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首页 土木工程专业毕业设计外文翻译(混凝土)

土木工程专业毕业设计外文翻译(混凝土).doc

土木工程专业毕业设计外文翻译(混凝土)

camen
2011-06-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《土木工程专业毕业设计外文翻译(混凝土)doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

roductionandpreventionandcureofthecrackofskyscraperAlongwiththespeedingoftownhouseconstructionstep,notafewareaswithsmallresidencessetuponeafteranother,manyinhabitantsmovecontinuouslyintothenewresidence,theirqualitytohousingrequestismoreandmorehigh,particularlypayattentiontoverymuchtosomecrackscircumstanceswhichsprinklebuildingplanktoappearnow,worrythesecracks'aringendwillcauseinsecuritytrouble,butinsuccessiontobuildingqualitydirectthesectionhurltellSuchasoncethesomecitydevelopacompanytosetuplayersoffloorresidencetotally,constructingareaabout,squaremeters,thebrickmixsstructure,thebeginningrepairs,onestepsboxoffwiththebrickwall,eachone'sestablishingaturnofbeamtogetherbuildingplankistogetherwholetosprinkle,theplankthickmms,concretemarknumberisC,houselongaboutwithms,don'testablishflexiblesew,firstflooristhemgaragelayer,theCreinforcingbarcageofthefoundationadoptioninfusestonoteastakeIt'ssmallarea'sturntocompleteworkinOctober,,finishingconstructionacceptance,didn'tdiscoverobviouscrack,discoverthebuildingplankappearscrackwhentheinhabitantrepair,pastjointlytoqualitydirectthesectionhurltell,throughsteptoseeonthespot,housesallexistthedepthdifferentcrackThecrackwidthisbetweenthemmsmmsses,thegreatmajorityofthecrackpositionisplacedinplankfourCapes,thedynastysunismoreobviousHence,theSuperintendentofficeofqualityconcerned,sinkingtodeclinequantityandinclinationdegreetocarryonareexaminationtothehousefirst,resultallinallowthescope,againlookintoconstructiondiagrampapertoalsomatchtorequestconcerningthenormOwingtoabovementionedcircumstance,passbyhardanalytical,theconfirmationcrackreasonhasthefollowingwhattime:,causenowmainreasonofsprinklingtheplankcrackistheconstringencyofconcrete,theconcreteisinthenaturethehardeningtheprocess,becausewaterevaporatescontinuously,butthephysicalvolumegradualconstringency,buttheplankisonallsidestobesubjectedtoastipulationof,can'tflexfreely,sowhentheconstringencyofconcretecausetosprinkleknotholestipulationnowshouldthedintexceedcertainlimit,certanlywillcausetosprinkleplanktoopencracknowAndthecrackparttakeplacemuchatshouldthedintmoreconcentratedCapeintheplaceplank,butismutuallyperpendicularwiththeOvercastanglelineofwall,constructtooearlyonthecastinplaceboard,addandcarryonone'sshoulderorbackthecrackcaused"normofinspectionofqualityofstructuralconstructionofconcrete"stipulates,beforetheconcreteintensityreachesNmm,can'ttrampleorinstalltemplateandsupportonitButdeveloper,forraceagainsttime,catchupwithprogress,orconcreteat,congealandcongealstageafterallforthefirsttimestillinwateratthegoodcastinplaceboardjust,takeupthepostofpurposetotrample,carrythematerial,concentrateonpilingupfragmentofbrick,mortar,template,etcPrematureaddingandiscarriedonone'sshoulderorback,hascausedthecrackofcastinplaceboardartificially,thecrackwhichthetemperaturechangecausesAseverybodyknows,thecementcondensesandhardensfastatroomtemperature,thecharacteristicsuchasbeinggreatofheatofhydration,especiallyinsummer,aftertheconcreteisbuilt,thereleaseamountoftheheatofhydrationisgreat,theconcreteisunderthehightemperature,can'tgetandwatermaintenanceintime,anddesiccateandshrink,makeconcretetakeplacedrytosplit,resultinfracturingfinallyInvestigationfindinthemajorityboardcornercrackin,tanbythesuntowardsthefrontdirectlythesun,thehouseiscrossedtoolongtosetuptheessentialexpansionjoint,isthereasonwhichcausesthecracktooThedeveloperisinordertosavetheland,oftentakethelengthofthehouseintoaccount,makethehousewholetoolong,setupexpansionjointeither,becauseoflackessentialexpansionjoint,freedomflexibledegreeinhousereachorexceedshouldsetupintervalthatexpansionjointrequire,,willpresentthecracktoo,theboardisdefeatedbythemuscleandsunkinthecrackproducedInthecourseofconstructing,becauseconstructorsoperatebarbarously,tramplethereinforcingbararbitrarily,causeandshoulderthemuscleandsink,theantiabrasionlayeristoobig,reducethesectionaleffectiveheightoftheboard,makethebearingcapacityoftheboardunabletoreachtherequirementofonesthatdesign,thuscausetheproductionofthecrackofboardEffectiveheight,makethebearingcapacityoftheboardunabletoreachtherequirementofonesthatdesign,thuscausetheproductionofthecrackofboardHowtopreventandcuretheproductionoftheboardcrackofcastinplaceboard,accordingtotheconstructionexperienceformanyyears,offersomefollowingpreventionmeasures,suitableforconsulting:,Dowellcastinplaceboardmaintain,work,guaranteeconcreteintensity,preventandcureimportantlinkthatcrackproduceoneofconscientiouslyThenormstipulates,mustcoverandkeepmaintenancewarminhoursaftertheconcreteisbuiltatroomtemperature,ordinarycementisnolessthandays,iftheonethatignoredtoconcretewateredmaintenance,ononehanditreduceconcreteintensity,ontheotherhanditmakeconcretetobeinthecourseofhardeningtoolatetosupplementthemoisture,thereforelackwaterandproducethecrackinalargeamountSodoagoodjobofwateringmaintenanceofconcrete,canalreadyreducethecrackthattemperatureproduces,canalsoreducethecrackthattheconcreteshrinkandproduce,castinplaceboarddon'tpassmorningpeople,pilematerial,HeShiload,becauseconcretehaveasclerosiscoursebuild,,justhaveintensityInthiscourse,shouldmaintaintheconcrete,can'texertanyexternalforcetotheconcreteInasituationthattheconcretehasnothadcertainintensityyet,concentrateon,pileupconstructionmaterialorpropupmouldstand,restonit,thatbroughtthecastinplaceboardisnotintensitylikethis,butmorecracksSo,mustmakesurethatjustallowtotrampleorinstalltemplateandsupportonitaftertheconcreteintensityreachesNmm,shoulderthicknessofantiabrasionlayerofthemusclethestrictcontrolpanelCastinplaceboardshouldermuscleput,onboard,haveroofbeamaccordingtodesigningrequirementthroughgenerallyputonreinforcingbarofroofbeamorstaywithreinforcingbarlashingofroofbeamcutoff,Forcontrolgoodtoshouldermuscleantiabrasionlayerthickness,mustadoptΦΦreinforcingbarhorsestool,verticalhorizontalintervalmmcomefixedpositiontoshouldermusclefromsidetoside,andwithelectricweldinghorsewithshouldermuscleweldfirmstool,makehorsetobestoolwhiletheconcretebuildsnonwiping,guarantee,shouldermusclesink,control,shouldermusclethicknessofantiabrasionlayereffectively,makeboardshouldermuscleantiabrasionlayercrossthickproducingcracking,controlgoodsand,stoneinafootpathandmudcontentstrictlyThethicksandinthecastinplaceboardshouldbeselectedforuse,astoneoffootpathbetweenmm,themudcontentofgritcan'texceedSand,,stonegrainsoffootpathcarefulandtoolight,mudcontenttoobig,willreduceconcreteintensity,willmaketheconcreteproducethecrackfinally,disposecertainamountsofanglemusclesinfourcornersoftheboard,radiatethemuscleTakeplaceinboardcornerphenomenonthismoretocastinplaceboardcrack,cornersetupΦallaroundinboardThelengthradiatesthemuscleforaboutmm,soastomeetdemandsofanglestressoftheboard,thestresssphereofactionofmakingthecastinplaceboardproducethecrackconformswithradiationmuscle,thuschangeandcontroltheproductionofthecrackeffectivelyforcedconcretestructurereinforcedwithanoverviewReinSincethereformandopeningup,withthenationaleconomy'srapidandsustaineddevelopmentofareinforcedconcretestructurebuilt,reinforcedwiththedevelopmentoftechnologyhasbeengreatTherefore,topromotetheuseofadvancedtechnologyreinforcedconnectingtoimproveprojectqualityandspeedupthepaceofconstruction,improvelaborproductivity,reducecosts,andisofgreatsignificanceReinforcedsteelbarsconnectingtechnologiescanbedividedintotwobroadcategorieslinkingweldingmachineryandsteelTherearesixtypesofweldingsteelweldingmethods,andsomeapplytotheprefabricatedplant,andsomeapplytotheconstructionsite,someofbothapplyTherearethreetypesofmachinerycommonlyusedreinforcementlinkingmethodprimarilyapplicabletotheconstructionsiteWayshasitsowncharacteristicsanddifferentapplication,andinthecontinuousdevelopmentandimprovementInactualproduction,shouldbebasedonspecificconditionsofwork,workingenvironmentandtechnicalrequirements,thechoiceofsuitablemethodstoachievethebestoverallefficiency、steelmechanicallinkradialsqueezelinkWillbeasteelsleeveintwosetstothehighlyreinforcedDepartmentwithsuperhighpressurehydraulicequipment(squeezetongs)alongsteelsleeveradialsqueezesteelcasing,insqueezingouttongssqueezepressureroleofasteelsleeveplasticitydeformationcloselyintegratedwithreinforcedthroughreinforcedsteelsleeveandWangLiang'sPositionwillbetwosolidsteelbarslinkedCharacteristic:Connectintensitytobehigh,performancereliable,canbearhighstressdrawandpigeonholetheloadandtiredloadrepeatedlyEasyandsimpletohandle,constructionfast,saveenergyandmaterial,comprehensiveeconomyprofitable,thismethodhasbeenalreadyalargeamountofapplicationintheprojectApplicablescope:SuitableforⅡ,Ⅲ,Ⅳgradereinforcingbar(includingweldingbadreinforcingbar)withribbingofФmm,connectionbetweenthesamediameterordifferentdiametersreinforcingbar​ mustsqueezelinkExtrudersusedinthecovers,reinforcedaxisalongthecoldmetalsleevesqueezededicatedtoinsertsleeveLanetwohotrollingsteeldrumsintoahighlyintegratedmechanicallinkingmethodsCharacteristic:Easytooperateandjoiningfastandnothavingflamehomework,canconstructforhours,savealargenumberofreinforcingbarsandenergyApplicablescope:Suitablefor,setupaccordingtofirstandsecondclassantidetonationrequirementproofarmoredconcretestructureФⅡ,ⅢgradereinforcingbarwithribbingofhotrollingofmmjoinandconstructliveconethreadconnectingUsingconethreadtobearpulled,pressedbotheffortandselflockingnature,undergogoodprincipleswillbereinforcedbylinkingintoconeprocessingthreadatthemomentthevalueofintegrationintothejointsconnectingsteelbarsCharacteristic:Simple,allrightpreparatorycutofthecraft,connectingfast,concentricityisgood,havepatternpersonwhorestrainfromadvantagereinforcingbarcarboncontentApplicablescope:Suitablefortheconcretestructureoftheindustry,civilbuildingandgeneralstructures,reinforcingbardiameterisforФforthethemmoneⅡ,Ⅲgradeverticality,itistheobliquetoorreinforcingbarshorizontaljoinconstructliveconclusionsThesearenowcommonlyusedtoconnectsteelsynthesismethods,whichlinkstechnologyintheUnitedStates,Britain,JapanandothercountriesarewidelyusedTherearedifferentwaystoconnecttheirdifferentcharacteristicsandscopeoftheactualconstructionofproductiondependingonthespecificprojectchooseasuitablemethodofconnectingtoachievebothenergyconservationandsavingtimelimitforaprojectendsReferences、constructionmanualwritethegroupConstructionmanualBeijing:ChinaConstructionIndustryPress,、JGJreinforcingbarmachineryconnectsthecommontechnicalregulationGBThearmoredconcreteusesthereinforcingbar、GBwithribbingofhotrollingThearmoredconcreteusestheroundreinforcingbarofhotcalendaring现浇楼板裂缝的产生与防治随着城市住宅建设步伐的加快不少住宅小区相继建成许多住户陆续搬进新居他们对住房的质量要求越来越高尤其对一些现浇楼板出现的裂缝情况非常关注担心这些裂缝最终会引发不安全事故而纷纷向建筑质量监督部门投诉。如某市一开发商共建层楼住宅幢建筑面积约万平方米砖混结构初装修一梯二户用砖墙分隔每层设有圈梁同楼板整浇板厚mm混凝土标号为C房屋长约m之间不设伸缩缝底层为m车库层基础采用C钢筋笼灌注桩。该小区于年月完工竣工验收时未发现明显裂缝在住户装修时发现楼板有裂缝出现故联名向质量监督部门投诉经实地踏看幢房屋均存在深浅不一的裂缝。裂缝宽度在mmmm之间裂缝位置绝大多数处在板四角朝阳处更为明显。于是质监部门组织有关单位首先对房屋沉降量和倾斜度进行复查结果都在允许范围内再查看施工图纸也符合有关规范要求。鉴于上述情况经过认真分析确认裂缝原因有以下几点:、引起现浇板裂缝的主要原因是混凝土的收缩因为混凝土在自然硬化过程中由于水份不断蒸发而体积渐渐收缩但板四周受支座的约束不能自由伸缩所以当混凝土的收缩所引起现浇板的约束应力超过一定限度时势必引发现浇板开裂。而且裂缝部位多发生在应力比较集中的地方板角处却与墙阴角线相垂直。、现浇板上过早施工加荷引起的裂缝。《混凝土结构工程施工质量验收规范》规定混凝土强度达到Nmm前不得在其上踩踏或安装模板及支架。但开发商为了抢时间赶进度在刚浇好的现浇板上或混凝土尚处在初凝和终凝阶段就任意踩踏搬运材料集中堆放砖块、砂浆、模板等。过早的加荷人为地造成了现浇板裂缝。、温度变化引起的裂缝。大家知道水泥在常温下具有凝结硬化快水化热大等特点尤其在夏天混凝土浇筑后水化热释放量大混凝土在高温下得不到及时浇水养护而失水收缩使混凝土发生干裂最终导致开裂。调查中发现居多板角裂缝都处在遭受太阳直接曝晒的朝阳面。、房屋过长未设置必要的伸缩缝也是导致裂缝的原因。开发商为了节省土地往往不顾及房屋长度使房屋整体过长也不设置伸缩缝由于缺少必要的伸缩缝当房屋的自由伸缩度达到或超过应设置伸缩缝要求的间距时也会出现裂缝。、板负筋下沉产生的裂缝。在施工过程中由于施工人员野蛮操作任意踩踏钢筋致使负筋下陷保护层过大减少了板截面的有效高度使板的承载能力达不到设计的要求从而导致板裂缝的产生。如何防治现浇板板裂缝的产生根据多年的施工经验提供以下一些防治措施可供参考:、认真做好现浇板养护工作是保证混凝土强度、防治裂缝产生的重要环节之一。规范规定常温下混凝土浇筑后小时内必须覆盖保温养护普通水泥不少于天如果忽视对混凝土的浇水养护一方面会降低混凝土强度另一方面会使混凝土在硬化过程中来不及补充水分因而大量缺水而产生裂缝。所以做好混凝土的浇水养护既可减少温度产生的裂缝也可降低混凝土收缩而产生的裂缝。、现浇板上不要过早上人、堆料、施荷加载因混凝土浇筑后要有一个硬化过程才会有强度在这个过程中应对混凝土加以保养不能对混凝土施加任何外力。如果在混凝土尚未有一定强度的情况下在其上面集中堆放建筑材料或支模立撑这样带给现浇板的不是强度而是更多的裂缝。因此必须做到在混凝土强度达到Nmm以后才允许在其上踩踏或安装模板及支架。、严格控制板面负筋保护层厚度。现浇板负筋按设计要求都放在板上面有梁通过或隔断时一般放置在梁钢筋上面或与梁钢筋绑扎在一起。为了控制好负筋保护层厚度必须采用ΦΦ的钢筋马凳纵横间距mm左右来固定负筋的位置并用电焊把马凳与负筋焊牢使马凳在混凝土浇筑过程中不移位保证负筋不下沉从而有效控制负筋保护层的厚度不使板负筋保护层过厚而产生裂缝。、严格控制好砂、石粒径及含泥量。现浇板应选用中粗砂粒径在mm之间的石子砂石含泥量均不得超过%。如砂、石粒径过细过小含泥量过大都会降低混凝土强度最终会使混凝土产生裂缝。、在板四角配置一定数量的角筋即辐射筋。针对现浇板裂缝多发生在板角这一现象在板角四周增设Φmm长度为mm左右的辐射筋以此来满足板角应力的需要使现浇板产生裂缝的应力作用范围与辐射筋相一致从而有效地改观和控制裂缝的产生。钢筋混凝土结构中钢筋连接综述改革开放以来随着国民经济的快速、持久发展各种钢筋混凝土建筑结构大量建造钢筋连接技术得到很大的发展。因此推广应用先进的钢筋连接技术对于提高工程质量、加快施工速度、提高劳动生产率、降低成本具有十分重要的意义。钢筋连接技术可分为钢筋焊接和钢筋机械连接两大类。钢筋焊接有种焊接方法有的适用于预制厂有的适用于现场施工有的两者都适用。钢筋机械连接常用有种方法主要适用于现场施工。各种方法有其自身特点和不同的适用范围并在不断发展和改进。在实际生产中应根据具体的工作条件、工作环境和技术要求选用合适的方法以期达到最佳的综合效益。、钢筋机械连接 径向挤压连接将一个钢套筒套在两根带肋钢筋的端部用超高压液压设备(挤压钳)沿钢套筒径向挤压钢套管在挤压钳挤压力作用下钢套筒产生塑性变形与钢筋紧密结合通过钢套筒与钢筋横肋的咬合将两根钢筋牢固连接在一起。特点:接头强度高性能可靠能够承受高应力反复拉压载荷及疲劳载荷。操作简便、施工速度快、节约能源和材料、综合经济效益好该方法已在工程中大量应用。适用范围:适用于Ф~mm的Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ级带肋钢筋(包括焊接性差的钢筋)相同直径或不同直径钢筋之间的连接。 轴向挤压连接将两钢筋安放成对接形式利用焊接电流通过两钢筋接触点产生塑性区及均匀的液体金属层迅速施加顶锻力完成的一种压焊方法。特点:操作简单、速度快、无明火作业、可全天候施工节约大量钢筋和能源。适用范围:适用于按一、二级抗震设防要求的钢筋混凝土结构中Ф~mm的Ⅱ、Ⅲ级热轧带肋钢筋现场连接施工。 锥螺纹连接 利用锥螺纹能承受拉、压两种作用力及自锁性、密封性好的原理将钢筋的连接端加工成锥螺纹按规定的力矩值把钢筋连接成一体的接头。利用锥螺纹能承受拉、压两种作用力及自锁性、密封性好的原理将钢筋的连接端加工成锥螺纹按规定的力矩值把钢筋连接成一体的接头。特点:工艺简单可以预加工连接速度快同心度好不受钢筋含碳量和有无花纹限制等优点。适用范围:适用于工业与民用建筑及一般构筑物的混凝土结构中钢筋直径为Ф~mm的Ⅱ、Ⅲ级竖向、斜向或水平钢筋的现场连接施工。以上是对现今常用的钢筋连接方法的综述这些连接技术在美国、英国、日本等国家均得到广泛应用。不同的连接方法有其不同的特点和适用范围在实际施工生产中需视具体工程情况选择合适的连接方法以达到既节约能源又节省工期的目的。

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