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首页 黑色幽默的概念整合分析

黑色幽默的概念整合分析.pdf

黑色幽默的概念整合分析

eyre96
2011-06-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《黑色幽默的概念整合分析pdf》,可适用于教育、出版领域

iSynopsisThispaperaimsatpresentingacognitiveanalysisofblackhumorinfictionbyemployingconceptualblendingtheory(alsoconceptualintegrationtheory),proposedbyFauconnierandTurnerTheterm“blackhumor”referstothehumoroustreatmentofwhatisgrotesque,morbid,orterrifyingItisthejuxtapositionofhumorandhorrorForthispurpose,thepresentpaperselectsforanalysisCatch,anovelbyJosephHeller,awellknownAmericannovelistforhisuseofblackhumorToanalyzetheblendingprocessofblackhumor,thepresentpaperfirstprobesintothemechanismofhumor,toexaminewhatprovokesthelaughteratthebeginningThepaperthenfocusesonthetechniquesJosephHelleremploysatdifferentlevelstoachievetheeffectofhumor,namelyatlexicalgrammaticallevelandrhetoricallevel,bymakinguseoftheintegrationnetworkincludinggenericspace,crossspacemapping,selectiveprojection,blend,andemergentstructurethroughcomposition,completionandelaboration,aswellasmentalspaceconstructionconcerningBase,Viewpoint,andFocusTheanalysiselaboratesontheblendingprocessofthecombinationofhumorandhorrortoproducethesocalled“blackhumor”TheresearchisconductedinductivelytoarriveatthecognitivemodelofblackhumoronaccountofconceptualblendingtheoryByanalyzingblackhumorinCatchwithintheframeworkofconceptualblendingtheory,thepresentstudyhasextendedtheapplicationofthetheorytoawiderrangeFurthermore,ithasverifiedtheapplicationofconceptualblendingtheoryatliterarylevelofcognitiveoperationThedetailedanalysisalsooffersanewperspectiveforreaderstointerpretandappreciateblackhumorinfictionKeywords:blackhumorconceptualblendingtheorymentalspaceii摘要本文的研究目的在于应用由Fauconnier和Turner等学者提出的概念整合理论从认知角度来分析英文小说中的黑色幽默。“黑色幽默”这一术语指的是以幽默的方式对待怪诞、病态与恐怖。它是幽默与恐惧的并置。为了达到此研究目的本文选择了美国作家JosephHeller的黑色幽默代表作《第二十二条军规》分析其黑色幽默的概念整合过程。论文首先探讨在语篇初始令人发笑的幽默机制根据概念整合网络(包括类属空间、跨空间影射、选择性投射、合成空间、以及通过组合、完善和扩展而成的突显结构)和涉及母空间、观点空间和焦点空间的心理空间构建分析作者在词汇语法以及修辞等不同层面运用的幽默技巧。论文继而分析幽默与恐惧如何通过概念整合形成所谓黑色幽默论文最后归纳出以概念整合理论为依据的黑色幽默认知模式。通过运用概念整合理论分析《第二十二条军规》的黑色幽默本文扩展了概念整合理论的应用领域探讨了概念整合理论在文学层面认知操作的可行性。文中的分析同时也为读者理解欣赏西方小说中的黑色幽默提供了新的视角。关键词:黑色幽默概念整合理论心理空间iiiContentsIntroduction……………………………………………………………………ChapterLiteratureReviewofBlackHumorinCatch…Blackhumor…………………………………………………………………Thedefinitionofblackhumor……………………………………………Thefeaturesofblackhumor………………………………………………JosephHellerandCatch………………………………………………AbriefintroductiontoJosephHeller……………………………………AbriefreviewofCatch………………………………………………DifferentapproachestoblackhumorinCatch………………………Theliteraryapproach……………………………………………………Thephilosophicalapproach……………………………………………Thepsychologicalapproach……………………………………………Otherapproaches………………………………………………………ChapterConceptualBlendingTheory:theTheoreticalBasis…Keyconcepts………………………………………………………………Mentalspace……………………………………………………………Crossspacemapping…………………………………………………Selectiveprojection……………………………………………………Genericspace……………………………………………………………Blend…………………………………………………………………Emergentstructure………………………………………………………Illustrationoftheconcepts………………………………………………ivGeneralprinciples…………………………………………………………AccessPrinciple…………………………………………………………Optimalityprinciples……………………………………………………Networktypes………………………………………………………………Nonlinguisticinformation…………………………………………………Summary……………………………………………………………………Applications……………………………………………………………Evaluation………………………………………………………………ChapterApplicationofConceptualBlendingTheorytoBlackHumorinCatch………………………………………Blendingprocessinhumorconstruction…………………………………Techniquesatlexicalgrammaticallevel………………………………Techniquesatrhetoricallevel…………………………………………Roleofnonlinguisticinformation………………………………………Blendingprocessinblackhumorconstruction……………………………Acognitivemodelonblackhumor………………………………………Ageneralmodelbasedonconceptualblendingtheory…………………Thedynamicsinthemodel………………………………………………Conclusions………………………………………………………………………Bibliography……………………………………………………………………Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………v目录引言……………………………………………………………………………第一章《第二十二条军规》的黑色幽默文献综述………………黑色幽默……………………………………………………………………黑色幽默的定义………………………………………………………黑色幽默的特点………………………………………………………JosephHeller与《第二十二条军规》简评…………………………………JosephHeller简介………………………………………………………《第二十二条军规》简评…………………………………………………《第二十二条军规》的黑色幽默研究综述…………………………………文学批评法………………………………………………………………哲学法……………………………………………………………………心理学法…………………………………………………………………其它方法…………………………………………………………………第二章理论基础:概念整合理论…………………………………………主要概念……………………………………………………………………心理空间………………………………………………………………跨空间映射……………………………………………………………选择性投射……………………………………………………………类属空间………………………………………………………………合成空间………………………………………………………………突显结构………………………………………………………………示例……………………………………………………………………vi一般原则……………………………………………………………………可及性原则……………………………………………………………最优化原则……………………………………………………………整合网络类型………………………………………………………………非语言信息…………………………………………………………………小结…………………………………………………………………………理论应用……………………………………………………………理论评价……………………………………………………………第三章概念整合理论与《第二十二条军规》的黑色幽默……………幽默的概念整合过程………………………………………………………词汇语法层面技巧…………………………………………………修辞层面技巧………………………………………………………非语言信息的作用…………………………………………………黑色幽默的概念整合过程…………………………………………………黑色幽默的认知模式………………………………………………………基于概念整合理论的一般模式………………………………………模式的动态性…………………………………………………………结论…………………………………………………………………………………参考书目……………………………………………………………………………致谢…………………………………………………………………………………viiListofFiguresandTablesFigure:ThefourspaceintegrationnetworkFigure:AccessPrincipleFigure:TheintegrationnetworkforItwasloveatfirstsightFigure:TheintegrationnetworkforThegovernmentpaidhimwellforeverybushelofalfalfahedidn’tgrowFigure:TheintegrationnetworkforSchiesskopfandshitheadFigure:TheintegrationnetworkforsuccessfulandunhappyFigure:TheintegrationnetworkforWhat’sgoodforMMEnterpriseisgoodforthecountryFigure:ThespaceorganizationforWemustalwaystreateverymanalikeFigure:ThementalspacenetworkforWemustalwaystreateverymanalikeFigure:TheintegrationnetworkforthemoaningexampleFigure:ThegeneralmodelforblackhumorTable:ThesimplexnetworkforItwasloveatfirstsightTable:ThedoublescopenetworkforThegovernmentpaidhimwellforeverybushelofalfalfahedidn’tgrowTable:ThemirrornetworkforSchiesskopfandshitheadTable:ThedoublescopenetworkforsuccessfulandunhappyTable:ThesinglescopenetworkforWhat’sgoodforMMEnterpriseisgoodforthecountryIntroductionBlackhumorisatermprimarilyassociatedwithagroupofnovelistswritingintheperiodduringthesandsTheirworkswerecharacterizedwithcomicelementscombinedwithaprofoundsenseofdespairAndréBreton,regardedasthefirstcritictocointheterm“blackhumor”,publishedinAnthologiedeL’humourNoir(AnthologyofBlackHumor)Intheprefacetothevolume,hedefinesblackhumorasagestureofrevolt“Itcannotbeamatterofexplicatinghumorandmakingitservedidacticends”(Breton,:)“Blackhumorisboundedbytoomanythings,suchasstupidity,skepticalirony,jokingwithoutseriousness…,butitispreeminentlythemoralenemyofwithitsairofbeingperpetuallyatbaysentimentalityalwayswithabluebackgroundandofacertainshorttermfantasy…”(ibid:)Althoughworksofblackhumorshareseveralcharacteristics,criticshavedifficultyindefiningthestyleAlanRPratt,whoseBlackHumor:CriticalEssays()providesasurveyofavarietyofcontemporaryassessments,alsofailstogiveaspecificdefinitionofblackhumorHowever,twopointsofagreementstandout:“Blackinvolvesthehumoroustreatmentofwhatisgrotesque,morbid,orterrifyingAndwhileitbitterlyridiculesinstitutions,valuesystems,andtraditions,blackhumoroffersneitherexplicitnorimplicitproposalsforimproving,reforming,orchangingthepainfulrealitiesonwhichitfocuses”(Louis,:xix)JosephHellerisoneofthemostrecognizedblackhumoristsontheAmericanliterarysceneHisworkCatch()isnowcountedamongthebestexamplesofblackhumorCatchtellsthestoryoftheprotagonist,Yossarian,withhisexperienceinafictionalislandnamedPianosaduringWorldWarIIYossarianseesabsurdityeverywhereandherealizestheinsanityoftheworldHetriestoescapemoreflyingmissionswithvariousmeans,butitisimpossibleforhimtogetoutofthetrapofCatch,amilitarydisciplinewhichspecifiesthatonlytheinsanepilotcanbeexemptfromflyingmissionsontheconditionthatheaskstobegroundedBut,ifapilotaskstobegrounded,hewillprovetoberationalandthereforecompletelysaneAsaresulthemustcontinuetocarryoutcombatdutiesThereisnoescapefromCatchAfterthenovelwaspublished,ithasdrawnmuchattentionfrommanycritics,whocommentonthenovel’sprominentfeaturesofblackhumorfromvariousperspectivesManyofthesecriticscenterontheartistictechniquesoftheworksCaryWDavisdiscussesdiscontinuity,whichhasbeenthesubjectofmuchcriticaldiscussion,byannouncingthat“thenovel’smostvitalimplicationsforourliteraturethuslieinthewayHeller’sdemythologizingofdiscourserelatestoYossarian’squestforsurvivalandtothequestionofwhetheritispossibletodiscoverameaningful,‘continuous’discourse”(Nagel,:)WilliamSchopfregardsYossarianaPrometheanheroincontrastwithOrrasabemushroomedheroInresponsetothecommentontherepetitiousandformlessstructureofCatch,RobertMerillstatesthatthestructuralcomplexityofCatchembodiesHeller’smeaningmorethoroughlyinthat“…thebook’smorepuzzlingfeaturesitsbewilderingchronology,itsrepetitiveness,itsprotagonist’sbelatedchangeofheartallfittogethertoadvanceHeller’sradicalprotestagainstthemodernsocialorder”(Merill,:)SomecriticsexploredthenovelfromtheJewishtraditionRudermanobservesthat“CatchisaJewishbookbecauseitssensibilityandhumorareJewish,drivingfromtheliteratureandlorethatgrewuparoundthatfirstcousintothenebbish:theschlemiel”(Ruderman,:)DanielWalden’s“‘ThereforeChooseLife’:AJewishInterpretationofHeller’sCatch”developstheideathatthevalueofthebook,especiallythoseexpressedbyYossarian,growoutofJewishtradition,particularlythecommitmenttopreserveexistenceandtoleadamorallifeHemakesreferencetothe“affinitybetweenwhatYiddishhumorcalleda‘laughterthroughtears’anditsacceleratedforminsuchnovelsasHeller’sCatch”(ibid:)Othercriticsreviewthenovelinthelightofphilosophicalfoundation,ieexistentialismForexample,AlanRPratt(Pratt,:)takesCatchasanexampletoshowthestyleofblackhumorandtocompareexistentialistswithblackhumoristsSimilarly,someChinesecriticshaveconcentratedontheliterarystudyofblackhumorForexample,inhisAStudyoftheCharacteristicsofBlackHumor,YouNanchunanalyzesthefeaturesofblackhumor,includingthecombinationofhumorandhorror,discontinuityofplotsandlanguagegame(You,:)ChengAimingarguesthatblackhumoristscontendthattheworldisabsurdandmysterious,andallpeopleliveinthemorbidcircumstanceswhichareeternalandcannotbechangedbyanybodyThenatureofblackhumoristoexposetheessenceoftheactualworldbymeansofdistortingsocialphenomenaandbyadoptingsomewritingtechniques,suchashumorandsatire,whichareexaggeratedtothedegreeofabsurdity(Cheng,:)LiXinyuanandZhuRuiqinganalyzethe“antinovel”formofblackhumor(LiandZhu,:)MaXiaochaomentionsthemetaphysicaltheme,seeingthestoryasafableHearguesthatHelleractuallyconvertsthetenetsofconventionalliberalismintotheinformingideasofapowerfullymovingfableTheabstractdistortedcharacterandthehumorouscomicstyleofblackhumorliteraturearealsoelucidatedinhispaper(Ma,:)WangZhuoelaboratesontherelationshipbetweentheAmericanblackhumorfictionandexistentialismtofindoutthesocialsignificanceanditshistoricallimitation(Wang,:)ThereviewaboveshowsthatpreviousanalyseshavecoveredalmosteveryaspectofblackhumorinCatch,butnonehasbeenconductedtorevealhowblackhumorisperceivedandwhatistheunderlyingmentalprocessofreaders’interpretationofblackhumorThedevelopmentoflinguistictheories,especiallythecognitivelinguistictheory,hasprovidedachancetoexploreintothementalprocessofmeaningconstructioninmanyseeminglysimpleorentrenchedlanguagephenomenaCoulson(:)pointsoutthat“onstandardviewsofsentenceprocessing,meaningconstructionresultslargelyfromparsing”Incontrast,cognitivelinguistssuggestthatmeaningisbasedonconventionalizedconceptualstructuresTheyarguethat“meaningisnotadepositinaconceptcontainer,andisalive,dynamicanddistributive,constructedforlocalpurposesofknowingandactingMeaningsarenotmentalobjectsboundedinconceptualplacesbutrathercomplexoperationsofprojection,binding,linking,blending,andintegrationovermultiplespaces”(Turner,:)Asaresult,scholarshavetriedtoapproachtheconstructionofmeaninginthelightofcognitivelinguisticsForexample,LakoffandJohnsonhaveconductedthestudyonconceptualmetaphorandidealizedcognitivemodels(ICM)FillmoreproposestheframesemanticsandconstructiongrammarwhileLangackerprobesintothecognitiveandconceptualtheoriesofgrammarAmongtheresearchers,FauconnierinparticularhasputforwardmentalspacetheoryanddevelopeditintoconceptualblendingtheorywithTurnerInthistheory,blendingoperatesontwoinputmentalspacestoyieldablendThereisagenericspace,whichmapsontoeachoftheinputsThegenericspacereflectssomecommonstructureandorganizationsharedbytheinputsanddefinesthecrossspacemappingbetweenthemTheinputspacesarepartiallyprojectedontothefourthspace,theblendTheblendinheritspartialstructurefromtheinputspaces,andthroughcomposition,completionandelaborationproducesemergentstructureofitsownConsequently,afourspaceblendcomesintobeingasfollows:GenericSpaceInputIInputIBlendSource:FromFauconnierTurner,:Itiswithintheframeworkofconceptualblendingtheorythatthecurrentresearchisset,withanintensiontoanalyzeblackhumorinWesternfictionfromanewcognitiveperspectiveThepaperwillfocuspredominantlyonblackhumorinCatch,tomapoutthecognitiveoperationwhichresidesintheblackhumortextsaswellastoextendtheapplicationofconceptualblendingtheorytoawiderrangeToanalyzetheblendingprocessofblackhumor,thepresentpaperfirstprobesintothemechanismofhumor,toexaminewhatprovokeslaughteratthebeginningThepaperthenexaminesthetechniquesJosephHelleremploysatdifferentlevelstoachievetheeffectofhumor,namelyatlexicalgrammaticalandrhetoricallevels,inthelightofintegrationnetworkincludinggenericspace,crossspacemapping,selectiveprojection,blend,andemergentstructurethroughcomposition,completionandelaboration,aswellasmentalspaceconstructionconcerningBase,Viewpoint,··················andFocusTheanalysiselaboratesontheblendingprocessofthecombinationofhumorandhorrortoproducesocalled“blackhumor”TheresearchisconductedinductivelytoarriveatthecognitivemodelofblackhumoronaccountofconceptualblendingtheoryThepresentpapercomprisesthreechapters,exclusiveofanintroductionandaconclusionTheintroductionoutlinestheresearchbackground,purposeofstudy,theanalyticalframeworkandtheorganizationofthepaperChapterOneisanoverviewoftheconceptsofblackhumorandthemajorapproachestoblackhumorinCatchChapterTwoexplainsconceptualblendingtheory,whichconstitutesthetheoreticalframeworkfortheforthcominganalysisChapterThreepresentsadetailedapplicationofconceptualblendingtheorytotheanalysisandinterpretationofblackhumorinCatchTheconcludingpartsummarizesthefindingsofthecurrentresearchaswellasthedrawbacksandlimitationsofthepresentresearchItishopedthatthepresentresearchwillverifytheexplanatorypowerofconceptualblendingtheoryattheliterarylevelandprovideanewlinguisticperspectivefortheanalysisofblackhumorinliterarytextsChapterOneASurveyofBlackHumorinCatchBlackhumorisregardedasabsurdhumor,morbidhumor,andsoonBlackhumoristsoftenattacktheabsurditytheyseeinlifeitself,aswellasthesociety’smisfortunesTheawarenessofhumanmortalityisbasictoblackhumor,givingmanyoftheworksadesperate,evenhopelessattitudeMuchofblackhumorisdirectedagainstgreed,complacency,andhypocrisyBlackhumorfrequentlysatirizessociety’sinstitutionsbydepictingthemasdehumanizingorganizationsTheword“black”hasimpliedmeanings:gloomy,sinisterItcanalsosymbolize“despairandevendeath”In,MathewWinstonreferredthistechniqueinhisbookHumorNoirandBlackHumor,VeinsofHumorHesays,“Blackhumorisatoneindramaandfictionwhichissimultaneouslyfrighteningorthreateningandfarcicaloramusing…theviolentcombinationofopposingextremesunsettlesussothatwedonotknowhowtorespond”(Pratt,:)ThereisapopularblackhumorjokethatcangiveavividexplanationofMathewWinston’swordsAmanbreakshisleftlegthreemonthsbeforeChristmas,andhethinksthatheisluckybecausehecanrecoverbeforeChristmasMakinghisChristmasplan,hebreakshisrightontheEveofChristmasWearejustgoingtolaughathisfantasticbadluckwhenwethinkofhissufferingBlackhumorThedefinitionofblackhu

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