroughtusers“choice”ofapplications.Amongsocialnetworkingsites,FacebookwasthefirsttoreleaseanapplicationdevelopmentplatforminMay2007.TheFacebookPlatformprovidesanAPIthatal-lowsthirdpartyapplicationstobeintegratedintoFacebook.12thInternationalIEEEEnterpriseDistributedObjectComputingConference1541-7719/08$25.002008IEEEDOI10.1109/EDOC.2008.1928412thInternationalIEEEEnterpriseDistributedObjectComputingConference1541-7719/08$25.002008IEEEDOI10.1109/EDOC.2008.1928412thInternationalIEEEEnterpriseDistributedObjectComputingConference1541-7719/08$25.002008IEEEDOI10.1109/EDOC.2008.1928412thInternationalIEEEEnterpriseDistributedObjectComputingConference1541-7719/08$25.002008IEEEDOI10.1109/EDOC.2008.19286Authorizedlicenseduselimitedto:XIDIANUNIVERSITY.DownloadedonDecember4,2008at23:26fromIEEEXplore.Restrictionsapply.Usersareeasilyabletoaccessandsharealargevarietyofapplications.BySeptemberof2007therewereover3,500applicationsandasofApril2008thisnumberhasincreasedtoover22,000.Consumerslikechoiceofapplicationsasitenablesthemtopersonalizetheirexperience,withoutrequir-ingapplicationproviderstodoextrawork.Asanindicationoftheperceivedvalueofanapplicationdevelopmentplatform,othersocialnetworkingsites,suchasMySpaceandhi5[9],havefollowedsuit.MySpaceandhi5usetheOpenSocialAPI[8]beingdevelopedbyGoogle.ThisisincontrasttotheproprietaryplatformbeingusedbyFacebook.ApplicationsdevelopedusingtheOpenSocialAPIwillbeabletohavemorerapidandwidespreaddeploy-mentonallofthesitesthatsupporttheAPI.Amajorproblemfacingapplicationdevelopersforsocialnetworkingplatformsisthatitisverydifficulttopredictthepopularityandlifespanofapplications.Figure1showsthatmostapplicationsonFacebookareveryunpopular;ofthe15,036applicationsthatwehaddataforonApril21,2008,13,838(92%)hadlessthanonethousandactiveusers,com-paredtothetop3applicationsthathadoveronemillionac-tiveusers.Weexpectasimilartrendtoexistforapplicationsinanenterprise.AflexibleITinfrastructuretosupportap-plicationsinacosteffectiveandscalablemannerisneeded.Figure1.Dailyactiveusersvs.rankofFace-bookapplications.3.RequirementsandConcernsofEnterprisesWeconsidertherequirementsofenterprisesfromthreedifferentperspectives;CXOs(i.e.,companyexecutives),employeesandITorganizations.CXOshaveavarietyofgoalsthatdirectlyaffectthewaytheirITinfrastructureismanaged.Thesegoalscouldincludethingssuchas“reducecosts”,“increasebusinessflexibility”and/or“providebusi-nesscontinuity”.CXOsareconcernedaboutsecurityandrisk.Theyregarddataasasignificantassetofthecompanyanddonotwantthatinformationsharedwiththeworld.Attheoppositeendofthespectrum,employeeswantaneasilyaccessibleandcompletesetoftoolsthatenablesthemtomoreeffectivelydotheirjobs.MembersofgenerationYarethenewenterpriseemployees.TheygrewupwiththeInternetandarequitefamiliarwithsocialnetworkingtechnologies.Useofthesetechnologiesinenterprisewouldthereforebeveryappealingtothisnewworkforce.InthemiddleisthecorporateITorganization,whichmusttrytosupportthisconflictingsetofrequirements.Acom-monapproachtodayistomaketheITinfrastructure(includ-ingapplications)verystaticandcontrolled.Thishelpsre-ducecost(theeasiestgoaltomeasure),butcanlimitflexi-bilityandrestrictthetoolsavailabletousers.MuchofITinfrastructureisunderutilizedmuchofthetime.Methodstoconsolidateandmakemoreefficientuseofresourcesarealwaysbeingsought.EnablingbusinesscontinuityrequiresthemaintenanceoflegacyapplicationswhicharetypicallynoteasilyadaptedtonewerandmoreefficientITmanage-mentapproaches.Whilemanynewtechnologiesareemerg-ing,enterprisesaremoreconservativethanconsumers.Theyneedslowermigrationpathsintheadoptionofnewtechnolo-gies.Enterprisesalsohavemanyconcernswhenitcomestoadoptinggeneralconsumersocialnetworkingplatforms.Adoptionofsuchplatformshasbeenlimitedinenterpriseduetothelackofaprofessionalfeel,securityconcerns,andaccesstoapplicationsthatsofar,aretypicallymoreofadis-tractionthanbenefittotheworkplace.Thelifecycleofappli-cationsismoredynamicandlesspredictablethanenterprisesareusedtodealingwith.Furthermore,applicationscanbedevelopedandsharedbyanybodysoconcernsoverwhocon-tinuestosupportandupdateapplicationsbecomesanissue.Enterpriseshavetypicallyhadagreatdealofcontrolovertheapplicationenvironmentprovidedtoemployees.Therearemanysocialnetworkingtools,suchasHud-dle[10],LinkedIn[13]andVisiblePath[21],thathavebeendevelopedwithenterpriseusersinmind.However,mostfocusonnetworking,collaboratingand/orsharinginforma-tionandnotonprovidingaplatformforaccessingapplica-tions.TherecentreleaseoftheOpenSocialAPIbasedIntel-ligentApplicationsPlatform[14]forLinkedIncouldchangethis.Therehavealsobeensomeeffortstomakesomeofthegeneralpurposesocialnetworkingtoolsmoreappropri-ateforenterprise.HuddlehasaFacebookapplicationcalledWorkspaces[11]andWorkLighthasaFacebookapplicationcalledWorkBook[22],bothaimedatenablingmoresecureuseofFacebookinanenterprisesetting.Wearguethatitisimportanttoidentifymethodsthatmakeusefulapplicationsandservicesmoreaccessibletoemployees(toimproveproductivity),enablemorerapidde-ploymentanddynamicconfigurationoftheseservices(toin-creaseflexibility),whileallowingITorganizationstoretainorincreasecontrolovertheinfrastructuretheymanage(tomaintaincostaccountability).Solvingtheseissuescouldre-shapehowcomputingisdonewithinenterprises.285285285287Authorizedlicenseduselimitedto:XIDIANUNIVERSITY.DownloadedonDecember4,2008at23:26fromIEEEXplore.Restrictionsapply.4.ITModelInthissectionwefirstexplaininmoredetailourproposedITmodelforaccessingandhostingapplicationsforenter-prises.Wethendiscussthebenefitsthatthisapproachwillhaveforenterpriseemployees,ITorganizationsandCXOs.Finally,wediscusssomerelatedeffortstoourproposedap-proach.4.1.ProposedApproachFigure2showsadiagramofourproposedITmodel.Itisbasedontheuseofanumberofexistingtechnologies,thecombinationofwhichprovidesthepotentialforarevolution-aryimprovementinenterpriseIT.A1A2AnA1A1A2A1A2A4A7AnCOSCOSCOSCOSBOSBOSDOSAOSAOShypervisorAOShypervisorAOShypervisorAOShypervisorPhysicalAppliancesNodesVirtualApplicationsSocialNetworkingPlatformUsersFigure2.ProposedITmodel.OntheusersideweproposetheuseofaFacebook-likesocialnetworkingplatformthatismoretailoredtoenterpriseuse.Employeeswouldbeabletosearch,accessanduseapplications,sharedocumentsandotherimportantinforma-tion,andmaintain/establishcontactwithotheremployees.Althoughsomeenterprisesuseportalsthatsupportsomeofthesefunctionalities,thesocialnetworkingaspectsarelargelylacking,aswellasthesimplifiedinterfaceto(legacy)applications,theself/grouphelpcapabilities,etc.Werealizethatitmaynotbepossibleorappropriatetohaveallappli-cationsaccessiblefromthesocialnetworkingplatformini-tially.Thegoalwouldbetofirstmigratesimple,non-criticalapplicationstothisenvironment.Overtime,additionalandmorecriticalapplicationscouldbeadded.OntheITmanagementside,weproposethatapplica-tionsbehostedwiththeaidofcloudcomputingtechnolo-gies.ThesetechnologiesareaimedatscalablehostingofservicesintheInternet“cloud”transparenttotheknowl-edgeoftheuser.ExamplecloudcomputingofferingsincludeAmazonWebServices(AWS)[1]andSunMicrosystems’Network.com[20].Bothenablecomputingpowertobepur-chasedonanon-demandbasis,withtheabilitytoeasilyscaleservicesupordownasneeded.Thisenablesapplicationstobesupportedwithouttheneedtohaveanexistinginfrastruc-tureandhelpsaddresstheapplicationpopularityproblem.Thegrandvisionofcloudcomputingisthatallapplica-tionswillbesupportedremotely,andaccessedondemandfromtheInternet.However,fortheforeseeablefuture,manyenterpriseswillbereluctanttorelinquishthatdegreeofcon-trolovertheirbusiness.Instead,weproposethatan“inter-nalcloud”modelbefollowed,allowingenterprisestoretaincontrol,butatthesametimeplacethemonthepaththatwouldfacilitatesimplemigrationtoselectedInternet-basedcloudservices.Theinternalcloudwouldbemaintainedasastaticandhomogeneoussetofphysicalresources.ApplicationswouldbepackagedinVirtualAppliancesthatcouldbedynamicallylaunchedtoscaleappropriatelytothedemandsofpopularandnotsopopularapplications.AVirtualApplianceisthecombinationofavirtualmachine,customoperatingsystemandapplicationintoasingleimage.Virtualmachinetechnologiesareemployedincloudcom-putingsolutionssuchasAWS.Theymakeitpossibleforasinglephysicalmachinetobetransformedintomultiplevir-tualmachineswhichcaneachbecustomizedwiththeirownspecializedandstreamlinedoperatingsystemandapplica-tionsoftware.Theuseofvirtualmachinetechnologiespro-videsmanyadvantages.Theyallowformoreefficientuseofresourcesaidinginresourceconsolidation.Theyalsoallowheterogeneousservicestobesupportedinasinglephysicalenvironment.Furthermore,checkpointingandmigrationca-pabilitiesallowmovementofvirtualresourcesamongthephysicalnodesofadatacentreenablingtheaccommoda-tionofnewservicerequests,systemmaintenancewithoutdisruptingservicesandbalancingofworkloadamongdatacentrenodes.SocialnetworkingplatformslikeFacebookallowany-bodytodevelopandshareapplications.Thisisincon-trasttothecurrentITmodelwheretheITorganizationisveryrestrictiveintheapplicationsthataremadeavailabletoemployeesandwhotheyaredevelopedby.WiththeopenmodellikeFacebookabigconcernforITorganizationswouldbehowandbywhomapplicationscontinuetobesup-portedandupgraded.Weproposeamodelsomewhereinbe-tweenthesetwothatbalancestheneedforincreasedchoicebyusersandcontrolbytheITorganization.Ideally,developersofapplicationswouldprovidepre-packagedVirtualApplianceswiththeapplicationsandre-latedcomponents,aswellastheinterfaceforaccessingtheapplicationviathesocialnetworkingplatform.Thismaynotbepossibleinitially,orforlegacyapplicationsthatnolongerhavedevelopmentsupport.TheITorganizationorathirdpartycouldberesponsibleforcreatingandmaintain-ingVirtualAppliancesfortheseapplications.Withmini-malefforttheseapplicationscouldbemadeaccessibleviathesocialnetworkingplatformasis(i.e.,usingexistinguserinterfaces)byrunningadesktopsharingprogramsuchasVNC[18]intheVirtualAppliance.Userscouldbeprovided286286286288Authorizedlicenseduselimitedto:XIDIANUNIVERSITY.DownloadedonDecember4,2008at23:26fromIEEEXplore.Restrictionsapply.accesstotheVNCsessionandalsoprovidedwithadditionalfeaturestoenableeasieruseoftheapplication.4.2.BenefitsforEmployeesManagementofapplicationsandITinfrastructureaspro-posedinthispapercouldprovidemanybenefitstoemploy-ees.First,theuseofasocialnetworkingplatformwillen-ablesimpleruseofapplications.Employeeswillbepro-videdwithasimpleandintuitiveinterfaceforaccessingap-plications,includinglegacyapplications.Allapplicationswillbeaccessiblewithasimilar“lookandfeel”inasingleintegratedenvironment.Thetechnicaldetailsofwheretheapplicationisrunningandhowitisaccessedwillbetrans-parenttotheemployee.Notonlyshoulditreducethetimeandeffortforanemployeetolearnhowtouseanapplication,butitmayenableemployeestobecomfortableinutilizingamuchlargernumberofapplicationsthantheytraditionallydo.Employeeswillalsobeabletoshareexperiencestheyhavehadwithapplications,ratethemandlearnfromothers.Second,exploitingsocialnetworkingfeatureswillenableemployeestoleverageknowledge/expertisealreadyintheenterprise,inassimpleawayaspossible.Theywillbeabletomoreeasilyfindandcollaboratewithotheremployeesthathavesimilarexpertise,areworkingonsimilarproblems,orthathavetheexpertisetheyneedtoaidinthecompletionofatask.Theywillbeabletomoreeasilysharedocuments,presentations,eventsandotherinformation.Thiswillpro-videemployeeswithextrasourcesofknowledgeandallowthemtobuildonwhatothershavedone.Itwillhelpthemtobebetterawareofwhatisgoingoninthecompanyandhelpimprovetheirproductivity.4.3.BenefitsforITOrganizationITorganizationswillalsogreatlybenefitfromadoptionoftheapproachproposedinthispaper.First,theapproachaidsinmoreefficientuseofresourceswhichcouldhelptosignifi-cantlyreduceinfrastructurecosts.Insteadofestablishingtherequiredinfrastructureforeachapplicationseparately,whichcanresultinmanyunderutilizedresources,allapplicationscansharethesameinfrastructure.Theenvironmentisdy-namicandflexible;itcanquicklyscaleapplicationsbasedondemand.Applicationsthatareinhighdemandcanbeal-locatedalargenumberofresourcesandapplicationsthatarenotpopularcanconsumelittleornoresources.Second,theapproachallowsITtomaintaincontroloftheinfrastructurewhileavoidingtheneedtomanageoper-atingsystems.Instead,ITwouldberesponsibleformain-tainingtheunderlyingphysicalinfrastructureandhypervi-sorsonwhichtheVirtualApplianceswillrun.Thiswillbearelativelystatic,homogeneousenvironment,withdynam-icsandheterogeneitypushedupintothevirtualizedenviron-ment.VirtualAppliancescouldautomaticallyregisterwithamanagementservice,enablingITtoensuretheappliancesareupdated(i.e.,patched)appropriately.ThiswoulddiffersubstantiallyfrompatchingofoperatingsystemshandledbyITtoday,asthedevelopersoftheapplications,notIT,wouldberesponsibleforensuringthepatchesworkedbeforede-ployingthemtotheITinfrastructure.Thiscoulddramati-callyreducesupportcostsforIT.Testingwouldalsobesim-plified,asthedevelopersonlyneedtotestonthespecificapplianceplatformthattheyuse.4.4.BenefitsforCXOsDuetothenumerousanticipatedbenefitstoemployeesandtheITorganization,weexpectthatCXOswouldalsoseemanybenefits.Withsimplifiedaccesstoawidervarietyofapplicationsproductivityofemployeescouldbeincreased(notdecreased,asiscommonlyfeared).ThemoreefficientmannerinwhichITinfrastructureisbeingmanagedwillal-lowcoststobereduced,businessflexibilityincreasedandbusinesscontinuitysupportedallatthesametime.AstheinfrastructureiskeptincontrolbytheITorganization,secu-rityandprotectionofvaluabledataismaintained.4.5.RelatedEffortsInthegeneralconsumerandacademicareas,thereareseveralrelatedeffortsthatcombineasocialnetworkingplat-formwithcloudcomputinginfrastructures.Asfarasweknow,therearenosimilareffortsbeingundertakenforen-terprise.Amazon

Facebook Meets the Virtualized Enterprise.pdf

Facebook Meets the Virtualized …

上传者: llyy
7次下载 0人收藏 暂无简介 简介 2011-06-26 举报

简介:云计算 双边市场

FacebookMeetstheVirtualizedEnterpriseRogerCurry,CameronKiddle,NaydenMarkatchev,RobSimmondsandTingxiTanGridResearchCentre,UniversityofCalgaryCalgary,Alberta,Canada{curry,kiddlec,nayden,simmonds,txtan}@cpsc.ucalgary.caMartinArlittandBruceWalkerHPLabs,PaloAlto,U.S.A.{martin.arlitt,bruce.walker}@hp.comAbstract“Web2.0”and“cloudcomputing”arerevolutionizingthewayITinfrastructureisaccessedandmanaged.Web2.0technologiessuchasblogs,wikisandsocialnetworkingplatformsprovideInternetuserswitheasiermechanismstoproduceWebcontentandtointeractwitheachother.CloudcomputingtechnologiesareaimedatrunningapplicationsasservicesovertheInternetonascalableinfrastructure.InthispaperweexploretheadvantagesofusingWeb2.0andcloudcomputingtechnologiesinanenterprisesettingtoprovideemployeeswithacomprehensiveandtransparentenvironmentforutilizingapplications.Todemonstratetheeffectivenessofthisapproachwehavedevelopedanenvi-ronmentthatusesasocialnetworkingplatformtoprovideaccesstoalegacyapplication.Theapplicationishostedonaninternalcloudcomputinginfrastructurethatadaptsdy-namicallytouserdemands.Initialfeedbacksuggeststhisapproachprovidesanimproveduserexperiencewhilesim-plifyingmanagementandincreasingeffectiveutilizationoftheunderlyingITresources.1.IntroductionThe“Web2.0”erahasbroughtustechnologiessuchasblogs,wikisandsocialnetworkingplatforms.Thesetechnologiesprovideusersmorefeaturerichenvironments,makeiteasierforuserstogenerateandshareWebcontent,andincreaseonlinesocialconnectivity.ThepopularityofsocialnetworkingsitessuchasFacebook[7]isaclearindi-cationoftheperceivedvalueofthesetechnologies.Webelievethatanimproveduserexperiencewouldalsobebeneficialinanenterprisesetting,asitwouldmaketasksmoreenjoyableandlesstimeconsuming.Itwouldlikelyalsoappealtothenewgenerationofenterpriseemployees,whoareintimatelyfamiliarwiththeWeb2.0experience.However,suchtechnologieshavenotbeenwidelyadoptedinenterprisesduetoconcernsoversecurity,produc-tivityandsuitabilityintheworkplace.Infact,manybusi-nessesblockemployeesfromusingsocialnetworkingsitesattheworkplace[19].Thepurposeofthispaperisto(1)examinethelessonswehavelearnedfromtheWeb2.0era,(2)articulatetheneedsofenterprisesand(3)recommendanITmodelthatmergesthetwoinanacceptablemanner.Wehaveimplementedademonstratortoillustratethepotentialbenefitstoenterprisesoftheapproachwearerecommending.Theremainderofthepaperisorganizedasfollows.Sec-tion2describeslessonswehavelearnedfromtheWeb2.0eraandSection3examinestheITrequirementsofenter-prises.OurproposedITmodel,whichleveragesthebenefitsofWeb2.0whileaddressingtheneedsofenterprises,ispre-sentedinSection4.Section5introducesourdemonstrator,whichhighlightstheutilityofourapproach.WeconcludeourpaperinSection6,withasummaryofourworkandfuturedirections.Amoredetailedreportofthisworkispro-videdin[6].2.LessonsLearnedfromWeb2.0Inthepastfewyears,the“Web2.0”wavehasprovidednew,simplewaysforuserstocreateandsharecontentorapplications,andcommunicatewithoneanother.Theseca-pabilitieshavebeenenabledbytoolssuchasblogs,wikis,andsocialnetworkingplatforms.Ourparticularinterestisinonlinesocialnetworking.SitessuchasFacebook[7]andMySpace[15]havebecomeextremelypopularwithInternetusers,inpartbecauseofthesimplifiedinterfacestheypro-videtodesiredcapabilities.SimpleyetpowerfulinterfacesareextremelyvaluableastheymakethepowerofITacces-sibletoalmosteveryone,withlittleornotrainingrequired.The“Web2.0”wavehasalsobroughtusers“choice”ofapplications.Amongsocialnetworkingsites,FacebookwasthefirsttoreleaseanapplicationdevelopmentplatforminMay2007.TheFacebookPlatformprovidesanAPIthatal-lowsthirdpartyapplicationstobeintegratedintoFacebook.12thInternationalIEEEEnterpriseDistributedObjectComputingConference1541-7719/08$25.002008IEEEDOI10.1109/EDOC.2008.1928412thInternationalIEEEEnterpriseDistributedObjectComputingConference1541-7719/08$25.002008IEEEDOI10.1109/EDOC.2008.1928412thInternationalIEEEEnterpriseDistributedObjectComputingConference1541-7719/08$25.002008IEEEDOI10.1109/EDOC.2008.1928412thInternationalIEEEEnterpriseDistributedObjectComputingConference1541-7719/08$25.002008IEEEDOI10.1109/EDOC.2008.19286Authorizedlicenseduselimitedto:XIDIANUNIVERSITY.DownloadedonDecember4,2008at23:26fromIEEEXplore.Restrictionsapply.Usersareeasilyabletoaccessandsharealargevarietyofapplications.BySeptemberof2007therewereover3,500applicationsandasofApril2008thisnumberhasincreasedtoover22,000.Consumerslikechoiceofapplicationsasitenablesthemtopersonalizetheirexperience,withoutrequir-ingapplicationproviderstodoextrawork.Asanindicationoftheperceivedvalueofanapplicationdevelopmentplatform,othersocialnetworkingsites,suchasMySpaceandhi5[9],havefollowedsuit.MySpaceandhi5usetheOpenSocialAPI[8]beingdevelopedbyGoogle.ThisisincontrasttotheproprietaryplatformbeingusedbyFacebook.ApplicationsdevelopedusingtheOpenSocialAPIwillbeabletohavemorerapidandwidespreaddeploy-mentonallofthesitesthatsupporttheAPI.Amajorproblemfacingapplicationdevelopersforsocialnetworkingplatformsisthatitisverydifficulttopredictthepopularityandlifespanofapplications.Figure1showsthatmostapplicationsonFacebookareveryunpopular;ofthe15,036applicationsthatwehaddataforonApril21,2008,13,838(92%)hadlessthanonethousandactiveusers,com-paredtothetop3applicationsthathadoveronemillionac-tiveusers.Weexpectasimilartrendtoexistforapplicationsinanenterprise.AflexibleITinfrastructuretosupportap-plicationsinacosteffectiveandscalablemannerisneeded.Figure1.Dailyactiveusersvs.rankofFace-bookapplications.3.RequirementsandConcernsofEnterprisesWeconsidertherequirementsofenterprisesfromthreedifferentperspectives;CXOs(i.e.,companyexecutives),employeesandITorganizations.CXOshaveavarietyofgoalsthatdirectlyaffectthewaytheirITinfrastructureismanaged.Thesegoalscouldincludethingssuchas“reducecosts”,“increasebusinessflexibility”and/or“providebusi-nesscontinuity”.CXOsareconcernedaboutsecurityandrisk.Theyregarddataasasignificantassetofthecompanyanddonotwantthatinformationsharedwiththeworld.Attheoppositeendofthespectrum,employeeswantaneasilyaccessibleandcompletesetoftoolsthatenablesthemtomoreeffectivelydotheirjobs.MembersofgenerationYarethenewenterpriseemployees.TheygrewupwiththeInternetandarequitefamiliarwithsocialnetworkingtechnologies.Useofthesetechnologiesinenterprisewouldthereforebeveryappealingtothisnewworkforce.InthemiddleisthecorporateITorganization,whichmusttrytosupportthisconflictingsetofrequirements.Acom-monapproachtodayistomaketheITinfrastructure(includ-ingapplications)verystaticandcontrolled.Thishelpsre-ducecost(theeasiestgoaltomeasure),butcanlimitflexi-bilityandrestrictthetoolsavailabletousers.MuchofITinfrastructureisunderutilizedmuchofthetime.Methodstoconsolidateandmakemoreefficientuseofresourcesarealwaysbeingsought.EnablingbusinesscontinuityrequiresthemaintenanceoflegacyapplicationswhicharetypicallynoteasilyadaptedtonewerandmoreefficientITmanage-mentapproaches.Whilemanynewtechnologiesareemerg-ing,enterprisesaremoreconservativethanconsumers.Theyneedslowermigrationpathsintheadoptionofnewtechnolo-gies.Enterprisesalsohavemanyconcernswhenitcomestoadoptinggeneralconsumersocialnetworkingplatforms.Adoptionofsuchplatformshasbeenlimitedinenterpriseduetothelackofaprofessionalfeel,securityconcerns,andaccesstoapplicationsthatsofar,aretypicallymoreofadis-tractionthanbenefittotheworkplace.Thelifecycleofappli-cationsismoredynamicandlesspredictablethanenterprisesareusedtodealingwith.Furthermore,applicationscanbedevelopedandsharedbyanybodysoconcernsoverwhocon-tinuestosupportandupdateapplicationsbecomesanissue.Enterpriseshavetypicallyhadagreatdealofcontrolovertheapplicationenvironmentprovidedtoemployees.Therearemanysocialnetworkingtools,suchasHud-dle[10],LinkedIn[13]andVisiblePath[21],thathavebeendevelopedwithenterpriseusersinmind.However,mostfocusonnetworking,collaboratingand/orsharinginforma-tionandnotonprovidingaplatformforaccessingapplica-tions.TherecentreleaseoftheOpenSocialAPIbasedIntel-ligentApplicationsPlatform[14]forLinkedIncouldchangethis.Therehavealsobeensomeeffortstomakesomeofthegeneralpurposesocialnetworkingtoolsmoreappropri-ateforenterprise.HuddlehasaFacebookapplicationcalledWorkspaces[11]andWorkLighthasaFacebookapplicationcalledWorkBook[22],bothaimedatenablingmoresecureuseofFacebookinanenterprisesetting.Wearguethatitisimportanttoidentifymethodsthatmakeusefulapplicationsandservicesmoreaccessibletoemployees(toimproveproductivity),enablemorerapidde-ploymentanddynamicconfigurationoftheseservices(toin-creaseflexibility),whileallowingITorganizationstoretainorincreasecontrolovertheinfrastructuretheymanage(tomaintaincostaccountability).Solvingtheseissuescouldre-shapehowcomputingisdonewithinenterprises.285285285287Authorizedlicenseduselimitedto:XIDIANUNIVERSITY.DownloadedonDecember4,2008at23:26fromIEEEXplore.Restrictionsapply.4.ITModelInthissectionwefirstexplaininmoredetailourproposedITmodelforaccessingandhostingapplicationsforenter-prises.Wethendiscussthebenefitsthatthisapproachwillhaveforenterpriseemployees,ITorganizationsandCXOs.Finally,wediscusssomerelatedeffortstoourproposedap-proach.4.1.ProposedApproachFigure2showsadiagramofourproposedITmodel.Itisbasedontheuseofanumberofexistingtechnologies,thecombinationofwhichprovidesthepotentialforarevolution-aryimprovementinenterpriseIT.A1A2AnA1A1A2A1A2A4A7AnCOSCOSCOSCOSBOSBOSDOSAOSAOShypervisorAOShypervisorAOShypervisorAOShypervisorPhysicalAppliancesNodesVirtualApplicationsSocialNetworkingPlatformUsersFigure2.ProposedITmodel.OntheusersideweproposetheuseofaFacebook-likesocialnetworkingplatformthatismoretailoredtoenterpriseuse.Employeeswouldbeabletosearch,accessanduseapplications,sharedocumentsandotherimportantinforma-tion,andmaintain/establishcontactwithotheremployees.Althoughsomeenterprisesuseportalsthatsupportsomeofthesefunctionalities,thesocialnetworkingaspectsarelargelylacking,aswellasthesimplifiedinterfaceto(legacy)applications,theself/grouphelpcapabilities,etc.Werealizethatitmaynotbepossibleorappropriatetohaveallappli-cationsaccessiblefromthesocialnetworkingplatformini-tially.Thegoalwouldbetofirstmigratesimple,non-criticalapplicationstothisenvironment.Overtime,additionalandmorecriticalapplicationscouldbeadded.OntheITmanagementside,weproposethatapplica-tionsbehostedwiththeaidofcloudcomputingtechnolo-gies.ThesetechnologiesareaimedatscalablehostingofservicesintheInternet“cloud”transparenttotheknowl-edgeoftheuser.ExamplecloudcomputingofferingsincludeAmazonWebServices(AWS)[1]andSunMicrosystems’Network.com[20].Bothenablecomputingpowertobepur-chasedonanon-demandbasis,withtheabilitytoeasilyscaleservicesupordownasneeded.Thisenablesapplicationstobesupportedwithouttheneedtohaveanexistinginfrastruc-tureandhelpsaddresstheapplicationpopularityproblem.Thegrandvisionofcloudcomputingisthatallapplica-tionswillbesupportedremotely,andaccessedondemandfromtheInternet.However,fortheforeseeablefuture,manyenterpriseswillbereluctanttorelinquishthatdegreeofcon-trolovertheirbusiness.Instead,weproposethatan“inter-nalcloud”modelbefollowed,allowingenterprisestoretaincontrol,butatthesametimeplacethemonthepaththatwouldfacilitatesimplemigrationtoselectedInternet-basedcloudservices.Theinternalcloudwouldbemaintainedasastaticandhomogeneoussetofphysicalresources.ApplicationswouldbepackagedinVirtualAppliancesthatcouldbedynamicallylaunchedtoscaleappropriatelytothedemandsofpopularandnotsopopularapplications.AVirtualApplianceisthecombinationofavirtualmachine,customoperatingsystemandapplicationintoasingleimage.Virtualmachinetechnologiesareemployedincloudcom-putingsolutionssuchasAWS.Theymakeitpossibleforasinglephysicalmachinetobetransformedintomultiplevir-tualmachineswhichcaneachbecustomizedwiththeirownspecializedandstreamlinedoperatingsystemandapplica-tionsoftware.Theuseofvirtualmachinetechnologiespro-videsmanyadvantages.Theyallowformoreefficientuseofresourcesaidinginresourceconsolidation.Theyalsoallowheterogeneousservicestobesupportedinasinglephysicalenvironment.Furthermore,checkpointingandmigrationca-pabilitiesallowmovementofvirtualresourcesamongthephysicalnodesofadatacentreenablingtheaccommoda-tionofnewservicerequests,systemmaintenancewithoutdisruptingservicesandbalancingofworkloadamongdatacentrenodes.SocialnetworkingplatformslikeFacebookallowany-bodytodevelopandshareapplications.Thisisincon-trasttothecurrentITmodelwheretheITorganizationisveryrestrictiveintheapplicationsthataremadeavailabletoemployeesandwhotheyaredevelopedby.WiththeopenmodellikeFacebookabigconcernforITorganizationswouldbehowandbywhomapplicationscontinuetobesup-portedandupgraded.Weproposeamodelsomewhereinbe-tweenthesetwothatbalancestheneedforincreasedchoicebyusersandcontrolbytheITorganization.Ideally,developersofapplicationswouldprovidepre-packagedVirtualApplianceswiththeapplicationsandre-latedcomponents,aswellastheinterfaceforaccessingtheapplicationviathesocialnetworkingplatform.Thismaynotbepossibleinitially,orforlegacyapplicationsthatnolongerhavedevelopmentsupport.TheITorganizationorathirdpartycouldberesponsibleforcreatingandmaintain-ingVirtualAppliancesfortheseapplications.Withmini-malefforttheseapplicationscouldbemadeaccessibleviathesocialnetworkingplatformasis(i.e.,usingexistinguserinterfaces)byrunningadesktopsharingprogramsuchasVNC[18]intheVirtualAppliance.Userscouldbeprovided286286286288Authorizedlicenseduselimitedto:XIDIANUNIVERSITY.DownloadedonDecember4,2008at23:26fromIEEEXplore.Restrictionsapply.accesstotheVNCsessionandalsoprovidedwithadditionalfeaturestoenableeasieruseoftheapplication.4.2.BenefitsforEmployeesManagementofapplicationsandITinfrastructureaspro-posedinthispapercouldprovidemanybenefitstoemploy-ees.First,theuseofasocialnetworkingplatformwillen-ablesimpleruseofapplications.Employeeswillbepro-videdwithasimpleandintuitiveinterfaceforaccessingap-plications,includinglegacyapplications.Allapplicationswillbeaccessiblewithasimilar“lookandfeel”inasingleintegratedenvironment.Thetechnicaldetailsofwheretheapplicationisrunningandhowitisaccessedwillbetrans-parenttotheemployee.Notonlyshoulditreducethetimeandeffortforanemployeetolearnhowtouseanapplication,butitmayenableemployeestobecomfortableinutilizingamuchlargernumberofapplicationsthantheytraditionallydo.Employeeswillalsobeabletoshareexperiencestheyhavehadwithapplications,ratethemandlearnfromothers.Second,exploitingsocialnetworkingfeatureswillenableemployeestoleverageknowledge/expertisealreadyintheenterprise,inassimpleawayaspossible.Theywillbeabletomoreeasilyfindandcollaboratewithotheremployeesthathavesimilarexpertise,areworkingonsimilarproblems,orthathavetheexpertisetheyneedtoaidinthecompletionofatask.Theywillbeabletomoreeasilysharedocuments,presentations,eventsandotherinformation.Thiswillpro-videemployeeswithextrasourcesofknowledgeandallowthemtobuildonwhatothershavedone.Itwillhelpthemtobebetterawareofwhatisgoingoninthecompanyandhelpimprovetheirproductivity.4.3.BenefitsforITOrganizationITorganizationswillalsogreatlybenefitfromadoptionoftheapproachproposedinthispaper.First,theapproachaidsinmoreefficientuseofresourceswhichcouldhelptosignifi-cantlyreduceinfrastructurecosts.Insteadofestablishingtherequiredinfrastructureforeachapplicationseparately,whichcanresultinmanyunderutilizedresources,allapplicationscansharethesameinfrastructure.Theenvironmentisdy-namicandflexible;itcanquicklyscaleapplicationsbasedondemand.Applicationsthatareinhighdemandcanbeal-locatedalargenumberofresourcesandapplicationsthatarenotpopularcanconsumelittleornoresources.Second,theapproachallowsITtomaintaincontroloftheinfrastructurewhileavoidingtheneedtomanageoper-atingsystems.Instead,ITwouldberesponsibleformain-tainingtheunderlyingphysicalinfrastructureandhypervi-sorsonwhichtheVirtualApplianceswillrun.Thiswillbearelativelystatic,homogeneousenvironment,withdynam-icsandheterogeneitypushedupintothevirtualizedenviron-ment.VirtualAppliancescouldautomaticallyregisterwithamanagementservice,enablingITtoensuretheappliancesareupdated(i.e.,patched)appropriately.ThiswoulddiffersubstantiallyfrompatchingofoperatingsystemshandledbyITtoday,asthedevelopersoftheapplications,notIT,wouldberesponsibleforensuringthepatchesworkedbeforede-ployingthemtotheITinfrastructure.Thiscoulddramati-callyreducesupportcostsforIT.Testingwouldalsobesim-plified,asthedevelopersonlyneedtotestonthespecificapplianceplatformthattheyuse.4.4.BenefitsforCXOsDuetothenumerousanticipatedbenefitstoemployeesandtheITorganization,weexpectthatCXOswouldalsoseemanybenefits.Withsimplifiedaccesstoawidervarietyofapplicationsproductivityofemployeescouldbeincreased(notdecreased,asiscommonlyfeared).ThemoreefficientmannerinwhichITinfrastructureisbeingmanagedwillal-lowcoststobereduced,businessflexibilityincreasedandbusinesscontinuitysupportedallatthesametime.AstheinfrastructureiskeptincontrolbytheITorganization,secu-rityandprotectionofvaluabledataismaintained.4.5.RelatedEffortsInthegeneralconsumerandacademicareas,thereareseveralrelatedeffortsthatcombineasocialnetworkingplat-formwithcloudcomputinginfrastructures.Asfarasweknow,therearenosimilareffortsbeingundertakenforen-terprise.Amazon
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