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首页 法律英语综合教程

法律英语综合教程.pdf

法律英语综合教程

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2011-06-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《法律英语综合教程pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

法律英语综合教程杨俊峰 主编     清华大学出版社北 京满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtml内容简介枟法律英语综合教程枠涉及法的概念、法的渊源、司法制度、主要法学流派、美国法学教育、美国宪法、行政法、美国刑法、诉讼法、国际法概述以及WTO与国际经济法概述等。本书分上下两篇共课。每课均包括课文正文、注释、词汇表、课后练习、补充阅读等另外还在附录中提供常用刑事法律英语术语。本书作为学习法律专业英语的综合教程在巩固和提高学生语言基本功的同时还注重培养学生对法律英语的口语、阅读、写作以及翻译能力。本书适用于已具有一定英语水平的英语院校和法学院本科生、研究生、涉外律师、法律翻译工作者以及法律英语爱好者。版权所有翻印必究。举报电话:  图书在版编目(CIP)数据法律英语综合教程/杨俊峰主编.北京:清华大学出版社.ISBNⅠ.法⋯ Ⅱ.杨⋯ Ⅲ.法律-英语-高等-教材 Ⅳ.H中国版本图书馆CIP数据核字()第号出版者:清华大学出版社地址:北京清华大学学研大厦http://www.tup.com.cn邮编:社总机:客户服务:责任编辑:刘细珍印装者:北京鑫海金澳胶印有限公司发行者:新华书店总店北京发行所开本:× 印张: 插页: 字数:千字版次:年月第 版 年月第次印刷书号:ISBN/H·印数:~定价:.元满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtml随着我国对外开放力度的不断加大信息化社会、知识与经济全方位的迅猛发展尤其是我国加入WTO之后人才市场对英语专业人才的需求也从单纯的语言技能走向多元化社会诸多领域都在渴望得到既精通英语又掌握某种专业的复合型人才。因此全国诸多专门的外语类院校近些年加大了这方面人才的培养力度。有人可能会有这样的疑问:外语类院校能培养出外语以外的专业人才吗?其实这个问题早在十多年前就已经随着多学科的发展迎刃而解了。不少人已经看到近年来外语类院校不仅培养出了高水平的外语人才还培养出了深受用人单位钟情的经贸、法律、新闻等专门人才。目前工作在涉外经贸、涉外法律和国际新闻战线上的优秀人才又有哪一个不是英语顶呱呱。大连外国语学院作为外语类院校的佼佼者近些年来同全国其他各大院校一样也在加快人才培养模式调整的步伐在深入探讨和实践双语、三语人才培养模式的基础上又开设了法律、经贸、新闻等。而这些专业的最大特点是用英语学习专门知识也许他们的法律(新闻、经贸)专业知识不及法律(新闻、经贸)专业的学生但他们的外语水平尤其是口语和笔头水平普遍受到用人单位的一致好评。对人才市场的调查也给了我们同样的启示复合型外语人才不仅比单一的语言人才受欢迎甚至比单一的专业人才更受欢迎(例如同样是经贸专业外语类院校的毕业生就比财经类院校的毕业生更具竞争力)这已是不争的事实。所以利用英语来教授和学习法律知识也许会在未来的若干年中逐渐成熟这种新的教授和学习法律英语的模式势必会提高学生将来从事涉外法律事务相关工作的能力。也正是因为这个缘由我们精心组织了一批“复合型老师”编写了这套《法律英语综合教程》、《法律英语案例探究》和《法律英语阅读教程》以满足广大法律英语爱好者的需求。《法律英语综合教程》涉及法的概念、法的渊源、司满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlgⅡ    法律英语综合教程法制度、主要法学流派、美国法学教育、美国宪法、行政法、美国刑法、诉讼法、国际法概述以及WTO与国际经济法概述等。本书的内容广泛、选材新颖、语言地道是获得法律知识和提高对法律英语学习兴趣的首推教材。其中被告人权利、沉默权制度等课文都具有浓厚的趣味性和广泛的知识性。本书分上下两篇共课。每课均包括课文正文、注释、词汇表、课后练习、补充阅读等。本书作为学习法律和英语的综合教程在巩固和提高学生语言基本功的同时还注重培养学生对法律英语的口语、阅读、写作以及翻译能力。鉴于各学校的学期长短不一周课时和学生的英语水平不一在使用本教材时可根据本校的情况自行确定进度。一般情况下如果只注重知识的获得在提前预习较充分的情况下(包括课后练习都应在课前完成)每课可用学时完成如果知识和语言并重建议每课学时。两者相比我们更主张后者这样教师既可以将知识的获得交给学生完成又可以腾出时间讲解语言难点和用法。通过本书的学习学习者可以在法律术语以及英语语言运用方面打下一个坚实的基础为下一步较高阶段的学习作好精神和物质准备进而增强实际运用法律英语的能力如用英语进行谈判、起草法律文书、开展辩论等。参加本书编写的有屈文生(上篇第、、、、下篇第、课)、冯婧(上篇第课下篇第、、课)、邢彩霞(下篇第、课)、张丽(上篇第、课下篇第、、课)、李群(上篇第、课下篇第、课)、黄涛(上篇第课)。  清华大学出版社刘细珍编辑为本书的出版付出了辛勤的劳动在此表示衷心的感谢。由于编者水平有限加之时间仓促错误和不当之处在所难免恳请使用者指正以便再版时更正。主编 杨俊峰年月于大连满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtml 上  篇Lesson  LawanditsClassifications第一课 法的概念及其分类Lesson  SourcesofLaw第二课 法的渊源Lesson  TheAmericanCourtSystem第三课 美国法院制度Lesson  TheJurySystem第四课 陪审团制度Lesson  ASurveyonSchoolsofJurisprudence第五课 主要法理学流派Lesson  TheDoctrineofStareDecisis第六课 遵循先例原则Lesson  TwoMajorLegalSystemsintheWorld第七课 当今世界两大法系Lesson  LegalEducationinAmerica第八课 美国法律教育Lesson  TheAmericanConstitution第九课 美国宪法Lesson  AdministrativeLaw满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlgⅣ    法律英语综合教程第十课 行政法AppendixI  TextTranslation&KeytoExercises附录一 课文译文及练习答案AppendixII  附录二 常用刑事法律英语术语下  篇Lesson  CriminalLaw:AnOverview第一课 刑法概述Lesson  CriminalLaw:TypesofDefensestoaCriminalCharge第二课 刑法刑事责任辩护Lesson  Defendant’sRights:KeyAspectsofModernCriminalProcedure第三课 刑事诉讼中被告人主要权利Lesson  TheRighttoRemainSilent第四课 沉默权制度概述Lesson  PropertyLaw第五课 财产法Lesson  ContractLaw第六课 合同法Lesson  TortLaw第七课 侵权行为法Lesson  CompanyLaw满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtml目  录gⅤ    第八课 公司法Lesson  IntellectualPropertyLaw第九课 知识产权法Lesson  CivilProcedureLaw第十课 民事诉讼法Lesson  InternationalLaw第十一课 国际法Lesson  WTOandInternationalEconomicLaw第十二课 WTO与国际经济法AppendixI  TextTranslation&KeytoExercises附录一 课文译文及练习答案AppendixII  Glossary附录二 词汇表AppendixIII  References附录三 参考文献满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtml 满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlLessonLawisaruleofconductacontractanidealofreason.Aristotle.LawandIts ClassificationsTextI.WHATISLAW  Therehavebeenandwillcontinuetobedifferentdefinitionsoflaw.Aristotlesawlawasaruleofconduct.Platobelievedthatlawwasaformofsocialcontrol.Cicerocontendedthatlawwastheagreementofreasonandnaturethedistinctionbetweenthejustandtheunjust.TheBritishjuristSirWilliamBlackstonedescriedlawas“aruleofcivilconductprescribedbythesupremepowerinastatecommandingwhatisrightandprohibitingwhatiswrong.”InAmericatheeminentjuristOliverWendellHolmesJr.contendedthatlawwasasetofrulesthatallowedonetopredicthowacourtwouldresolveaparticulardispute:“thepropheciesofwhatthecourtswilldoinfactandnothingmorepretentiousarewhatImeanbylaw.”Althoughthesedefinitionsvaryintheirparticularsallarebasedonthefollowinggeneralobservation:lawconsistsofenforceablerulesgoverningrelationshipsamongindividualsandbetweenindividualsandtheirsociety.Thisverybroaddefinitionoflawimpliesthefollowing:()Tohavelawtheremustbeestablishedrules满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlg    法律英语综合教程suchasconstitutionsstatutesadministrativeagencyregulationsandjudicialdecisions.()Theserulesmustbecapableofenforcementthatislawandordermustprevailwithresolutioninajudicialsystem.()Therulesmustestablishapprovedconductbywhichindividualsdealwitheachotherandparticipateinsociety.NationallawsaremadeinCongresswhichispartofthelegislativebranchandismadeupoftheHouseofRepresentativesandtheSenate.Congresscanmakelawsonallkindsofmatterssuchassettingspeedlimitsonhighwaysorregulatinghowmuchradonmaybefoundindrinkingwater.DuringeachCongresssenatorsandrepresentativesintroducenumerousbills.BillsarepassedbyCongressandthensignedintolawbythepresident.Figure II.CLASSIFICATIONSOFLAWThereareseveraldifferentwaysinwhichlawscanbeclassifieddependingonthecriteriaorcharacteristicswhichareappliedforsettingupthecategories.Oneistodistinguishbetweenpubliclawandprivatelaw.Anotherimportantdistinctionisbetweencriminalandcivillaw.Otherclassificationsincludecivillawversuscommonlawandsubstantivelawversusprocedurallaw.Thissectionexaminestheselegalclassifications.a.PublicLawv.PrivateLawLawcanbedividedintotwomainbranches:()publiclawand()privatelaw.Publiclawisthebodyoflawdealingwiththerelationsbetweenprivateindividualsandthegovernmentandwiththestructureandoperationofthegovernmentitselfitincludesconstitutionallawcriminallawandadministrativelaw.Privatelawisthebodyoflawdealingwithprivatepersonsandtheirpropertyandrelationships.Privatelawcanbedividedintosixmajorbranchesaccordingtothekindsoflegalrightsandobligationsinvolved.Thesebranchesare()contractandcommerciallaw()tortlaw()propertylaw()inheritancelaw满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlLesson LawandItsClassificationsg    ()familylawand()corporationlaw.b.CriminalLawv.CivilLawCriminallawdefinesbreachesofdutytosocietyatlarge.Itissocietythroughgovernmentemployeescalledprosecutors(suchasdistrictattorneys)thatbringscourtactionagainstviolators.Ifyouarefoundguiltyofacrimesuchastheftyouwillbepunishedbyimprisonmentorafine.Whenafineispaidthemoneygenerallygoestothestatenotthevictimofthecrime.Privatedutiesowedbyoneperson(includingcorporations)toanotherareestablishedbycivillaw.Forexamplewehaveadutytocarryoutourcontractualpromises.Tortlawdefinesahostofdutiespeopleowetoeachother.Oneofthemostcommondutiesisadutytoexercisereasonablecarewithregardtoothers.Failuretodosoisthetortofnegligence.Suitforthebreachofacivildutymustbebroughtbythepersonwronged.Generallythecourtdoesnotseektopunishthewrongdoerbutrathertomakethewrongedpartywholethroughamoneyawardcalleddamages.Forexampleifsomeonecarelesslyrunsacarintoyoursthatpersonhascommittedthecivilwrong(tort)ofnegligence.Ifyouhavesufferedabrokenlegyouwillbeabletorecoverdamagesfromthedriver(orhisorherinsurancecompany).Thedamageswillbeamountofmoneysufficienttorepairyourautotopayyourmedicalbillstopayforwagesyouhavelostandtogiveyousomethingforanypermanentdisabilitysuchasalimp.Damagesfor“painandsuffering”alsomaybeawarded.Althoughthecivillawgenerallydoesnotaimtopunishthereisanexception.Ifthebehaviorofsomeonewhocommitsatortisoutrageousthatpersoncanbemadetopaypunitivedamages(alsocalled“exemplarydamages”).Unlikeafinepaidinacriminalcasepunitivedamagesgototheinjuredparty.Sometimesthesamebehaviorcanviolateboththecivillawandthecriminallaw.Forinstanceapersonwhosedrunkendrivingcausesthedeathofanothermayfacebothacriminalprosecutionbythestateandacivilsuitfordamagesbythesurvivorsofthevictim.Ifbothsuitsaresuccessfulthedriverwouldpaybacksocietyfortheharmdonewithacriminalfineand/orprisonsentenceandcompensatethesurvivorswiththepaymentofmoneydamages.SeeFigurecriminallawversuscivillawforageneralcomparisonofcriminalandcivilcases.满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlg    法律英语综合教程CriminalCasesCivilCasesElementsIntentionalornegligentviolationofastatuteHarmtoanotherpersonorproperty(tort)orbreachofacontractActorsProsecutorv.Defendant(government)(accused)Plaintiffv.Defendant(wrongedparty)(wrongparty)PunishmentFinesimprisonmentexecutionetc.DefendantmayhavetopaytheplaintiffcompensatoryandpunitivedamagesFigure c.CivilLawv.CommonLawWehavealreadyseenthatoursystemoflawcanbedividedintotwobranches:Criminallawandnoncriminalorcivillaw.Howeveralthough“noncriminal”isindeedonemeaningoftheterm“civillaw”itisnottheonewithwhichweareconcernedhere.Civillawisthenameofaparticularsystemofjurisprudencethatisfollowedinagreatmanycountriesoftheworld.Putinitssimplestformwecansaythatcivillawsystemsarethosebasedonlegalcodes(orstatutes)thatspelloutasociety’sbasiclawsonavarietyofsubjectssuchasactsthatconstitutecrimestaxobligationsandrulesaboutowningandtransferringproperty.Theterm“civillaw”andthebasisofthelawitselfarederivedoriginallyfromthelawofancientRomethejuscivile.AstimepassedancientRomanlawwasreworkedintocomprehensivelegalcodes.ThecodeoftheemperorJustinian(A.D.)wasrevivedaftertheDarkAgesanditbecamethebasisofmodernlawinItalytheGermanEmpiretheNetherlandsFranceandSpainaswellasintheircolonialoffshoots.StateofLouisianahistoricallyalsosharesthecivillawtradition.TohranoStGesterrnEeroperansoentrieshavecivilagsysemlastohecoenriecofLainAericlocA.ricanSoentrielJapalThaiandanmTerken.recyectheenytectatecanEnglandacicteknoGnaAAAAAAAAAwprevailaiNAestraydrermdcanamdinmydiradlireridalaidneGJeelendSinweporeenminrritailasvormersoloniesinAvricdsEshasGhanaaaniweridfThErasisofsommonlewisnotacomprehensivecomerrathedherasisreilminwrlos驰驰TofsommollawsisemiAAAAAAAlghyshyssomposemovecisionshaneognriJEwesghorEleoniniviteelseselvresaeseeashJeisialopinioncervecacapreseen驰驰evorlaeresisionlasaresellsommonlagiccometymeccalleAAAAAlAAAAAAAlvcommolvlageGeshafeferigiepooersovinerpretationtoappliprevioeceicialrelingcanmmoinerprecaeelvhemostorvioesistinstionretgeensivillagansoonlagsistesishasivillaLesson LawandItsClassificationsg    systemisacodifiedsystemwhereasthecommonlawisnotcreatedbymeansoflegislationbutisbasedmainlyoncaselaw.Theprincipleisthatearlierjudicialdecisionsusuallyofthehighercourtsmadeinasimilarcaseshouldbefollowedinthesubsequentcasesi.e.thatprecedentsshouldberespected.Thisprincipleisknownasstaredecisis.Theclaimthatcommonlawiscreatedbythecaselawisonlypartlytrueasthecommonlawisbasedinlargepartonstatuteswhichthejudgesaresupposedtoapplyandinterpretinmuchthesamewayasthejudgesincivillaw(egtheSaleofGoodsActtheUniformCommercialCode).d.SubstantiveLawv.ProceduralLawThebranchesofourlegalsystemcanbedividedintosubstantivelawandprocedurallaw.Procedurallawestablishestherulesortheguidelinesthatistheproceduresunderwhichourlegalsystemoperates.Inourlegalsystemforexampleprocedurallawspecifiesthelengthofastatuteoflimitationsforinstitutingalawsuit.Procedurallawcanbedividedintocriminalproceduressuchasthelistofrightsthatmustbereadtoasuspectbeforebeingquestionedbythepoliceandcivilproceduressuchaspleadingsthewrittenstatementsofthepositionstobeadvancedattrialbythepartiesinlawsuit.Someproceduresarecommontobothcivilandcriminallaw.Substantivelawembracesrightsobligationsorlimitationsapplicabletopeopleandbusinessesinavarietyofsituations.SubstantivelawmaybebasedintheConstitutionoftheUnitedStatesinlegislativeenactmentssuchasstatutesorincaselawdevelopedbyjudges.Incriminallawforexampletheactualdefinitionsoftheactsthatconstitutecrimesaresubstantivelaw.Inthelawofcontractssubstantivelawincludestherightsandremediesthatareavailablewhenonepartytoacontractviolatesthetermsoftheagreement。III.GODDESSOFLAWAcommonrepresentationofJusticeisablindfoldedwomanholdingasetofscales.TheoriginoftheGoddessofJusticegoesbacktoantiquity.ShewasreferredtoasMaatbytheancientEgyptiansandwasoftendepictedcarryingaswordwithanostrichfeatherinherhair(butnoscales)tosymbolizetruthandjustice.ThetermmagistrateisderivedfromMaatbecausesheassistedOsirisinthejudgmentofthedeadbyweighingtheirhearts.TotheancientGreeksshewasknownasThemisoriginallytheorganizerofthe“communalaffairsofhumansparticularlyassemblies.”HerabilitytoforeseethefutureenabledhertobecomeoneoftheoraclesatDelphi(TempleofApollo)whichinturnledtoherestablishmentas“thegoddessofdivinejustice.”ClassicalrepresentationsofThemisdidnot满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlg    法律英语综合教程showherblindfolded(becauseofhertalentforprophecyshehadnoneedtobeblinded)norwassheholdingasword(becausesherepresentscommonconsentnotcoercion).TheRomangoddessofjusticewascalledJustitiaandwasoftenportrayedasevenlybalancingbothscalesandaswordandwearingablindfold.Shewassometimesportrayedholdingthefasces(abundleofrodsaroundanaxsymbolizingjudicialauthority)inonehandandaflameintheother(symbolizingtruth).Glossaryadministrativeagency行政机关administrativelaw行政法antiquity古代assembly大会公民大会buildingblock(本义)积木这里指组成部分Congress国会constitutionallaw宪法criminallaw刑法damages损害赔偿金DarkAges黑暗世纪exemplarydamages惩戒性损害赔偿金fine罚金HouseofRepresentatives众议院introduce提出议案等judicialdecisions司法判决Jurisprudence法律体系法理学法哲学juscivile市民法legislative关于立法的有立法权的立法的painandsuffering痛苦与创伤pleadings诉讼文件民事诉状答辩状precedent先例privatelaw私法prosecutor检察官publiclaw公法punitivedamages惩罚性损害赔偿金radon[化]氡remedy救济scales天平Senate参议院spellout详细规定详细说明statuteoflimitations时效诉讼时效survivor尚存者violator违法者违反者Notes(注释)Notes槝OliverWendellHolmes():奥利弗·温德尔·霍姆斯年西奥多·罗斯福总统任命他为联邦最高法院法官任期直到年。其传世之作首推年枟普通法枠(TheCommonLaw)。槞establishedrules:固定下来的规则成文规则。槡administrativeagency:行政机关。Agovernmentalbodywiththeauthoritytoimplementandadministerparticularlegislation.在英国该词更多用于指世纪末兴起的行政裁判机构。满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlLesson LawandItsClassificationsg    槢judicialdecisions:司法判决。decision:裁定判决。Ajudicialdeterminationafterconsiderationoffactsandthelawesp.arulingorderorjudgmentpronouncedbyacourtwhenconsideringordisposingofacase.槣Congress:国会。ThelegislativebodyofthefederalgovernmentcreatedunderU.S.ConstitutionArticleI§andconsistingoftheSenateandtheHouseofRepresentatives.槤legislative:关于立法的有立法权的立法的。Oforrelatingtolawmakingortothepowertoenactlawslegislativedepartment:立法部门。legislativepower:立法权。legislature:立法机关。Thebranchofgovernmentresponsibleformakingstatutorylaws.TheU.S.federalgovernmentandmoststateshavebicamerallegislatures(两院制立法机关)usu.consistingofahouseofrepresentativesandasenate.槥HouseofRepresentatives:众议院。众议院的席位按照各州人口分配每州至少要有一名议员。HouseofRepresentatives:thelowerchamberoftheU.S.Congresscomposedofmembersapportionedamongthestatesonthebasisofpopulationwhoareelectedtotwoyearterm.此外HouseofRepresentatives也可以指美国各州的下院。HouseofRepresentatives可以缩写为“H.R.”。槦Senate:参议院。Senate为美国国会的上院参议院议员共有名每州名任期为年每两年更换全部议院的/。Senator:参议员。Theupperchamberofabicamerallegislature.InU.S.A.itistheupperhouseoftheU.S.Congresscomposedofmemberstwofromeachstatewhoareelectedtosixyearterm.槧introduce:提出议案等。Tobringforward(aplanabillforexample)forconsideration。●signintolaw:签署成为法律。●privatelaw:私法。publiclaw:公法。罗马法学家乌尔比安(Ulpianus)将法律划分为公法与私法。●私法所包括的这六个部门依次是合同与商法侵权行为法财产法继承法家庭法以及公司法。●prosecutor:检察官。Alegalofficerwhorepresentsthegovernmentincriminalproceedings.●fine:罚金。Asumofmoneyrequiredtobepaidasacriminalpenalty。●adutytoexercisereasonablecare:尽合理注意义务。reasonablecare也可以

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