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首页 美国文学简史笔记(常耀信)

美国文学简史笔记(常耀信).pdf

美国文学简史笔记(常耀信)

咖啡豆
2011-06-01 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《美国文学简史笔记(常耀信)pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

满分网(wwwmanfennet)AConciseHistoryofAmericanLiteratureWhatisliteratureLiteratureislanguageartisticallyusedtoachieveidentifiableliteraryqualitiesandtoconveymeaningfulmessagesChapterColonialPeriodIBackground:PuritanismfeaturesofPuritanism()Predestination:Goddecidedeverythingbeforethingsoccurred()Originalsin:Humanbeingswereborntobeevil,andthisoriginalsincanbepasseddownfromgenerationtogeneration()Totaldepravity()Limitedatonement:Onlythe“elect”canbesavedInfluence()Agroupofgoodqualities–hardwork,thrift,piety,sobriety(seriousandthoughtful)influencedAmericanliterature()ItledtotheeverlastingmythAllliteratureisbasedonamyth–gardenofEden()Symbolism:theAmericanpuritan’smetaphoricalmodeofperceptionwaschieflyinstrumentalincallingintobeingaliterarysymbolismwhichisdistinctlyAmerican()Withregardtotheirwriting,thestyleisfresh,simpleanddirecttherhetoricisplainandhonest,notwithoutatouchofnobilityoftentraceabletothedirectinfluenceoftheBibleIIOverviewoftheliteraturetypesofwritingdiaries,histories,journals,letters,travelbooks,autobiographiesbiographies,sermonswritersofcolonialperiod()AnneBradstreet()EdwardTaylor()RogerWilliams()JohnWoolman()ThomasPaine()PhilipFreneauIIIJonathanEdwardslifeworks()TheFreedomoftheWill()TheGreatDoctrineofOriginalSinDefended()TheNatureofTrueVirtueideas–pioneeroftranscendentalism()Thespiritofrevivalism()Regenerationofman()God’spresence()PuritanidealismIVBenjaminFranklinlifeworks()PoorRichard’sAlmanac()Autobiographycontribution()HehelpedfoundthePennsylvaniaHospitalandtheAmericanPhilosophicalSociety()Hewascalled“thenewPrometheuswhohadstolenfire(electricityinthiscase)fromheaven”满分网(wwwmanfennet)()Everythingseemstomeetinthisoneman–“Jackofalltrades”HermanMelvillethusdescribedhim“masterofeachandmasteredbynone”ChapterAmericanRomanticismSectionEarlyRomanticPeriodWhatisRomanticismzAnapproachfromancientGreek:PlatozAliterarytrend:cinBritain(~)zSchlegelBrosIPreview:Characteristicsofromanticismsubjectivity()feelingandemotions,findingtruth()emphasisonimagination()emphasisonindividualism–personalfreedom,noheroworship,naturalgoodnessofhumanbeingsbacktomedieval,espmedievalfolkliterature()unrestrainedbyclassicalrules()fullofimagination()colloquiallanguage()freedomofimagination()genuineinfeelings:answertheircallforclassicsbacktonaturenatureis“breathinglivingthing”(Rousseau)IIAmericanRomanticismBackground()Politicalbackgroundandeconomicdevelopment()RomanticmovementinEuropeancountriesDerivative–foreigninfluencefeatures()Americanromanticismwasinessencetheexpressionof“arealnewexperienceandcontained“analienquality”forthesimplereasonthat“thespiritoftheplace”wasradicallynewandalien()ThereisAmericanPuritanismasaculturalheritagetoconsiderAmericanromanticauthorstendedmoretomoralizeManyAmericanromanticwritingsintendedtoedifymorethantheyentertained()The“newness”ofAmericansasanationisinconnectionwithAmericanRomanticism()Asalogicalresultoftheforeignandnativefactorsatwork,AmericanromanticismwasbothimitativeandindependentIIIWashingtonIrvingseveralnamesattachedtoIrving()firstAmericanwriter()themessengersentfromthenewworldtotheoldworld()fatherofAmericanliteraturelifeworks()AHistoryofNewYorkfromtheBeginningoftheWorldtotheEndoftheDutchDynasty()TheSketchBookofGeoffreyCrayon,Gent(Hewonameasureofinternationalrecognitionwiththepublicationofthis)()TheHistoryoftheLifeandVoyagesofChristopherColumbus()AChronicleoftheConquestofGranada满分网(wwwmanfennet)()TheAlhambraLiterarycareer:twoparts()~aSubjectsareeitherEnglishorEuropeanbConservativelovefortheantique()~:backtoUSstyle–beautiful()gentility,urbanity,pleasantness()avoidingmoralizing–amusingandentertaining()envelopingstoriesinanatmosphere()vividandtruecharacters()humour–smilingwhilereading()musicallanguageIVJamesFenimoreCooperlifeworks()Precaution(,hisfirstnovel,imitatingAusten’sPrideandPrejudice)()TheSpy(hissecondnovelandgreatsuccess)()LeatherstockingTales(hismasterpiece,aseriesoffivenovels)TheDeerslayer,TheLastoftheMohicans,ThePathfinder,ThePioneer,ThePrairiepointofviewthethemeofwildernessvscivilization,freedomvslaw,ordervschange,aristocratvsdemocrat,naturalrightsvslegalrightsstyle()highlyimaginative()goodatinventingtales()goodatlandscapedescription()conservative()characterizationwoodenandlackinginprobability()languageanduseofdialectnotauthenticliteraryachievementsHecreatedamythabouttheformativeperiodoftheAmericannationIfthehistoryoftheUnitedStatesis,inasense,theprocessoftheAmericansettlersexploringandpushingtheAmericanfrontierforeverwestward,thenCooper’sLeatherstockingTaleseffectivelyapproximatestheAmericannationalexperienceofadventureintotheWestHeturnedthewestandfrontierasauseablepastandhehelpedtointroducewesterntraditiontoAmericanliteratureSectionSummitofRomanticism–AmericanTranscendentalismIBackground:foursourcesUnitarianism()FatherhoodofGod()Brotherhoodofmen()LeadershipofJesus()Salvationbycharacter(perfectionofone’scharacter)()Continuedprogressofmankind()Divinityofmankind()DepravityofmankindRomanticIdealismCenteroftheworldisspirit,absolutespirit(Kant)OrientalmysticismCenteroftheworldis“oversoul”满分网(wwwmanfennet)PuritanismEloquentexpressionintranscendentalismIIAppearance,“Nature”byEmersonIIIFeaturesspiritoversoulimportanceofindividualismnature–symbolofspiritGodgarmentoftheoversoulfocusinintuition(irrationalismandsubconsciousness)IVInfluenceItservedasanethicalguidetolifeforayoungnationandbroughtabouttheideathathumancanbeperfectedbynatureItstressedreligioustolerance,calledtothrowoffshacklesofcustomsandtraditionsandgoforwardtothedevelopmentofanewanddistinctlyAmericancultureItadvocatedidealismthatwasgreatneededinarapidlyexpandedeconomywhereopportunityoftenbecameopportunism,andthedesireto“geton”obscuredthemoralnecessityforrisingtospiritualheightIthelpedtocreatethefirstAmericanrenaissance–oneofthemostprolificperiodinAmericanliteratureVRalphWaldoEmersonlifeworks()Nature()Twoessays:TheAmericanScholar,ThePoetpointofview()Onemajorelementofhisphilosophyishisfirmbeliefinthetranscendenceofthe“oversoul”()Heregardsnatureasthepurest,andthemostsanctifyingmoralinfluenceonman,andadvocatedadirectintuitionofaspiritualandimmanentGodinnature()Ifmandependsuponhimself,cultivateshimselfandbringsoutthedivineinhimself,hecanhopetobecomebetterandevenperfectThisiswhatEmersonmeansby“theinfinitudeofman”()Everyoneshouldunderstandthathemakeshimselfbymakinghisworld,andthathemakestheworldbymakinghimselfaestheticideas()Heisacompleteman,aneternalman()Truepoetryandtrueartshouldennoble()Thepoetshouldexpresshisthoughtinsymbols()Astotheme,EmersoncalleduponAmericanauthorstocelebrateAmericawhichwastohimalonepoeminitselfhisinfluenceVIHenryDavidThoreaulifeworks()AWeekontheConcordandMerrimackRiver()Walden()APleaforJohnBrown(anessay)pointofview()HedidnotlikethewayamaterialisticAmericawasdevelopingandwasvehementlyoutspokenonthepoint满分网(wwwmanfennet)()Hehatedthehumaninjusticeasrepresentedbytheslaverysystem()LikeEmerson,butmorethanhim,Thoreausawnatureasagenuinerestorative,healthyinfluenceonman’sspiritualwellbeing()Hehasfaithintheinnervirtueandinward,spiritualgraceofman()Hewasverycriticalofmoderncivilization()“Simplicity…simplify!”()Hewassorelydisgustedwith“theinundationsofthedirtyinstitutionsofmen’soddfellowsociety”()HehascalmtrustinthefutureandhisardentbeliefinanewgenerationofmenSectionLateRomanticismINathanielHawthornelifeworks()Twocollectionsofshortstories:TwicetoldTales,MossesfromandOldManse()TheScarletLetter()TheHouseoftheSevenGables()TheMarbleFaunpointofview()Evilisatthecoreofhumanlife,“thatblacknessinHawthorne”()Wheneverthereissin,thereispunishmentSinorevilcanbepassedfromgenerationtogeneration(causality)()Heisoftheopinionthatevileducates()Hehasdisgustinscienceaestheticideas()HetookagreatinterestinhistoryandantiquityTohimthesefurnishthesoilonwhichhismindgrowstofruition()HewasconvincedthatromancewasthepredestinedformofAmericannarrativeTotellthetruthandsatirizeandyetnottooffend:ThatwaswhatHawthornehadinmindtoachievestyle–typicalromanticwriter()theuseofsymbols()revelationofcharacters’psychology()theuseofsupernaturalmixedwiththeactual()hisstoriesareparable(parableinform)–toteachalesson()useofambiguitytokeepthereaderintheworldofuncertainty–multiplepointofviewIIHermanMelvillelifeworks()Typee()Omio()Mardi()Redburn()WhiteJacket()MobyDick()Pierre()BillyBuddpointofview()Heneverseemsabletosayanaffirmativeyestolife:Hisistheattitudeof“EverlastingNay”(negativeattitudetowardslife)()Oneofthemajorthemesofhisisalienation(farawayfromeachother)满分网(wwwmanfennet)Otherthemes:loneliness,suicidalindividualism(individualismcausingdisasteranddeath),rejectionandquest,confrontationofinnocenceandevil,doubtsoverthecomfortingcideaofprogressstyle()LikeHawthorne,Melvillemanagestoachievetheeffectofambiguitythroughemployingthetechniqueofmultipleviewofhisnarratives()Hetendstowriteperiodicchapters()Hisrichrhythmicalproseandhispoeticpowerhavebeenprofuselycommenteduponandpraised()Hisworksaresymbolicandmetaphorical()Heincludesmanynonnarrativechaptersoffactualbackgroundordescriptionofwhatgoesonboardtheshiporontheroute(MobyDick)RomanticPoetsIWaltWhitmanlifework:LeavesofGrass(editions)()SongofMyself()ThereWasaChildWentForth()CrossingBrooklynFerry()DemocraticVistas()PassagetoIndia()OutoftheCradleEndlesslyRockingthemes–“CatalogueofAmericanandEuropeanthought”HehadbeeninfluencedbymanyAmericanandEuropeanthoughts:enlightenment,idealism,transcendentalism,science,evolutionideas,westernfrontierspirits,Jefferson’sindividualism,CivilWarUnionism,OrientalismMajorthemesinhispoems(almosteverything):zequalityofthingsandbeingszdivinityofeverythingzimmanenceofGodzdemocracyzevolutionofcosmoszmultiplicityofnaturezselfreliantspiritzdeath,beautyofdeathzexpansionofAmericazbrotherhoodandsocialsolidarity(unityofnationsintheworld)zpursuitofloveandhappinessstyle:“freeverse”()nofixedrhymeorscheme()parallelism,arhythmofthought()phoneticrecurrence()thehabitofusingsnapshots()theuseofacertainpronoun“I”()alooserandmoreopenendedsyntacticstructure()useofconventionalimage()strongtendencytouseoralEnglish()vocabulary–powerful,colourful,rarelyusedwordsofforeignorigins,someevenwrong()sentences–cataloguetechnique:longlistofnames,longpoemlinesinfluence满分网(wwwmanfennet)()HisbestworkhasbecomepartofthecommonpropertyofWesternculture()HetookoverWhitman’svisionofthepoetprophetandpoetteacherandrecastitinamoresophisticatedandEuropeanizedmood()HehasbeencomparedtoamountaininAmericanliteraryhistory()ContemporaryAmericanpoetry,whateverschoolorform,bearswitnesstohisgreatinfluenceIIEmilyDickensonlifeworks()MyLifeClosedTwicebeforeItsClose()BecauseICan’tStopforDeath()IHeardaFlyBuzz–WhenIdied()Mine–bytheRightoftheWhiteElection()WildNights–WildNightsthemes:basedonherownexperiencesjoyssorrows()religion–doubtandbeliefaboutreligioussubjects()deathandimmortality()love–sufferingandfrustrationcausedbylove()physicalaspectofdesire()nature–kindandcruel()freewillandhumanresponsibilitystyle()poemswithouttitles()severeeconomyofexpression()directness,brevity()musicaldevicetocreatecadence(rhythm)()capitalletters–emphasis()shortpoems,mainlytwostanzas()rhetorictechniques:personification–makesomeofabstractideasvividIIIComparison:WhitmanvsDickinsonSimilarities:()Thematically,theybothextolled,intheirdifferentways,anemergentAmerica,itsexpansion,itsindividualismanditsAmericanness,theirpoetrybeingpartof“AmericanRenaissance”()Technically,theybothaddedtotheliteraryindependenceofthenewnationbybreakingfreeoftheconventionoftheiambicpentameterandexhibitingafreedominformunknownbefore:theywerepioneersinAmericanpoetrydifferences:()WhitmanseemstokeephiseyeonsocietyatlargeDickinsonexplorestheinnerlifeoftheindividual()WhereasWhitmanis“national”inhisoutlook,Dickinsonis“regional”()Dickinsonhasthe“cataloguetechnique”(direct,simplestyle)whichWhitmandoesn’thaveEdgarAllenPoeILifeIIWorksshortstories()ratiocinativestoriesaMsFoundinaBottlebTheMurdersintheRueMorguecThePurloinedLetter满分网(wwwmanfennet)()Revenge,deathandrebirthaTheFalloftheHouseofUsherbLigeiacTheMasqueoftheRedDeath()LiterarytheoryaThePhilosophyofCompositionbThePoeticPrinciplecReviewofHawthorne’sTwicetoldTalesIIIThemesdeath–predominantthemeinPoe’swriting“PoeisnotinterestedinanythingaliveEverythinginPoe’swritingsisdead”disintegration(separation)oflifehorrornegativethoughtsofscienceIVAestheticideasTheshortstoriesshouldbeofbrevity,totality,singleeffect,compressionandfinalityThepoemsshouldbeshort,andtheaimshouldbebeauty,thetonemelancholyPoemsshouldnotbeofmoralizingHecallsforpurepoetryandstressesrhythmVStyle–traditional,butnoteasytoreadVIReputation:“thejingleman”(Emerson)VIIHisinfluencesChapterTheAgeofRealismIBackground:FromRomanticismtoRealismthethreeconflictsthatreachedbreakingpointinthisperiod()industrialismvsagrarian()culturelymeasuredeastvsnewlydevelopedwest()plantationgentilityvscommercialgentility’surbanization:fromfreecompetitiontomonopolycapitalismtheclosingofAmericanfrontierIICharacteristicstruthfuldescriptionoflifetypicalcharacterundertypicalcircumstanceobjectiveratherthanidealized,closeobservationandinvestigationoflife“Realisticwritersarelikescientists”openending:LifeiscomplexandcannotbefullyunderstoodItleavesmuchroomforreaderstothinkbythemselvesconcernedwithsocialandpsychologicalproblems,revealingthefrustrationsofcharactersinanenvironmentofsordidnessanddepravityIIIThreeGiantsinRealisticPeriodWilliamDeanHowells–“DeanofAmericanRealism”()RealisticprinciplesaRealismis“fidelitytoexperienceandprobabilityofmotive”bTheaimis“talkofsomeordinarytraitsofAmericanlife”cManinhisnaturalandunaffecteddullnesswastheobjectofHowells’sfictionalrepresentationdRealismisbynomeansmerephotographicpicturesofexternalsbutincludesacentralconcernwith“motives”andpsychologicalconflictseHecondemnsnovelsofsentimentalityandmorbidselfsacrifice,andavoidssuchthemesasillicitlovefAuthorsshouldminimizeplotandtheartificialorderingofthesenseofsomething满分网(wwwmanfennet)“desultory,unfinished,imperfect”gCharactersshouldhavesolidityofspecificationandberealhInterpretingsympatheticallythe“commonfeelingsofcommonplacepeople”wasbestsuitedasatechniquetoexpressthespiritofAmericaiHeurgedwriterstowinnowtraditionandwriteinkeepingwithcurrenthumanitarianidealsjTruthisthehighestbeauty,butitincludestheviewthatmoralitypenetratesallthingskWithregardtoliterarycriticism,Howellsfeltthattheliterarycriticshouldnottrytoimposearbitraryorsubjectiveevaluationsonbooksbutshouldfollowthedetachedscientistinaccuratedescription,interpretation,andclassification()WorksaTheRiseofSilasLaphambAChanceAcquaintancecAModernInstance()FeaturesofHisWorksaOptimistictonebMoraldevelopmentethicscLackingofpsychologicaldepthHenryJames()Life()Literarycareer:threestagesa~:internationalthemezTheAmericanzDaisyMillerzThePortraitofaLadyb~:interpersonalrelationshipsandsomeplayszDaisyMiller(play)c~:novellasandtalesdealingwithchildhoodandadolescence,thenbacktointernationalthemezTheTurnoftheScrewzWhenMaisieKnewzTheAmbassadorszTheWingsoftheDovezTheGoldenBowl()AestheticideasaTheaimofnovel:representlifebCommon,evenuglysideoflifecSocialfunctionofartdAvoidingomniscientpointofview()PointofviewaPsychologicalanalysis,forefatherofstreamofconsciousnessbPsychologicalrealismcHighlyrefinedlanguage()Style–“stylist”aLanguage:highlyrefined,polished,insightful,accuratebVocabulary:largecConstruction:complicated,intricateMarkTwain(seenextsection)LocalColorisms,s~s满分网(wwwmanfennet)IAppearanceunevendevelopmentineconomyinAmericaculture:flourishingoffrontierliterature,humouristsmagazinesappearedtoletwriterpublishtheirworksIIWhatis“LocalColour”Tasksoflocalcolourists:towriteorpresentlocalcharactersoftheirregionsintruthfuldepictiondistinguishedfromothers,usuallyaverysmallpartoftheworldRegionalliterature(similar,butlargerinworld)zGarland,Harte–thewestzEggleston–IndianazMrsStow

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