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首页 《牛津英语同义词字典》英英纯正释义

《牛津英语同义词字典》英英纯正释义.pdf

《牛津英语同义词字典》英英纯正释义

咖啡豆
2011-06-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《《牛津英语同义词字典》英英纯正释义pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

TheOxfordThesaurusAnAZDictionaryofSynonymsINTROIntroduction=======================================Initsnarrowestsense,asynonymisawordorphrasethatisperfectlysubstitutableinacontextforanotherwordorphrasePeoplewhostudylanguageprofessionallyagreethatthereisnosuchthingasanidealsynonym,foritisvirtuallyimpossibletofindtwowordsorphrasesthatareidenticalindenotation(meaning),connotation,frequency,familiarity,andappropriatenessIndeed,linguistshavelongnotedtheeconomyoflanguage,whichsuggeststhatnolanguagepermitsaperfectfit,inallrespects,betweenanytwowordsorphrasesManyexamplesofoverlappingcanbecitedthemoreobviousonesinEnglisharethosethatreflectaduplicationarisingfromGermanicandRomancesources,likemotherlyandmaternal,farmingandagriculture,teachandinstructInsuchpairsthenativeEnglishformisoftentheonewithanearthier,warmerconnotationInsomeinstances,whereanewcoinageoraloanwordhasbeenadoptedinadvertentlyduplicatinganexistingterm,creating'true'synonyms,thetwowillquicklydiverge,notnecessarilyinmeaningbutinusage,application,connotation,level,oralloftheseForexample,scientistssomeyearsagoexpresseddissatisfactionwiththetermtidalwave,forthephenomenonwasnotcausedbytidesbut,usually,bysubmarineseismicactivityThewordtsunamiwasborrowedfromJapaneseinanattempttodescribethephenomenonmoreaccurately,butitwaslaterpointedoutthetsunamimeans'tidalwave'inJapaneseToday,thetermsexistsidebysideinEnglish,theolderexpressionstillincommonuse,thenewermorefrequentinthescientificandtechnicalliteratureAnysynonymbookmustbeseenasacompromisethatreliesonthesensitivityofitsuserstotheidiomaticnuancesofthelanguageInitsbestapplications,itservestoremindusersofwords,similarinmeaning,thatmightnotspringreadilytomind,andtoofferlistsofwordsandphrasesthatarealternativestoandcompromisesforthosethatmightotherwisebeoverusedandthereforeredundant,repetitious,andboringTheOxfordThesaurusgoesastepfurtherbyofferingexamplesentencestoillustratetheusesoftheheadwordsandtheiralternativesinnatural,idiomaticcontextsSelectionofheadwordsTwocriteriahavebeenemployed:first,headwordshavebeenselectedbecauseoftheirfrequencyinthelanguage,ontheassumptionthatsynonymsaremorelikelytobesoughtforthewordsthataremostusedsecond,someheadwordsoflowerfrequencyhavebeenincludedbecauseitwouldotherwisebeimpossibletofindasuitableplacetogrouptogetherwhatareperceivedasusefulsetsofsynonymswiththeirattendantillustrativesentencesObviouslistingshavebeenomittedonthegroundsthatusersoftheThesauruscaneasilyfindsynonymsfor,say,abdicationbymakingnounsoftheverbslistedunderabdicateThisdeliberateattempttoavoidduplicationismitigatedinthecaseofverycommonwordsFortheconvenienceoftheuser,bothshyandbashfularemainentries,asaremethod,manner,andmode,which,thoughmuchthesameinsomerespects,differindetailandapplicationInthisbook,however,mitigateisamainentrybutnotmitigation,mistakeandmistakenaremainentriesbutnotmistakenly,etcWhereitisdeterminedthatsuchderivationsareneitherautomaticnorsemanticallyobvious,separatelistingshavebeenprovidedIllustrativesentencesOntheprinciplethatawordisknownbythecompanyitkeeps,oneormoresentencesshowingthemainentrywordincontextareprovidedforeachsensediscriminationThesehavebeencarefullyselectedtodemonstratetheuseofthemainentryinacontextlikelytobeencounteredinfamiliarwrittenorspokenordinaryEnglish(Seealso,below)SynonymlistsEachmainentryisfollowedbyoneormoresensegroupings,eachillustratedbyoneormoresentencesAnefforthasbeenmadetogroupthesynonymssemanticallyaswellassyntacticallyandidiomatically:thatis,eachsynonymlistedwithinagivensetshouldprovetobemoreorlesssubstitutableforthemainentryintheillustrativesentenceInsomeinstances,idiomaticcongruitymay,unavoidably,becomestrainedwhereitisfelttobestretchedtoofarthoughstillproperlylistedamongitsaccompanyingsynonymsasemicolonhasbeeninsertedtoseparatesubgroupsofsynonyms,and,inmanycases,additionalillustrativesentenceshavebeenprovidedSuchsubgroupingshavebeenconfinedlargelytodistinctionsbetweenliteralusesandfiguresofspeech,betweentransitiveandintransitiveverbs,andbetweensynonymsthatdifferinmoresubtleaspectualcharacteristicsofmeaningorsyntax(Seealso,below)Notallsensesofallwordsarecoveredforeitherorbothofthefollowingreasons:thesense,thoughitexists,isrelativelyrareinordinarydiscourseandwritingtherearenoreasonablesynonymsforitThus,thissenseofmercy,anaffectingormovingofthemindinanywayamentalstatebroughtaboutbyanyinfluenceanemotionorfeeling:Mercyisanaffectionofthemindisnotcoveredforthefirstreason,asitisaliteraryandsomewhatarchaicusageThesamecanbesaidforthesense,abodilystateduetoanyinfluenceandforothersenseslistedinthelargestdictionariesbutrarelyencounteredexceptinliterarycontextsEveninsuchcontextsitwouldbeunusualtoneedasynonymforthiswordandotherslikeitCrossreferencesThereareveryfewcrossreferencesbetweenmainlistingsintheThesaurusWheresuchcrossreferencesdooccur,theyaresimpleandstraightforward:superioradjSeesupercilious,abovenSeesupervisor,belowAnumberofcrossreferencesoccurwithinentries,betweenvariantformsofanexpressionAttheentryfortake,forexample,asonecansayeithertakeortakeitinthesenseof'understand'etc,theoptionisshowninthefollowingway:takevunderstand,gather,interpret,perceive,apprehend,deduce,conclude,infer,judge,deem,assume,suppose,imagine,see:ItakehimtobeafoolItakeitfromyourexpressionthatyou'vehadbadnewstakeit:awithstandortolerateorsurvivepunishmentorabuse,survive:TheMarinesareextremelytoughandcantakeitbSee,aboveInafewentries,theform'Seealso'isusedLabelsaAllwordsandphrasesthatarerecognizedasbeingtypicalofaparticularvarietyofEnglish,whethergeographicalorstylistic,arelabelledItmightatfirstseemthatalargenumberofcolloquial,slang,andtaboowordshavebeenincludedThelabelsusedarethosecommonlyencounteredinordinarydictionaries:ColloqColloquialinformalusedineverydayconversationandwriting,especiallyinthepopularpressandindramaticdialoguesometimesavoidedwheremoreformallanguageisfelttobeappropriate,asinbusinesscorrespondence,scholarlyworks,technicalreports,documents,etcSlangBelongingtothemostinformalregisterandcharacteristicofspokenEnglishoftenoriginatinginthecultlanguageofaparticularsocioculturalgroupNotsufficientlyelevatedtobeusedinmostwriting(asidefromdialogue),althoughoftenfoundinthepopularpressandfrequentlyheardonpopularradioandtelevisionprogrammesTabooNotusedinpolitesociety,usuallybecauseoftheriskofoffendingsexual,religious,orculturalsensibilitiesoccasionallyencounteredonlatenighttelevisionandradiooftenoccurringingraffitiandindialogueinnovels,plays,andfilmsArchaicDescribinganobsoletewordorphrase(liketicketyboo,loungelizard)thatisuseddeliberatelytoinvokethefeelingofabygonetimeOldfashionedUsedofasynonym(likecomfit)thatisnolongercurrentbutmightoccasionallybeencounteredamongolderspeakersandinolderwritingTechnicalUsedofasomewhatspecializedwordthatisnotcommonlyencounteredinordinary,everydayEnglish,likedefalcator,whichappearsasasynonymunderswindlerLiteraryDescribesaword,likeeuchre'cheat',thatisnotusuallymetwithineverydaylanguage,evenoftheformalgenre,butmaybefoundinpoetryandotherliteraryworksBrit,US,Australian,Canadian,NewZealandMarksawordorphrasethatoccursmainlyinthedesignatedvarietyThemeaningsofotherlabelsareselfevidentbAlllabelscanoccurincombinationUsagelabelsalwaystakeprecedenceoverregionallabelsForexample,pushovernsurething,Colloqpieceofcake,child'splay,snap,picnic,walkover,USbreeze,Slangcinch,Britdoddle,USleadpipecinchHere'surething'isstandarduniversalEnglishAllwordsandphrasesfollowingColloquptotheSlanglabelarecolloquial:'pieceofcake,walkover'areuniversalcolloquialEnglish,'breeze'isUScolloquialAllsynonymsfollowingtheSlanglabelareslang'cinch'isuniversalEnglishslang,'doddle'isconfinedtoBritishslang,and'leadpipecinch'isconfinedtoAmericanslangtalentedadjColloqace,crack,topnotch,Britwizard,whizzo,UScrackerjackInthisentry,allsynonymsshownarecolloquial,'ace,crack,topnotch'beinguniversalEnglish,'wizard,whizzo'British,and'crackerjack'USItmustbeemphasizedthatsuchlabelsaretosomeextentimpressionisticandarebasedintheThesaurusonaconsensusofseveralsources:thatis,thereisnoimplicationthat'breeze'isneverusedinthesenseof'pushover'exceptintheUS,norshouldsuchaninferencebemadecCommentsregardingwhatmightbeviewedas'correct'incontrastto'incorrect'usagearegenerallyavoidedForexample,thenonstandarduseofbetweenincontextsreferringtomorethantwoofanythingorofamongincontextsinvolvingfewerthanthreegoesunmarkedHowever,iftheusagequestionisconfinedtowhatcaneasilyberepresentedina'lexical'environment,thensuitabletreatmentisaccordeditthus'now'and'atpresent'arelabelledNonStandardunderpresentlyTotakeanotherexample,'differentto',inthetypicallyBritishusageHishouseisdifferenttomine,israrelyencounteredinAmericanEnglishinAmericanEnglish,puristscondemn'differentthan',asinHishouseisdifferentthanmine,whichisincreasinglyheardinBritishEnglishpuristsonbothsidesoftheAtlanticprefer'differentfrom'SuchmattersarebestlefttousagebooksandtousagenotesindictionariesandarenottreatedintheThesaurusdMainentrywordsandsubentriesarenotlabelled,onlythesynonymsThus,underbeatappearstheidiomaticexpression,beatit,whichisnotlabelled:beatit:depart,leave,abscond,runofforaway,SlangUStakeitonthelam,lamoutofhere,hittheroad:You'dbetterbeatitbeforethecopscomeTheidiomisnotlabelledbecauseitisassumedthattheuserhaslookedituptofindasubstituteforit,henceneedsnoinformationaboutitotherthanalistingofitsalternatives(whicharelabelled,whenappropriate)andanillustrativeexampleArareexceptiontotheaboveruleoccurswhereaheadwordhasonemeaninginBritishEnglishandquiteadifferentmeaninginanotherregionalvarietyThus:subwaynInUS:underground(railway),tube:ShetakesthesubwaytoworkInBritain:tunnel,underpass:UsethesubwaytocrosstheroadinsafetyHere,thetworegionallabelsdonotapplytothesynonyms(since,forexample,'tunnel'hasthesamemeaninginbothBritishandUSEnglish)buttothetwodefinitionsoftheheadwordeSynonymsbearinganykindoflabelappearattheendofthesetinwhichtheyarelisted,exceptinthecasedescribedimmediatelyaboveSpellingandothervariantsThespellingsshownthroughoutarethosepreferredbymostmodernBritishwritersBritishvariantspellingsareshowniftheyarevariantsofthemainentryword,theyappearasthefirstwordintheset(s)ofsynonymsfollowing:mousyadjmousey,movableadjmoveable,Suchvariantsarealsoshownwhentheyappearwithinanentry:movableadjtransferableortransferrable,CommonAmericanspellingvariants(humor,traveler,unraveled)arenotshown,butlesscommononesarelistedforconvenienceWherebothformsarevariantsinAmericanspelling,theyaredescribedby'orUSalso':accoutrementsorUSalsoaccouterments,phoneyorUSalsophony,Thisshouldbeunderstoodtomean'thenormalBritishspellingisaccoutrements(orphoney)thisform,togetherwithaccouterments(orphony),occursinAmericanEnglish'SubstitutabilityaThepurposeofasynonymbookistoprovidetheuserwithacollectionofwordsthatareascloseaspossibleinmeaningtoadesignatedwordTheOxfordThesaurustriestogotoastepfurtherbyprovidingexamplesthatnotonlyillustratethemainentrywordinanaturalcontextualenvironmentbutalsoallowtheusertosubstituteasmanyofthesynonymsaspossibleintotheframeworkofthecontextForexample:porousadjspongy,spongelike,permeable,pervious,penetrable:TherainwaterrunsthroughtheporousrockandcollectsinthepoolsbelowItispossibletosubstituteforporousinthesamplesentenceanyofthewordsgivenassynonymswithoutanyadjustmentofthegrammarorphrasingoftheexampleThatisnottosuggestthatthesynonymsareidentical:'permeable'and'pervious'belongtoadifferentregisterfromthatof'spongy,spongelike',beingmorecommonintechnicalusageSomemightarguethat'penetrable'isnotsynonymouswiththeotherlistedwordsbutitisthefunctionofthisbooktoprovidesynonymsforthemainentries,notfortheothersynonymsthatmightbelistedNoclaimismadenorcoulditbemadethatsynonymsareidentical,eithertooneanotherortoanotherword,merelythattheyfallwellwithinthecriteriaofwhat,forpracticalpurposes,isviewedassynonymyinthelanguageItiscertainlytruethatsubstitutingforporousanyofthefivelistedsynonymswillyieldfivestandardEnglishsentencebSomejudgementisrequiredoftheuserindeterminingthesyntaxandidiomaticitywithwhichagivenwordorexpressioncanbesubstitutedinanillustrativecontext:wordsarerarelyasreadilyinterchangeableinacontextasmightbecomponentsinachemicalormathematicalformulaMoreover,whilesuchformulaearereflectiveofscience,languageoffersitsusersthevirtuallyinfinitevarietyavailableonlyinart,witheachindividualspeakerofanylanguagebeingpresentedwiththeopportunitytobecomeanartistInthefollowingexample,nearlyalltermscanbesubstitutedforadjoininginthefirstillustrativesentencetocreateidiomaticparallelstothesecondsentence,theparentheticalprepositionsmustbeused:adjoiningadjneighboring,contiguous(to),adjacent(to),abutting,bordering,next(to):WehaveboughttheadjoininglandandwillbuildournewhousethereThelandadjoiningthesupermarketisforsaleInterpretingthis,thefollowingareallidiomatic:adjoiningland,neighbouringland,contiguousland,adjacentland,abuttingland,andborderinglandButifthecontextrequirestheadjectivetocomeafterland(withafollowingnoun),thentheparentheticalwordsmustbeaddedtoyieldconstructionsthatareidiomatic,likelandadjoiningthesupermarket,landneighboringthesupermarket,landcontinuoustothesupermarket,landadjacenttothesupermarket,landabuttingthesupermarket,landborderingthesupermarket,andlandnexttothesupermarketAsthisisintendedasasynonymbookandnotaworkonEnglishcollocations,thetreatmentofidiomaticitycannotbetakenfurthercThereareotherreasonswhydirectsubstitutabilityisnotalwayspossiblewithinasinglesemanticconceptThefollowingextractdemonstratesthis:possessvdominate,control,govern,consume,takecontrolof,preoccupy,obsesscharm,captivate,enchant,castaspellonorover,bewitch,enthral:WhatpossessedhertothinkthatIcouldhelpHebehavesasifheispossessedbythedevilHere,twoaspectsofthesamesensehavebeendividedbyasemicolon,withthesynonymsprecedingthesemicolonillustratedbythefirstcontextualexampleandthosefollowingitbythesecondWhileitmaybearguedthatinthisinstancethesynon

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