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首页 Secrets, Lies and Democracy - Noam Chomsky

Secrets, Lies and Democracy - Noam Chomsky.pdf

Secrets, Lies and Democracy - N…

咖啡豆
2011-06-16 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Secrets, Lies and Democracy - Noam Chomskypdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

Secrets,LiesandDemocracyNoamChomskyInterviewedbyDavidBarsamianCopyright©byDavidBarsamianGototheTableofContentsAnotherillusionshattering,factfilledmasterpiecefromthemantheNewYorkTimescalled"arguablythemostimportantintellectualalive"Hereareafew,briefexcerpts:lIn,aboutofinternationalcapitalwasusedfortradeandlongterminvestmentmoreorlessproductivethingsandforspeculationBy,thosefigureshadreversedlHaiti,astarvingisland,isexportingfoodtotheUSabouttimesasmuchunderClintonasunderBushlTheUSgovernmentspentmoremoneypercapitatogetthepresidentialcandidateitfavoredelectedinChileinthanwasspentbybothcandidates(JohnsonandGoldwater)intheelectionhereintheUnitedStateslThegapbetweenhowmuchincomeisheldbytherichestandpooresthasincreaseddramaticallyoverthepastyearsaboutdoubleforrichvspoorcountriesandfarmoreforrichvspoorpeoplelWhatthepublicwantsiscalled"politicallyunrealistic"TranslatedintoEnglish,thatmeanspowerandprivilegeareopposedtoit满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlAvailableinprintfromOdonianPress($paperback)Toorderbycreditcard,orforinformationonquantitydiscounts,callorREALSTORY,orfax,orwrite:OdonianPressBoxTucson,AZSecrets,LiesandDemocracyispartoftheRealStorySeriesofbooksTheRealStorySeriesisbasedonasimpleideapoliticalbooksdon'thavetobeboringShort,wellwrittenandtothepoint,RealStorybooksaremeanttobereadCheckoutsomeofourothertitlesArchive|NewWorldMedia满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlSecrets,LiesandDemocracyNoamChomskyCopyright©byDavidBarsamianTableofContentslEditor'snoteTheUSDefectiveDemocracyKeepingtherichonwelfareHealthcareCrimeandpunishmentGuncontrolBecomingaThirdWorldcountryLaborTheCIAThemediaSportsReligiousfundamentalismDon'ttreadonmeTheworldTowardgreaterinequality"Freetrade"Mexico(andSouthCentralLA)HaitiNicaraguaChinaRussiaDeadchildrenanddebtserviceHistoricalbackgroundHowtheNaziswonthewarChileCambodiaWorldWarIIPOWsMiscellaneoustopicsConsumptionvswellbeingCooperativeenterprisesThecomingecocatastropheNuclearpowerThefamilyWhatyoucandoOrganize满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlCover|Archive|NewWorldMedia满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlSecrets,LiesandDemocracy(InterviewswithNoamChomsky)Copyright©byDavidBarsamianNextpart|Contents|Archive|NewWorldMediaEditor'snoteThisbookwascompiledfrominterviewsDavidBarsamianconductedwithNoamChomskyonDecember,andFebruary,AprilandMay,Iorganizedthematerialinto(whatIhopeare)coherenttopicsandremovedasmuchaspossibletherepetitionthatinevitablycropsupinwidelyspacedinterviewsliketheseThenIsenttheresulttoChomskyandBarsamianforfinalcorrectionsandchangesBarsamian'squestionsappearinthistypefacePhonedinquestionsfromradiolistenersappearinthesametypeface,butinitalicsWe'vetriedtodefinetermsandidentifypeoplethatmaybeunfamiliarthefirsttimethey'rementionedTheseexplanatorynotesarealsointhistypefaceandappearinsidesquarebracketsIfyourunacrossatermornameyoudon'trecognize,checktheindexforthefirstpageonwhichitappearsSincemanyreadersofChomsky'sbookscomeawayfromthemfeelingoverwhelmedanddespairing,thelastsectionofthisbook,calledWhatyoucando,containsalistoforganizationsworthinvestingenergyinNote:ThatsectionisnotyetavailableintheonlineversionofthisbookTheinterviewsthisbookisbasedonwerebroadcastaspartofBarsamian'sAlternativeRadioseries,whichisheardonstationsintheUS,Canada,EuropeandAustraliaAlternativeRadiohastapesandtranscriptsofhundredsofotherChomskyinterviewsandtalks,andonesbymanyotherfascinatingspeakersaswellForafreecatalog,callorwriteMapleton,BoulderCONoamChomskywasborninPhiladelphiainSince,he'staughtattheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnology,wherehebecameafullprofessorattheageofAmajorfigureintwentiethcenturylinguistics,he'salsowrittenmanybooksoncontemporaryissuesChomsky'spoliticaltalkshavebeenheard,typicallybystandingroomonlyaudiences,alloverthecountryandtheglobe,andhe'sreceivedcountlesshonorsandawardsInasanerworld,histirelesseffortstopromotejusticewouldhavelongsincewonhimtheNobelPeacePrizeArthurNaiman满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlGotothenextpartGototheTableofContents满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlSecrets,LiesandDemocracy(InterviewswithNoamChomsky)Copyright©byDavidBarsamianNextsection|Contents|Archive|NewWorldMediaTheUSDefectivedemocracyClinton'sNationalSecurityAdvisor,AnthonyLake,isencouragingtheenlargementofdemocracyoverseasShouldheextendthattotheUSIcan'ttellyouwhatAnthonyLakehasinmind,buttheconceptofdemocracythat'sbeenadvancedisaveryspecialone,andthemorehonestpeopleontherightdescribeitratheraccuratelyForexample,ThomasCarothers,whowasinvolvedinwhatwascalledthe"democracyassistanceproject"duringtheReaganadministration,haswrittenabookandseveralarticlesaboutitHesaystheUSseekstocreateaformoftopdowndemocracythatleavestraditionalstructuresofpowerbasicallycorporationsandtheiralliesineffectivecontrolAnyformofdemocracythatleavesthetraditionalstructuresessentiallyunchallengedisadmissibleAnyformthatunderminestheirpowerisasintolerableaseverSothere'sadictionarydefinitionofdemocracyandthenarealworlddefinitionTherealworlddefinitionismoreorlesstheoneCarothersdescribesThedictionarydefinitionhaslotsofdifferentdimensions,but,roughlyspeaking,asocietyisdemocratictotheextentthatpeopleinithavemeaningfulopportunitiestotakepartintheformationofpublicpolicyTherearealotofdifferentwaysinwhichthatcanbetrue,butinsofarasit'strue,thesocietyisdemocraticAsocietycanhavetheformaltrappingsofdemocracyandnotbedemocraticatallTheSovietUnion,forexample,hadelectionsTheUSobviouslyhasaformaldemocracywithprimaries,elections,referenda,recalls,andsoonButwhat'sthecontentofthisdemocracyintermsofpopularparticipationOverlongperiods,theinvolvementofthepublicinplanningorimplementation满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlofpublicpolicyhasbeenquitemarginalThisisabusinessrunsocietyThepoliticalpartieshavereflectedbusinessinterestsforalongtimeOneversionofthisviewwhichIthinkhasalotofpowerbehinditiswhatpoliticalscientistThomasFergusoncalls"theinvestmenttheoryofpolitics"HebelievesthatthestateiscontrolledbycoalitionsofinvestorswhojointogetheraroundsomecommoninterestToparticipateinthepoliticalarena,youmusthaveenoughresourcesandprivatepowertobecomepartofsuchacoalitionSincetheearlynineteenthcentury,Fergusonargues,there'sbeenastruggleforpoweramongsuchgroupsofinvestorsThelongperiodswhennothingverymajorseemedtobegoingonaresimplytimeswhenthemajorgroupsofinvestorshaveseenmoreorlesseyetoeyeonwhatpublicpolicyshouldlooklikeMomentsofconflictcomealongwhengroupsofinvestorshavedifferingpointsofviewDuringtheNewDeal,forexample,variousgroupingsofprivatecapitalwereinconflictoveranumberofissuesFergusonidentifiesahightech,capitalintensive,exportorientedsectorthattendedtobequiteproNewDealandinfavorofthereformsTheywantedanorderlyworkforceandanopeningtoforeigntradeAmorelaborintensive,domesticallyorientedsector,groupedessentiallyaroundtheNationalAssociationofManufacturers,wasstronglyantiNewDealTheydidn'twantanyofthesereformmeasures(Thosegroupsweren'ttheonlyonesinvolved,ofcourseTherewasthelabormovement,alotofpublicfermentandsoon)Youviewcorporationsasbeingincompatiblewithdemocracy,andyousaythatifweapplytheconceptsthatareusedinpoliticalanalysis,corporationsarefascistThat'sahighlychargedtermWhatdoyoumeanImeanfascismprettymuchinthetraditionalsenseSowhenarathermainstreampersonlikeRobertSkidelsky,thebiographerofBritisheconomistJohnMaynardKeynes,describestheearlypostwarsystemsasmodeledonfascism,hesimplymeansasysteminwhichthestateintegrateslaborandcapitalunderthecontrolofthecorporatestructureThat'swhatafascistsystemtraditionallywasItcanvaryinthewayitworks,buttheidealstatethatitaimsatisabsolutisttopdowncontrolwiththepublicessentiallyfollowingordersFascismisatermfromthepoliticaldomain,soitdoesn'tapplystrictlytocorporations,butifyoulookatthem,powergoesstrictlytopdown,fromtheboardofdirectorstomanagerstolowermanagersandultimatelytothepeopleontheshopfloor,typists,etcThere'snoflowofpowerorplanningfromthebottomupUltimatepowerresidesinthehandsofinvestors,owners,banks,etc满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlPeoplecandisrupt,makesuggestions,butthesameistrueofaslavesocietyPeoplewhoaren'townersandinvestorshavenothingmuchtosayaboutitTheycanchoosetorenttheirlabortothecorporation,ortopurchasethecommoditiesorservicesthatitproduces,ortofindaplaceinthechainofcommand,butthat'sitThat'sthetotalityoftheircontroloverthecorporationThat'ssomethingofanexaggeration,becausecorporationsaresubjecttosomelegalrequirementsandthereissomelimiteddegreeofpubliccontrolTherearetaxesandsoonButcorporationsaremoretotalitarianthanmostinstitutionswecalltotalitarianinthepoliticalarenaIsthereanythinglargecorporateconglomeratesdothathasbeneficialeffectsAlotofwhat'sdonebycorporationswillhappentohave,byaccident,beneficialeffectsforthepopulationThesameistrueofthegovernmentoranythingelseButwhataretheytryingtoachieveNotabetterlifeforworkersandthefirmsinwhichtheywork,butprofitsandmarketshareThat'snotabigsecretit'sthekindofthingpeopleshouldlearninthirdgradeBusinessestrytomaximizeprofit,power,marketshareandcontroloverthestateSometimeswhattheydohelpsotherpeople,butthat'sjustbychanceThere'sacommonbeliefthat,sincetheKennedyassassination,businessandelitepowercirclescontroloursocalleddemocracyHasthatchangedatallwiththeClintonadministrationFirstofall,KennedywasveryprobusinessHewasessentiallyabusinesscandidateHisassassinationhadnosignificanteffectonpolicythatanybodyhasbeenabletodetect(Therewasachangeinpolicyintheearlys,underNixon,butthathadtodowithchangesintheinternationaleconomy)Clintonisexactlywhathesaysheis,aprobusinesscandidateTheWallStreetJournalhadaveryenthusiastic,big,frontpagearticleabouthimrightaftertheNAFTAvoteTheypointedoutthattheRepublicanstendtobethepartyofbusinessasawhole,butthattheDemocratstendtofavorbigbusinessoversmallbusinessClinton,theysaid,istypicalofthisTheyquotedexecutivesfromtheFordMotorCompany,thesteelindustry,etcwhosaidthatthisisoneofthebestadministrationsthey'veeverhadThedayaftertheHousevoteonNAFTA,theNewYorkTimeshadaveryrevealingfrontpage,proClintonstorybytheirWashingtoncorrespondent,RWAppleItwentsortoflikethis:PeoplehadbeencriticizingClintonbecausehejustdidn'thaveanyprinciplesHebackeddownonBosnia,onSomalia,onhiseconomicstimulusprogram,onHaiti,onthehealthprogramHeseemedlikeaguywithnobottomlineatallThenheprovedthathereallywasamanofprincipleandthathereallydoes满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlhavebackbonebyfightingforthecorporateversionofNAFTASohedoeshaveprincipleshelistenstothecallofbigmoneyThesamewastrueofKennedyRadiolistener:I'veoftenwonderedaboutpeoplewhohavealotofpowerbecauseoftheirfinancialresourcesIsitpossibletoreachthemwithlogicThey'reactingverylogicallyandrationallyintheirowninterestsTaketheCEOofAetnaLifeInsurance,whomakes$millionayearinsalaryaloneHe'soneoftheguyswhoisgoingtoberunningourhealthcareprogramifClinton'splanpassesSupposeyoucouldconvincehimthatheoughttolobbyagainsthavingtheinsuranceindustryrunthehealthcareprogram,becausethatwillbeveryharmfultothegeneralpopulation(asindeeditwillbe)SupposeyoucouldconvincehimthatheoughttogiveuphissalaryandbecomeaworkingpersonWhatwouldhappenthenHe'dgetthrownoutandsomeoneelsewouldbeputinasCEOTheseareinstitutionalproblemsWhyisitimportanttokeepthegeneralpopulationinlineAnyformofconcentratedpowerdoesn'twanttobesubjectedtopopulardemocraticcontrolor,forthatmatter,tomarketdisciplineThat'swhypowerfulsectors,includingcorporatewealth,arenaturallyopposedtofunctioningdemocracy,justasthey'reopposedtofunctioningmarketsforthemselves,atleastIt'sjustnaturalTheydon'twantexternalconstraintsontheircapacitytomakedecisionsandactfreelyAndhasthatbeenthecaseAlwaysOfcourse,thedescriptionsofthefactsarealittlemorenuanced,becausemodern"democratictheory"ismorearticulateandsophisticatedthaninthepast,whenthegeneralpopulationwascalled"therabble"Morerecently,WalterLippmanncalledthem"ignorantandmeddlesomeoutsiders"Hefeltthat"responsiblemen"shouldmakethedecisionsandkeepthe"bewilderedherd"inlineModern"democratictheory"takestheviewthattheroleofthepublicthe"bewilderedherd,"inLippmann'swordsistobespectators,notparticipantsThey'resupposedtoshowupeverycoupleofyearstoratifydecisionsmadeelsewhere,ortoselectamongrepresentativesofthedominantsectorsinwhat'scalledan"election"That'shelpful,becauseithasalegitimizingeffectIt'sveryinterestingtoseethewaythisideaispromotedintheslickPR满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlproductionsoftherightwingfoundationsOneofthemostinfluentialintheideologicalarenaistheBradleyFoundationItsdirector,MichaelJoyce,recentlypublishedanarticleonthisIdon'tknowwhetherhewroteitoroneofhisPRguysdid,butIfounditfascinatingItstartsoffwithrhetoricdrawn,probablyconsciously,fromtheleftWhenleftliberalsorradicalactivistsstartreadingit,theygetafeelingofrecognitionandsympathy(Isuspectit'sdirectedatthemandatyoungpeople)Itbeginsbytalkingabouthowremotethepoliticalsystemisfromus,howwe'reaskedjusttoshowupeveryonceinawhileandcastourvotesandthengohomeThisismeaningless,thearticlesaysthisisn'trealparticipationintheworldWhatweneedisafunctioningandactivecivilsocietyinwhichpeoplecometogetheranddoimportantthings,notjustthisbusinessofpushingabuttonnowandthenThenthearticleasks,HowdoweovercometheseinadequaciesStrikingly,youdon'tovercomethemwithmoreactiveparticipationinthepoliticalarenaYoudoitbyabandoningthepoliticalarenaandjoiningthePTAandgoingtochurchandgettingajobandgoingtothestoreandbuyingsomethingThat'sthewaytobecomearealcitizenofademocraticsocietyNow,there'snothingwrongwithjoiningthePTAButthereareafewgapshereWhathappenedtothepoliticalarenaItdisappearedfromthediscussionafterthefirstfewcommentsabouthowmeaninglessitisIfyouabandonthepoliticalarena,somebodyisgoingtobethereCorporationsaren'tgoingtogohomeandjointhePTAThey'regoingtorunthingsButthatwedon'ttalkaboutAsthearticlecontinues,ittalksabouthowwe'rebeingoppressedbytheliberalbureaucrats,thesocialplannerswhoaretryingtoconvinceustodosomethingforthepoorThey'retheoneswhoarereallyrunningthecountryThey'rethatimpersonal,remote,unaccountablepowerthatwe'vegottogetoffourbacksaswefulfillourobligationsascitizensatthePTAandtheofficeThisargumentisn'tquitepresentedstepbysteplikethatinthearticleI'vecollapseditIt'sverycleverpropaganda,welldesigned,wellcrafted,withplentyofthoughtbehinditItsgoalistomakepeopleasstupid,ignorant,passiveandobedientaspossible,whileatthesametimemakingthemfeelthatthey'resomehowmovingtowardshigherformsofparticipationInyourdiscussionsofdemocracy,youoftenrefertoacoupleofcommentsofThomasJefferson'sJeffersondiedonJuly,fiftyyearstothedayaftertheDeclarationofIndependencewassignedNeartheendofhislife,hespokewithamixtureof满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多英语学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlconcernandhopeaboutwhathadbeenachieved,andurgedthepopulationtostruggletomaintainthevictoriesofdemocracyHemadeadistinctionbetweentwogroupsaristocratsanddemocratsAristocrats"fearanddistrustthepeople,andwishtodrawallpowersfromthemintothehandsofthehigherclasses"Thisviewisheldbyrespectableintellectualsinmanydifferentsocietiestoday,andisquitesimilartotheLeninistdoctrinethatthevanguardpartyofradicalintellectualsshouldtakepowerandleadthestupidmassestoabrightfutureMostliberalsarearistocratsinJefferson'ssenseFormerSecretaryofStateHenryKissingerisanextremeexampleofanaristocratDemocrats,Jeffersonwrote,"identifywiththepeople,haveconfidenceinthem,cherishandconsiderthemasthemosthonestandsafe,althoughnotthemostwise,depositoryofthepublicinterest"Inotherwords,democratsbelievethepeopleshouldbeincontrol,whetherornotthey'regoingtomaketherightdecisionsDemocratsdoexisttoday,butthey'rebecomingincreasinglymarginalJeffersonspecificallywarnedagainst"bankinginstitutionsandmoniedincorporations"(whatwewouldnowcall"corporations")andsaidthatiftheygrow,thearistocratswillhavewonandtheAmericanRevolutionwillhavebeenlostJefferson'sworstfearswere

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