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首页 薄冰英语语法

薄冰英语语法.doc

薄冰英语语法

caomantang666
2011-06-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《薄冰英语语法doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

薄冰英语语法第一章  名词 名词可以分为专有名词和普通名词专有名词是某个(些)人地方机构等专有的名称如BeijingChina等。普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的名词如:booksadness等。普通名词又可分为下面四类: )个体名词:表示某类人或东西中的个体如:gun。 )集体名词:表示若干个个体组成的集合体如:family。 )物质名词:表示无法分为个体的实物如:air。 )抽象名词:表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念如:work。个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算称为可数名词物质名词和抽象名词一般无法用数目计算称为不可数名词。归纳一下名词的分类可以下图表示: 名词专有名词不可数名词 普通名词物质名词 抽象名词 集体名词可数名词个体名词  ​ 名词复数的规则变化情况构成方法读音例词一般情况加s清辅音后读smapmaps浊辅音和元音后读zbagbagscarcars以s,sh,ch,x等结尾加es读izbusbuseswatchwatches以ce,se,ze,等结尾加s读izlicenselicenses以辅音字母y结尾变y为i再加es读zbabybabies 其它名词复数的规则变化)以y结尾的专有名词或元音字母y结尾的名词变复数时直接加s变复数。例如:   twoMarys    theHenrys    monkeymonkeys holidayholidays  )以o结尾的名词变复数时:  a加s如:photophotos  pianopianos        radioradios  zoozoos  b加es如:potatopotatoes tomatotomatoes  c上述a和b两种方法均可如zerozeroszeroes。 )以f或fe结尾的名词变复数时:  a加s如:beliefbeliefs roofroofs        safesafes gulfgulfs  b去f,fe加ves如:halfhalves     knifeknives leafleaves wolfwolves   wifewives lifelives thiefthievesc上述a和b两种方法均可如handkerchief:handkerchiefshandkerchieves。 名词复数的不规则变化)childchildren footfeet toothteethmousemice   manmen womanwomen 注意:由一个词加man或woman构成的合成词其复数形式也是men和women如anEnglishmantwoEnglishmen。但German不是合成词故复数形式为GermansBowman是姓其复数是theBowmans。)单复同形如deersheepfishChineseJapaneselijinyuantwolithreemufourjin等。但除人民币的元、角、分外美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:adollar,twodollarsameter,twometers。)集体名词以单数形式出现但实为复数。例如:people police cattle等本身就是复数不能说apeopleapoliceacattle但可以说apersonapolicemanaheadofcattle,theEnglishtheBritishtheFrenchtheChinesetheJapanesetheSwiss等名词表示国民总称时作复数用如TheChineseareindustriesandbrave 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。)以s结尾仍为单数的名词如:amathspoliticsphysics等学科名词一般是不可数名词为单数。bnews为不可数名词。ctheUnitedStatestheUnitedNations应视为单数。   TheUnitedNationswasorganizedin联合国是年组建起来的。d以复数形式出现的书名剧名报纸杂志名也可视为单数。例如:"TheArabianNights"isaveryinterestingstorybook《一千零一夜》是一本非常有趣的故事书。)表示由两部分构成的东西如:glasses(眼镜) trousers, clothes等若表达具体数目要借助数量词pair(对双) suit(套)apairofglassestwopairsoftrousers等。)另外还有一些名词其复数形式有时可表示特别意思如:goods货物waters水域fishes(各种)鱼。                       不可数名词量的表示)物质名词a当物质名词转化为个体名词时为可数。比较:Cakeisakindoffood 蛋糕是一种食物。(不可数)Thesecakesaresweet 这些蛋糕很好吃。(可数)b当物质名词表示该物质的种类时可数。例如:Thisfactoryproducessteel (不可数)Weneedvarioussteels (可数)c当物质名词表示份数时可数。例如:Ourcountryisfamousfortea我国因茶叶而闻名。Twoteas,please请来两杯茶。)抽象名词表示具体的事例时也可数。例如:fourfreedoms四大自由thefourmodernizations四个现代化物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量如:aglassofwater一杯水apieceofadvice 一则建议。定语名词的复数名词作定语一般用单数但也有以下例外。)     用复数作定语。例如:sportsmeeting运动会studentsreadingroom学生阅览室  talkstable谈判桌theforeignlanguagesdepartment外语系)man,woman,gentleman等作定语时其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。例如:   menworkers  womenteachers  gentlemenofficials)有些原有s结尾的名词作定语时s保留。例如:  goodstrain(货车)armsproduce 武器生产    customspapers海关文件clothesbrush衣刷  )数词名词作定语时这个名词一般保留单数形式。例如:twodozeneggs 两打鸡蛋 atenmilewalk十英里路twohundredtrees两百棵树afiveyearplan 一个五年计划 不同国籍人的单复数国籍总称(谓语用复数)单数复数中国人theChineseaChinese twoChinese瑞士人theSwissaSwisstwoSwiss澳大利亚人theAustralians anAustraliantwoAustralians俄国人theRussiansaRussiantwoRussians意大利人theItaliansanItaliantwoItalians希腊人theGreekaGreektwoGreeks法国人theFrenchaFrenchmantwoFrenchmen日本人theJapaneseaJapanesetwoJapanese美国人theAmericansanAmericantwoAmericans印度人theIndiansanIndiantwoIndians加拿大人theCanadiansaCanadiantwoCanadians德国人theGermansaGermanstwoGermans英国人theEnglishanEnglishmantwoEnglishmen瑞典人theSwedishaSwedetwoSwedes名词的格  英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格如:ateacher'sbook。名词所有格的规则如下:)单数名词词尾加"'s"复数名词词尾没有s也要加"'s"如theboy'sbag男孩的书包men'sroom男厕所。)若名词已有复数词尾s只加"'"如:theworkers'struggle 工人的斗争。)凡不能加"'s"的名词都可以用"名词of名词"的结构来表示所有关系如:thetitleofthesong歌的名字。)在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词如:thebarber's理发店。)如果两个名词并列并且分别有's则表示"分别有"只有一个's则表示'共有'。例如:John'sandMary'srooms(两间)  JohnandMary'sroom(一间))复合名词或短语's加在最后一个词的词尾。例如:amonthortwo'sabsence 练习​ Hewaseagertomakesomeextramoney,sinceduringtheseyearshecouldhardlyliveonhisa.​ a.  littlewagebfewwagecwagedwages​ Mostofthehousesinthevillagewereburnttoduringthewara​ a     anashbtheashcashdashes​ ThestudentsatcollegesoruniversitiesaremakingforthecomingNewYeara​ a     manypreparationsbmuchpreparationcpreparationsdpreparation​ Paintinginisoneoftheirsparetimeactivitiesa​ a     oilbanoilcoilsdtheoil​ Intheviewoftheforeignexperts,therewasn’toilherea​ a     muchblotsofcagreatdealofdmany​ Thelargehousesarebeingpainted,butaofgreatexpensebatagreatexpensecinalotofexpensesdbyhighexpense​ Theroomwassmallandcontainedfartooa​ amuchnewfurniturecmuchnewfurnituresa​ bmanynewfurnituredmanynewfurnitures​ JimwaslatefortwoclassesthismorningHesaidthatheforgotbothofthearoomsnumberbroomnumbercroom’snumbersdroomnumbersComputerscandoworkinashorttime,butamancannotdobyhimselfagreatmany…manycmuch…agreatdealbagreatdealof…muchdmany…agreatmany​ Shedidn’tknowhehadbeengivena​ a     howmanyinformationchowmanyinformationsb​ b    thenumberofinformationdhowmuchinformation​ Heinvitedallofhistojoinhisweddingpartya​ a     comradeinarmsccomradesinarma​ b    comradesinarmsdcomradeinarm​ Alltheinthehospitalgotariselastmontha​ a     womendoctorscwomandoctorsa​ b    womendoctordwomandoctor​ Aftertenyears,alltheseyoungstersbecamea​ a     grownsupscgrownsupa​ b    grownupdgrownups​ Thepoliceinvestigatedthoseabouttheaccidenta​ a      standerbycstandersbya​ b      standerbysdstandersbys​ TheNazikeptthoseintheirconcentrationcampa​ aprisonerofwarscprisonersofwara​ bprisonersofwarsdprisonerofwar​ ThemanagerwasgreatlyappreciatethatmadebyLindalatelya​ a     newreelbnewsreelcnewreelsdnewsreels​ Mary’sdressissimilarinappearancetoheraeldersisterbeldersister’sceldersistersdeldersistersdress​ Allthepeopleattheconferenceareamathematicteacherscmathematicsteacherb​ bmathematicsteachersdmathematic’steachersProfessorMackaytoldusthatofleadareitssoftnessanditsresistancea​ a      somepropertycpropertiesa​ b      somepropertiesdproperty​ Physicswithmatterandmotiona​ a      dealbdealscdealingdare​ Hehaswrittenseveralbooks,buthislastworkswellknownamonghisfriendsa​ a      havebhavebeencisdare​ Afterhecheckedupmyheart,thedoctoradvisedhimtorestforafewdaysa​ a      fatherinlaw’scfather’sinlawa​ b      fatherinlawdfather’sinlaw’s​ Hetoldmewouldcometohisbirthdaypartya​ a      manyJackfriendscmanyJack’sfrienda​ b      Jack’smanyfriendsdmanyfriendsofJack’s​ Ihadmyhaircutatthearoundthecornera​ abarberbbarberscbarber’sdbarbers’​ Yesterdayeveningwehadalovelyeveningata​ a      PeterandHelen’scPeterandHelena​ b      PeterandHelensdPeter’sandHelen’s​ receivesonlyasmallportionofthetotalamountofthesun’senergya​ a      Theearth’ssurfacecThesurfaceofeartha​ b      ThesurfaceearthdTheearthsurface​ Numerousmaterialsareavailabletoa​ a      todayofdesignersctoday’sofdesignersa​ b      today’sdesignersdtodaydesigners​ WhydidyouspeaktoPeterthatwayDon’tyouknowheisanoldfriendofa​ a      mybrotherbmybrotherscmybrother’sdmybrother’sfriend​ isawellinformedmanHecantellyouanythingyouwanttoknowa​ a      ThisJohn’soldfriendcThat’sJahn’soldfrienda​ b      ThisoldfriendofJohndThisoldfriendofJohn’s​ istoomuchforalittleboytocarrya​ aAbike’sweightcTheweightofabikea​ bTheweightsofabikedBile’sweight​ GenerallytherearetelevisionprogramsforchildrenonSaturdaya​ a      littlebmuchcalargenumberofdalargeamountof​ Whentheygottothelectureroom,therewerelefta​ a      onlyfewseatsbaveryfewseatsconlyafewseatsdsoafewseats​ travelsfasterwhenthezipcodeisindicatedontheenvelopea​ a      AlittlemailbApieceofmailcAmaildAsmallmail​ TheDepartmentpurchasedtoimprovetheworkingconditionstherea​ a      anewequipmentcnewequipmentsa​ b      anewpieceofequipmentdnewpiecesofequipments​ Theboytriedhardbuttherehasbeeninhisworka​ a      littleimprovementcmanyimprovementsa​ b      alittleimprovementdfewimprovements​ Today’smodernTVcamerasrequirelightascomparedwiththeearliermodelsa​ a      onlyafewbonlyfewconlyalittledonlylittle​ Nocountrycanaffordtoneglecta​ a      aneducationbeducationsceducationdtheeducation​ Pleasewritetheanswerstothequestionsattheendofa​ a      eighthchapterbchaptereightceightchapterdchaptertheeight​ isonlysurpassedbythatofmonkeys’andapes’a​ a      TheintelligentdogcTheintelligenceofdogsa​ b      ThedogswhoseintelligencedThedogsbeingintelligent​ AllmusttakethegraduateManagementAdmissionTesta​ a      businessstudentbbusiness’sstudentscbusinessstudentsdbusiness’sstudent​ anywhereintheUnitedStatescostslessthanadollarwhenyoudialityourselfa​ a      ThreeminutescallcAthreeminutescalla​ b      ThreeminutecalldAthreeminutecall​ Theaboutnuclearenergyrevolvesaroundthewasteproblema​ a      public’schiefconcerncchiefpublicconcerna​ b      publicchiefconcerndchiefconcernofpublic’s​ thefirstandlargestethnicgrouptoworkontheconstructionofthetranscontinentalrailroadaChinesewerebTheChinesewascChinesewasdTheChinesewere​ cangetabetterviewofthegamethantheparticipantsa​ a      LookeronbLookersoncLookeronscLookersons​ Agroupofspectatorswasdispersedbythepolicewhoatthesceneoftheaccidentswithinminutesa​ a      werebhavebeencwasdhasbeen​ Ourlivestocknotasnumerousastheyusedtobea​ a      isbarecbedbeen​ Oneofthemostsurprisingthingsisthatmaycomefrompetroleuma​ a      muchoftomorrowfoodcmanyoftomorrow’sfooda​ b      muchofthefoodoftomorrowdmuchoftomorrow’sfood​ Scottisanorphanbuthereceiveda​ a      verygoodeducationcaverygoodeducationa​ b      verygoodeducationsdmanygoodeducations​ Afterseveralday’shardworking,wehavemadeonthedesigna​ a      muchimprovementcmanyimprovementa​ b      severalimprovementsdsomeimprovement​ Theboywasveryhappythathismotherboughthimanewpairofshoesatayesterdaya​ a      shoesshopbshoeshopcshoes’sshopdshoe’s​ Eggs,thoughnourishing,haveoffatcontenta​ a      largenumberbalargenumbercahighamountdthehighamount​ Hehasdonesomeonthatsubjectfromvariousanglesoverthepasttenyearsa​ a      researchbaresearchcresearchesdtheresearches​ Recently,hehaslostallhisa​ a      wageandsavingatcardcwagesandsavingatcarda​ b      wagesandsavingsatcarddwagesandsavingsatcards​ Thecountry’swealthcomeschieflyfromitsmanya​ a      herdofcattlebheardofcattlescherdsofcattledherdsofcattles​ InBritaintheareallpaintedreda​ a      letterboxesblettersboxclettersboxesdletters’sbox​ TenyearshadpassedIfoundshehada​ a      alittlewhitehaircafewwhitehaira​ b      somewhitehairdmuchwhitehair​ Allhisfarfromsatisfactiona​ a      conductisbconductarecconductsisdconductswillbe​ Althoughthetownhadbeenattackedbythestormseveraltimes,wasdonea​ a      afewdamagesbfewdamagesclittledamagedalittledamage​ Hewaswhattodoa​ a      athiswitendbathiswitsendcathiswit’senddathiswits’send​ Wouldyouliketohaveacupofteaandwithmeatwotoastsbtwopiecesoftoastctwopieceoftoastsdtowpiecesoftoasts​ Accuratecoveringthefactarenotobtainablea​ a      datumbdatumscdataddatas​ OnMondaymorningsometeachersexchangedafewa​ a      howareyouschowareyou’sa​ b      ofhowareyou’sdofhowareyou​ Albertsaidhemetthegirla​ a      athisuncle’sSmithroomcathisuncleSmith’srooma​ b      atSmith’shisuncle’sroomdattheroomofhisuncle’sSmith’s​ ItisfourmonthssinceIlastsawKeatsa​ a      atMrtSmith’s,thebooksellercatmyaunt’s,abooksellera​ b      atmyaunt’s,MrsPalmer’sdatMrsPalmer’s,thebookseller’s​ Thisroomisa​ a      theeditor’sinchief’sofficectheeditorinchief’sofficea​ b      theeditorinchiefofficedtheeditor’sinchiefoffice​ Myoldclassmate,ComradeSun,worksata​ a      ateachercollegecateacher’scollegea​ b      ateachers’scollegedacollegeofateacher’s​ Thepolicemenputthecriminala​ a      inaironbintoaironcinironsdintoapairofiron​ Ourteachergavemea​ a      anadvicebtheadvicecmanyadvicedmuchadvice​ Mymothercuttheclothwithscissorsa​ a      abtwocacoupleofdapairofMyhouseiswithinfromtherailwaystationaastone’sthrowbathrowofastonecstone’sthrowdthestone’sthrow 附:介词练习​  Sheissuchanirritatingwoman,Idon’tknowhowyoucanheraputupbstanduptocstandwithdputupwith​  Togetmytraveler’scheckIhadtoaspecialchecktothebankforthetotalamountamakeforbmakeoutcmakeoffdmakeup​  Littleboysareeasilyatakeninbtakenawayctakenoutdtakenover​  Thecompanyisgoingtohandthefreesamplestomorrowaupboutconddown​  Itwaspurelychancethatthemistakewasdiscoveredainbforcbydfrom​  Themagicianpickedseveralpersonsfromtheaudienceandaskedthemtohelphimwiththeperformanceabyaccidentbonoccasionconaveragedatrandom​  Ileftfortheofficeearlierthanusualthismorningtrafficjamaincaseofbinlinewithcforthesakeofdattheriskof​  Someareas,theirsevereweatherconditions,arehardlypopulatedabutforbinspiteofcduetodwithregardto​  Visitorsareaskedtocomplytheregulationsaatbincwithdon​     Hesomuchworkthathecouldn’treallydoitefficientlyaputonbtookoncbroughtondturnedon​     Inordertosavetime,Imyshoppingtoonceaweekacutoffbcutoutccutupdcutdown​     Theideahasthatsciencecannotbewrongapiledupbpickedupcgrownupdputup​     hedideverythinghecouldtopreventiffromintofightingabreakingoffbbreakingupcbreakingoutdbreakingof​     Theconstructionofthenewbuildingwillcost,,dollars,andit’snoteasytogetsomuchmoneyaatlastbatmostcatleastdatlarge​     Thethiefranawayasfastashecouldthepolicemanainsightbwithinthesightofcwithinsightdatthesightof​     Fortoolong,Europeancanmakershavefoughttooldwaysandoldprivilegesahangontobhaveaccesstocrefertodseeto​     Whoeverafullnight’ssleepwillbemorethanrewardedinheightenedproductivity,creativityandfocusainvestsatbinvestsincinvestsbydinvestswith​     Priorhisdeparture,hewrotealettertohismotheraofbfromctodin​     Thecompanyisveryfamousthehighqualityofitsproductsainbforcbydwith​     Oncehewasgivenachancetoimprovehispositioninthefirm,heseizeditbothhandsandisnowonhiswaytothetopaonbatcindwith​     Thesemisfortunesalmostdeprivedhimhisfuturecareerawithbofcfromdbeyond​     Idon’ttheexpenseIwantthepartytobearealsuccessacareforbcareaboutcbeincareofdtakecareof​     Wemustgettheroofmendedbeforethewetweathersetsaaboutboncupdin​     ThecarpulledbesidemeandthedriveraskedmetowaytotheGreatWalladownboffcupdout​     Afterthewar,manywarshipswerelaidastheywerenotneededanylongeraupbasidecdowndover​     Whentherebelliondiedthingsquicklyreturnedtonormalaoutbawaycdowndthrough​     I’llpickyouatyourcollegegateandtakeyoustraighttothestationaonboffcoutdup​     WillyoupleaseseeourluggagewhenIamawayatobincwithdfor​     theyreachedthesmallvillagebeforeduskaTowardstheendbBytheendcIntheenddAttheend​     Maryhasleftthebookonthetablepurposesothatyoucanreaditawithboncindoutof​     Thatnoiseisgettinglouderbecausetheengineersaretheenginetoseeiftheplaneisreadytoflyadoingwithbrunningupcturningindtryingfor​     Thegovernmentislookingnewmethodsofraisingmoneywithoutincreasingtaxesadownonbuponcoutfordaround​     Manissuperiortotheanimalshesueslanguagetoconveyhisthoughtsaandthatbinthatcsothatdinorderthat​     Notlongago,apersonwhoIknoweverywellwasanaccidentarelatedtobincludedincinvolvedindsubjectto​     Itohimfortheerroraexcusedbpardonedcforgavedapologized​     Thoughwehavenointerestscommon,wearegoodfriendsaonbincfordat​     Thepurseh

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