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Facebook Meets the Virtualized Enterprise.pdf

Facebook Meets the Virtualized …

上传者: llyy 2011-06-26 评分1 评论0 下载7 收藏0 阅读量98 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Facebook Meets the Virtualized Enterprisepdf》,可适用于IT书籍领域,主题内容包含FacebookMeetstheVirtualizedEnterpriseRogerCurry,CameronKiddle,NaydenMarkat符等。

FacebookMeetstheVirtualizedEnterpriseRogerCurry,CameronKiddle,NaydenMarkatchev,RobSimmondsandTingxiTanGridResearchCentre,UniversityofCalgaryCalgary,Alberta,Canada{curry,kiddlec,nayden,simmonds,txtan}cpscucalgarycaMartinArlittandBruceWalkerHPLabs,PaloAlto,USA{martinarlitt,brucewalker}hpcomAbstract“Web”and“cloudcomputing”arerevolutionizingthewayITinfrastructureisaccessedandmanagedWebtechnologiessuchasblogs,wikisandsocialnetworkingplatformsprovideInternetuserswitheasiermechanismstoproduceWebcontentandtointeractwitheachotherCloudcomputingtechnologiesareaimedatrunningapplicationsasservicesovertheInternetonascalableinfrastructureInthispaperweexploretheadvantagesofusingWebandcloudcomputingtechnologiesinanenterprisesettingtoprovideemployeeswithacomprehensiveandtransparentenvironmentforutilizingapplicationsTodemonstratetheeffectivenessofthisapproachwehavedevelopedanenvironmentthatusesasocialnetworkingplatformtoprovideaccesstoalegacyapplicationTheapplicationishostedonaninternalcloudcomputinginfrastructurethatadaptsdynamicallytouserdemandsInitialfeedbacksuggeststhisapproachprovidesanimproveduserexperiencewhilesimplifyingmanagementandincreasingeffectiveutilizationoftheunderlyingITresourcesIntroductionThe“Web”erahasbroughtustechnologiessuchasblogs,wikisandsocialnetworkingplatformsThesetechnologiesprovideusersmorefeaturerichenvironments,makeiteasierforuserstogenerateandshareWebcontent,andincreaseonlinesocialconnectivityThepopularityofsocialnetworkingsitessuchasFacebookisaclearindicationoftheperceivedvalueofthesetechnologiesWebelievethatanimproveduserexperiencewouldalsobebeneficialinanenterprisesetting,asitwouldmaketasksmoreenjoyableandlesstimeconsumingItwouldlikelyalsoappealtothenewgenerationofenterpriseemployees,whoareintimatelyfamiliarwiththeWebexperienceHowever,suchtechnologieshavenotbeenwidelyadoptedinenterprisesduetoconcernsoversecurity,productivityandsuitabilityintheworkplaceInfact,manybusinessesblockemployeesfromusingsocialnetworkingsitesattheworkplaceThepurposeofthispaperisto()examinethelessonswehavelearnedfromtheWebera,()articulatetheneedsofenterprisesand()recommendanITmodelthatmergesthetwoinanacceptablemannerWehaveimplementedademonstratortoillustratethepotentialbenefitstoenterprisesoftheapproachwearerecommendingTheremainderofthepaperisorganizedasfollowsSectiondescribeslessonswehavelearnedfromtheWeberaandSectionexaminestheITrequirementsofenterprisesOurproposedITmodel,whichleveragesthebenefitsofWebwhileaddressingtheneedsofenterprises,ispresentedinSectionSectionintroducesourdemonstrator,whichhighlightstheutilityofourapproachWeconcludeourpaperinSection,withasummaryofourworkandfuturedirectionsAmoredetailedreportofthisworkisprovidedinLessonsLearnedfromWebInthepastfewyears,the“Web”wavehasprovidednew,simplewaysforuserstocreateandsharecontentorapplications,andcommunicatewithoneanotherThesecapabilitieshavebeenenabledbytoolssuchasblogs,wikis,andsocialnetworkingplatformsOurparticularinterestisinonlinesocialnetworkingSitessuchasFacebookandMySpacehavebecomeextremelypopularwithInternetusers,inpartbecauseofthesimplifiedinterfacestheyprovidetodesiredcapabilitiesSimpleyetpowerfulinterfacesareextremelyvaluableastheymakethepowerofITaccessibletoalmosteveryone,withlittleornotrainingrequiredThe“Web”wavehasalsobroughtusers“choice”ofapplicationsAmongsocialnetworkingsites,FacebookwasthefirsttoreleaseanapplicationdevelopmentplatforminMayTheFacebookPlatformprovidesanAPIthatallowsthirdpartyapplicationstobeintegratedintoFacebookthInternationalIEEEEnterpriseDistributedObjectComputingConference$IEEEDOIEDOCthInternationalIEEEEnterpriseDistributedObjectComputingConference$IEEEDOIEDOCthInternationalIEEEEnterpriseDistributedObjectComputingConference$IEEEDOIEDOCthInternationalIEEEEnterpriseDistributedObjectComputingConference$IEEEDOIEDOCAuthorizedlicenseduselimitedto:XIDIANUNIVERSITYDownloadedonDecember,at:fromIEEEXploreRestrictionsapplyUsersareeasilyabletoaccessandsharealargevarietyofapplicationsBySeptemberoftherewereover,applicationsandasofAprilthisnumberhasincreasedtoover,Consumerslikechoiceofapplicationsasitenablesthemtopersonalizetheirexperience,withoutrequiringapplicationproviderstodoextraworkAsanindicationoftheperceivedvalueofanapplicationdevelopmentplatform,othersocialnetworkingsites,suchasMySpaceandhi,havefollowedsuitMySpaceandhiusetheOpenSocialAPIbeingdevelopedbyGoogleThisisincontrasttotheproprietaryplatformbeingusedbyFacebookApplicationsdevelopedusingtheOpenSocialAPIwillbeabletohavemorerapidandwidespreaddeploymentonallofthesitesthatsupporttheAPIAmajorproblemfacingapplicationdevelopersforsocialnetworkingplatformsisthatitisverydifficulttopredictthepopularityandlifespanofapplicationsFigureshowsthatmostapplicationsonFacebookareveryunpopularofthe,applicationsthatwehaddataforonApril,,,()hadlessthanonethousandactiveusers,comparedtothetopapplicationsthathadoveronemillionactiveusersWeexpectasimilartrendtoexistforapplicationsinanenterpriseAflexibleITinfrastructuretosupportapplicationsinacosteffectiveandscalablemannerisneededFigureDailyactiveusersvsrankofFacebookapplicationsRequirementsandConcernsofEnterprisesWeconsidertherequirementsofenterprisesfromthreedifferentperspectivesCXOs(ie,companyexecutives),employeesandITorganizationsCXOshaveavarietyofgoalsthatdirectlyaffectthewaytheirITinfrastructureismanagedThesegoalscouldincludethingssuchas“reducecosts”,“increasebusinessflexibility”andor“providebusinesscontinuity”CXOsareconcernedaboutsecurityandriskTheyregarddataasasignificantassetofthecompanyanddonotwantthatinformationsharedwiththeworldAttheoppositeendofthespectrum,employeeswantaneasilyaccessibleandcompletesetoftoolsthatenablesthemtomoreeffectivelydotheirjobsMembersofgenerationYarethenewenterpriseemployeesTheygrewupwiththeInternetandarequitefamiliarwithsocialnetworkingtechnologiesUseofthesetechnologiesinenterprisewouldthereforebeveryappealingtothisnewworkforceInthemiddleisthecorporateITorganization,whichmusttrytosupportthisconflictingsetofrequirementsAcommonapproachtodayistomaketheITinfrastructure(includingapplications)verystaticandcontrolledThishelpsreducecost(theeasiestgoaltomeasure),butcanlimitflexibilityandrestrictthetoolsavailabletousersMuchofITinfrastructureisunderutilizedmuchofthetimeMethodstoconsolidateandmakemoreefficientuseofresourcesarealwaysbeingsoughtEnablingbusinesscontinuityrequiresthemaintenanceoflegacyapplicationswhicharetypicallynoteasilyadaptedtonewerandmoreefficientITmanagementapproachesWhilemanynewtechnologiesareemerging,enterprisesaremoreconservativethanconsumersTheyneedslowermigrationpathsintheadoptionofnewtechnologiesEnterprisesalsohavemanyconcernswhenitcomestoadoptinggeneralconsumersocialnetworkingplatformsAdoptionofsuchplatformshasbeenlimitedinenterpriseduetothelackofaprofessionalfeel,securityconcerns,andaccesstoapplicationsthatsofar,aretypicallymoreofadistractionthanbenefittotheworkplaceThelifecycleofapplicationsismoredynamicandlesspredictablethanenterprisesareusedtodealingwithFurthermore,applicationscanbedevelopedandsharedbyanybodysoconcernsoverwhocontinuestosupportandupdateapplicationsbecomesanissueEnterpriseshavetypicallyhadagreatdealofcontrolovertheapplicationenvironmentprovidedtoemployeesTherearemanysocialnetworkingtools,suchasHuddle,LinkedInandVisiblePath,thathavebeendevelopedwithenterpriseusersinmindHowever,mostfocusonnetworking,collaboratingandorsharinginformationandnotonprovidingaplatformforaccessingapplicationsTherecentreleaseoftheOpenSocialAPIbasedIntelligentApplicationsPlatformforLinkedIncouldchangethisTherehavealsobeensomeeffortstomakesomeofthegeneralpurposesocialnetworkingtoolsmoreappropriateforenterpriseHuddlehasaFacebookapplicationcalledWorkspacesandWorkLighthasaFacebookapplicationcalledWorkBook,bothaimedatenablingmoresecureuseofFacebookinanenterprisesettingWearguethatitisimportanttoidentifymethodsthatmakeusefulapplicationsandservicesmoreaccessibletoemployees(toimproveproductivity),enablemorerapiddeploymentanddynamicconfigurationoftheseservices(toincreaseflexibility),whileallowingITorganizationstoretainorincreasecontrolovertheinfrastructuretheymanage(tomaintaincostaccountability)SolvingtheseissuescouldreshapehowcomputingisdonewithinenterprisesAuthorizedlicenseduselimitedto:XIDIANUNIVERSITYDownloadedonDecember,at:fromIEEEXploreRestrictionsapplyITModelInthissectionwefirstexplaininmoredetailourproposedITmodelforaccessingandhostingapplicationsforenterprisesWethendiscussthebenefitsthatthisapproachwillhaveforenterpriseemployees,ITorganizationsandCXOsFinally,wediscusssomerelatedeffortstoourproposedapproachProposedApproachFigureshowsadiagramofourproposedITmodelItisbasedontheuseofanumberofexistingtechnologies,thecombinationofwhichprovidesthepotentialforarevolutionaryimprovementinenterpriseITAAAnAAAAAAAAnCOSCOSCOSCOSBOSBOSDOSAOSAOShypervisorAOShypervisorAOShypervisorAOShypervisorPhysicalAppliancesNodesVirtualApplicationsSocialNetworkingPlatformUsersFigureProposedITmodelOntheusersideweproposetheuseofaFacebooklikesocialnetworkingplatformthatismoretailoredtoenterpriseuseEmployeeswouldbeabletosearch,accessanduseapplications,sharedocumentsandotherimportantinformation,andmaintainestablishcontactwithotheremployeesAlthoughsomeenterprisesuseportalsthatsupportsomeofthesefunctionalities,thesocialnetworkingaspectsarelargelylacking,aswellasthesimplifiedinterfaceto(legacy)applications,theselfgrouphelpcapabilities,etcWerealizethatitmaynotbepossibleorappropriatetohaveallapplicationsaccessiblefromthesocialnetworkingplatforminitiallyThegoalwouldbetofirstmigratesimple,noncriticalapplicationstothisenvironmentOvertime,additionalandmorecriticalapplicationscouldbeaddedOntheITmanagementside,weproposethatapplicationsbehostedwiththeaidofcloudcomputingtechnologiesThesetechnologiesareaimedatscalablehostingofservicesintheInternet“cloud”transparenttotheknowledgeoftheuserExamplecloudcomputingofferingsincludeAmazonWebServices(AWS)andSunMicrosystems’NetworkcomBothenablecomputingpowertobepurchasedonanondemandbasis,withtheabilitytoeasilyscaleservicesupordownasneededThisenablesapplicationstobesupportedwithouttheneedtohaveanexistinginfrastructureandhelpsaddresstheapplicationpopularityproblemThegrandvisionofcloudcomputingisthatallapplicationswillbesupportedremotely,andaccessedondemandfromtheInternetHowever,fortheforeseeablefuture,manyenterpriseswillbereluctanttorelinquishthatdegreeofcontrolovertheirbusinessInstead,weproposethatan“internalcloud”modelbefollowed,allowingenterprisestoretaincontrol,butatthesametimeplacethemonthepaththatwouldfacilitatesimplemigrationtoselectedInternetbasedcloudservicesTheinternalcloudwouldbemaintainedasastaticandhomogeneoussetofphysicalresourcesApplicationswouldbepackagedinVirtualAppliancesthatcouldbedynamicallylaunchedtoscaleappropriatelytothedemandsofpopularandnotsopopularapplicationsAVirtualApplianceisthecombinationofavirtualmachine,customoperatingsystemandapplicationintoasingleimageVirtualmachinetechnologiesareemployedincloudcomputingsolutionssuchasAWSTheymakeitpossibleforasinglephysicalmachinetobetransformedintomultiplevirtualmachineswhichcaneachbecustomizedwiththeirownspecializedandstreamlinedoperatingsystemandapplicationsoftwareTheuseofvirtualmachinetechnologiesprovidesmanyadvantagesTheyallowformoreefficientuseofresourcesaidinginresourceconsolidationTheyalsoallowheterogeneousservicestobesupportedinasinglephysicalenvironmentFurthermore,checkpointingandmigrationcapabilitiesallowmovementofvirtualresourcesamongthephysicalnodesofadatacentreenablingtheaccommodationofnewservicerequests,systemmaintenancewithoutdisruptingservicesandbalancingofworkloadamongdatacentrenodesSocialnetworkingplatformslikeFacebookallowanybodytodevelopandshareapplicationsThisisincontrasttothecurrentITmodelwheretheITorganizationisveryrestrictiveintheapplicationsthataremadeavailabletoemployeesandwhotheyaredevelopedbyWiththeopenmodellikeFacebookabigconcernforITorganizationswouldbehowandbywhomapplicationscontinuetobesupportedandupgradedWeproposeamodelsomewhereinbetweenthesetwothatbalancestheneedforincreasedchoicebyusersandcontrolbytheITorganizationIdeally,developersofapplicationswouldprovideprepackagedVirtualApplianceswiththeapplicationsandrelatedcomponents,aswellastheinterfaceforaccessingtheapplicationviathesocialnetworkingplatformThismaynotbepossibleinitially,orforlegacyapplicationsthatnolongerhavedevelopmentsupportTheITorganizationorathirdpartycouldberesponsibleforcreatingandmaintainingVirtualAppliancesfortheseapplicationsWithminimalefforttheseapplicationscouldbemadeaccessibleviathesocialnetworkingplatformasis(ie,usingexistinguserinterfaces)byrunningadesktopsharingprogramsuchasVNCintheVirtualApplianceUserscouldbeprovidedAuthorizedlicenseduselimitedto:XIDIANUNIVERSITYDownloadedonDecember,at:fromIEEEXploreRestrictionsapplyaccesstotheVNCsessionandalsoprovidedwithadditionalfeaturestoenableeasieruseoftheapplicationBenefitsforEmployeesManagementofapplicationsandITinfrastructureasproposedinthispapercouldprovidemanybenefitstoemployeesFirst,theuseofasocialnetworkingplatformwillenablesimpleruseofapplicationsEmployeeswillbeprovidedwithasimpleandintuitiveinterfaceforaccessingapplications,includinglegacyapplicationsAllapplicationswillbeaccessiblewithasimilar“lookandfeel”inasingleintegratedenvironmentThetechnicaldetailsofwheretheapplicationisrunningandhowitisaccessedwillbetransparenttotheemployeeNotonlyshoulditreducethetimeandeffortforanemployeetolearnhowtouseanapplication,butitmayenableemployeestobecomfortableinutilizingamuchlargernumberofapplicationsthantheytraditionallydoEmployeeswillalsobeabletoshareexperiencestheyhavehadwithapplications,ratethemandlearnfromothersSecond,exploitingsocialnetworkingfeatureswillenableemployeestoleverageknowledgeexpertisealreadyintheenterprise,inassimpleawayaspossibleTheywillbeabletomoreeasilyfindandcollaboratewithotheremployeesthathavesimilarexpertise,areworkingonsimilarproblems,orthathavetheexpertisetheyneedtoaidinthecompletionofataskTheywillbeabletomoreeasilysharedocuments,presentations,eventsandotherinformationThiswillprovideemployeeswithextrasourcesofknowledgeandallowthemtobuildonwhatothershavedoneItwillhelpthemtobebetterawareofwhatisgoingoninthecompanyandhelpimprovetheirproductivityBenefitsforITOrganizationITorganizationswillalsogreatlybenefitfromadoptionoftheapproachproposedinthispaperFirst,theapproachaidsinmoreefficientuseofresourceswhichcouldhelptosignificantlyreduceinfrastructurecostsInsteadofestablishingtherequiredinfrastructureforeachapplicationseparately,whichcanresultinmanyunderutilizedresources,allapplicationscansharethesameinfrastructureTheenvironmentisdynamicandflexibleitcanquicklyscaleapplicationsbasedondemandApplicationsthatareinhighdemandcanbeallocatedalargenumberofresourcesandapplicationsthatarenotpopularcanconsumelittleornoresourcesSecond,theapproachallowsITtomaintaincontroloftheinfrastructurewhileavoidingtheneedtomanageoperatingsystemsInstead,ITwouldberesponsibleformaintainingtheunderlyingphysicalinfrastructureandhypervisorsonwhichtheVirtualApplianceswillrunThiswillbearelativelystatic,homogeneousenvironment,withdynamicsandheterogeneitypushedupintothevirtualizedenvironmentVirtualAppliancescouldautomaticallyregisterwithamanagementservice,enablingITtoensuretheappliancesareupdated(ie,patched)appropriatelyThiswoulddiffersubstantiallyfrompatchingofoperatingsystemshandledbyITtoday,asthedevelopersoftheapplications,notIT,wouldberesponsibleforensuringthepatchesworkedbeforedeployingthemtotheITinfrastructureThiscoulddramaticallyreducesupportcostsforITTestingwouldalsobesimplified,asthedevelopersonlyneedtotestonthespecificapplianceplatformthattheyuseBenefitsforCXOsDuetothenumerousanticipatedbenefitstoemployeesandtheITorganization,weexpectthatCXOswouldalsoseemanybenefitsWithsimplifiedaccesstoawidervarietyofapplicationsproductivityofemployeescouldbeincreased(notdecreased,asiscommonlyfeared)ThemoreefficientmannerinwhichITinfrastructureisbeingmanagedwillallowcoststobereduced,businessflexibilityincreasedandbusinesscontinuitysupportedallatthesametimeAstheinfrastructureiskeptincontrolbytheITorganization,securityandprotectionofvaluabledataismaintainedRelatedEffortsInthegeneralconsumerandacademicareas,thereareseveralrelatedeffortsthatcombineasocialnetworkingplatformwithcloudcomputinginfrastructuresAsfarasweknow,therearenosimilareffortsbeingundertakenforenterpriseAmazon

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