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首页 英语100篇精读荟萃

英语100篇精读荟萃.pdf

英语100篇精读荟萃

感情控与情绪控
2017-06-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语100篇精读荟萃pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

英语篇精读荟萃(基础篇)Passageone(Theonlywaytotravelisonfoot)ThepastagesofmanhaveallbeencarefullylabeledbyanthropologistsDescriptionslike'PalaeolithicMan','NeolithicMan',etc,neatlysumupwholeperiodsWhenthetimecomesforanthropologiststoturntheirattentiontothetwentiethcentury,theywillsurelychoosethelabel'LeglessMan'Historiesofthetimewillgosomethinglikethis:'inthetwentiethcentury,peopleforgothowtousetheirlegsMenandwomenmovedaboutincars,busesandtrainsfromaveryearlyageTherewereliftsandescalatorsinalllargebuildingstopreventpeoplefromwalkingThissituationwasforceduponearthdwellersofthattimebecauseofmileseachdayButthesurprisingthingisthattheydidn'tusetheirlegsevenwhentheywentonholidayTheybuiltcablerailways,skiliftsandroadstothetopofeveryhugemountainAllthebeautyspotsonearthweremarredbythepresenceoflargecarparks'ThefuturehistorybooksmightalsorecordthatweweredeprivedoftheuseofoureyesInourhurrytogetfromoneplacetoanother,wefailedtoseeanythingonthewayAirtravelgivesyouabird'seyeviewoftheworldorevenlessifthewingofngeIthasagovernmentnotdependentoncoalescingincompatiblepartiestoobtainparliamentarymajoritiesInthussummarizingafewhappyhighlights,Idon'tmeantominimizethevastextentofGreece'sproblemsItisthepoorestcountrybyawidemargininFreeEurope,andpovertyiswidespreadAtbestanannualincomeof$to$isthelotofmanyapeasant,andsubstantialunemploymentplaguesthecountryside,cities,andtownsofGreeceTherearefewnaturalresourcesonwhichtobuildanysubstantialindustrialbaseSomeyearsagoIwrotehere:“GreekstatesmanshipwillhavetocreateanatmosphereinwhichhomeandforeignsavingswillwillinglyseekinvestmentopportunitiesinthebackwardeconomyofGreeceSofar,mostAmericanandotherforeignattempthaveboggeddownintheGreekgovernment'sredtapeandshrewdnessaboutsmallpoints”GreatstrideshavebeenmadeAsfarbackas,expandingtourismseemedalogicalwaytobringneededforeigncurrenciesandadditionaljobstoGreeceAtthattimeItalkedwiththeHiltonHotelpeople,whohadbeenexamininghotelpossibilities,andtotheGreekgovernmentdivisionresponsibleforthisareaoftheeconomyTheywerehopelesslydeadlockedinalmosttotaldifferencesofopinionandoutlookTodaymostoftheincrediblyvaried,beautiful,historicalsightsofGreecehavenew,ifinmanycasesmodest,touristfacilitiesTourismitselfhasjumpedfromapproximately$milliontoover$millionThereisbothamagnificentnewHiltonHotelinAthensandacompletelymodernized,greatlyexpandedGrandeBretagne,aswellasotherfirstratenewhotelsAndtheadventofjetshasmadeAthensasaccessibleasParisorRomewithouttheskyhighpricesoftrafficchokedstreetsofeitherThetitlebelowthatbestexpressestheideasofthispassageisAGreekincomeandexpendituresBTheimprovingeconomicsituationinGreeceCThevalueoftourismDMilitaryexpendituresManypeasantsearnlessthanA$aweekB$aweekC$adayD$amonthTheGreekGovernmentspendsAmorethanofitsbudgetonmilitarytermsBMorethanitscollectsCAthirdofabilliondollarsingoldDLessthanofitsbudgetonmilitarytermsAccordingtothepassage,GreecehasAadictatorshipBamonarchyCasinglemajoritypartyDtoomuchredtapeGreeceimportsannuallygoodsandmaterialsAtotalingalmost$millionBthatbalanceexportsCthatarepaidbytouristsDcosting$millionVocabularyremittance汇款(额)washout洗掉取消、告吹、冲掉、筋疲力尽drachma古希腊银币德拉克马(现代希腊货币单位)lot份额incompatible水火不相容的不能共存的coalesce(政党)联合愈合接合highlight光线最强处最重要部分最精彩场面margin(成本和售价的)差额空白边缘bogdown陷于困境使停顿redtape官样文章烦琐和拖拉的公务程序shrewdness清明机灵deadlock僵局僵持使陷于僵局难句译注Greece,economicallyisintheblack【参考译文】希腊经济上说是赢利富裕的Withverylittleexportotherthansuchfarmproductsastobacco,cottonandfruit,thecountryearnsenoughfrominvisibleearningstopayitsneeded,growingimports【参考译文】除了农产品如烟草、棉花和水果之外希腊没有什么出口货但它从“无形的收益”中挣不少足够致富所需的一切――日益增长的进口货。Thiswashesoutalmost$millionbywhichimportsexceedexports【参考译文】这笔钱冲掉了进口超过出口近亿美元的差额。SofarmostAmericanandotherforeignattemptshaveboggeddownintheGreekgovernment'sredtapeandshrewdnessaboutsmallpoints【参考译文】到目前为止由于希腊政府那种繁琐而又拖拉的公务程序和对小事的精明大多数美国和其他国家的尝试的工作都陷入困境。Theywerehopelesslydeadlockedinalmosttotaldifferencesofopinionandoutlook【参考译文】他们绝望地陷于意见和观点完全分歧的僵局之中。AndtheadventofjetshasmadeAthensasaccessibleasParisandRomewithouttheskyhighpricesoftrafficchockedstreetsofeither【参考译文】喷气式飞机的发展使雅典和巴黎、罗马一样很容易到达却没有那两个城市的交通堵塞的接到的高昂代价。写作方法与文章大意这是一篇以过去和现在对比的手法论述了希腊经济主要是旅游业的发展。过去希腊以无形资产赢得之利润来消除赤字还可稍有节余。但贫穷、事业情况严重政府办事拖拉、繁琐也影响国外的投资虽然早在年就准备扩展旅游业但意见分歧。现在情况大变就旅游一项年收入由万增至万美元。答案详解B希腊经济形式的改善。文章围绕这一中心而写。文章一开始就提出希腊出口除了农产品之外没有什么东西而无形资产如旅游、运输和国外的汇款等可挣得万美元。两项加在一起来抵消入超赤字近亿美元稍有结余。第三段指出希腊是自由欧洲最穷的国家许多农民年收入为-美元。失业现象席卷城市乡镇建立工业基地的自然资源极少。政府的繁琐事务程序关注琐事等情况使美国和其他国家试图展开工作陷于停滞状态。第四段开始指出年起开拓旅游业不过意见还是分歧。第五断提出今天惊人的变化美丽的历史古城呈现新貌就旅游一项收入由万增至万美元。旅馆面貌大变。A希腊的收支。C旅游的价值。D军事费用。B少于美元一星期。文章第三段第三句:最佳情况年收入为-美元使大多数农民的份额。所以B项最接近年收入。A美元一星期。C一天一美元。D一个月美元。A百分之以上用于军事。第二段:虽然四个德拉克马中有一个用于国防政府最终还稍有结余――万美元。B比收入的还多。C十亿金子中的三分之一。D少于百分之。C单一大党。第二段:希腊的政府不依靠水火不相容的政党之间的合作来取得一会的多数席位这说明是单一大党。A独裁、专政。B君主政体。D太多的繁琐程序。A总计几乎在亿美元左右。第一段中提到希腊出口商品价值万美元而进口超出出口亿美元。两者相加为亿千百万美元相当于几乎在亿美元左右。B和出口平衡。C由旅游者支付。D花费万美元。PassageNine(TheProgramFederalGovernmentHelpsMinorityBusiness)Federaleffortstoaidminoritybusinessesbeganinthe'swhentheSmallBusinessAdministration(SBA)beganmakingfederallyguaranteedloansandgovernmentsponsoredmanagementandtechnicalassistanceavailabletominoritybusinessenterprisesWhilethisprogramenabledmanyminorityentrepreneurstoformnewbusinesses,theresultsweredisappointing,sincemanagerialinexperience,unfavorablelocations,andcapitalshortagesledtohighfailureratesEvenyearsaftertheprogramwasimplemented,minoritybusinessreceiptswerenotquitetwopercentofthenationaleconomy'stotalreceiptsRecentlyfederalpolicymakershaveadoptedanapproachintendedtoacceleratedevelopmentoftheminoritybusinesssectorbymovingawayfromdirectlyaidingsmallminorityenterprisesandtowardsupportinglarge,growthorientedminorityfirmsthroughintermediarycompaniesInthisapproach,largecorporationsparticipateinthedevelopmentofsuccessfulandstableminoritybusinessesbymakinguseofgovernmentsponsoredventurecapitalThecapitalisusedbyaparticipatingcompanytoestablishaMinorityEnterpriseSmallBusinessesthathavepotentialtobecomefuturesuppliersofcustomersofthesponsoringcompanyMESBIC'saretheresultofthebeliefthatprovidingestablishedfirmswitheasieraccesstorelevantmanagementtechniquesandmorejobspecificexperience,aswellassubstantialamountsofcapital,givesthosefirmsagreateropportunitytodevelopsoundbusinessfoundationsthandoessimplymakinggeneralmanagementexperienceandsmallamountsofcapitalavailableFurther,sincepotentialmarketsfortheminoritybusinessesalreadyexistthroughthesponsoringcompanies,theminoritybusinessesfaceconsiderablylessriskintermsoflocationandmarketfluctuationFollowingearlyfinancialandoperatingproblems,sponsoringcorporationsbegantocapitalizeMESBIC'sfarabovethelegalminimumof$,inordertogeneratesufficientincomeandtosustainthequalityofmanagementneededMESBIC'sarenowemergingasincreasinglyimportantfinancingsourcesforminorityenterprisesIronically,MESBICstaffs,whichusuallyconsistofHispanicandBlackprofessionals,tendtoapproachinvestmentsinminorityfirmsmorepragmaticallythandomanyMESBICdirectors,whoareusuallyseniormanagersfromsponsoringcorporationsThelatteroftenstillthinkmainlyintermsofthe'socialresponsibilityapproach'andthusseemtopreferdealsthatareriskierandlessattractivethannormalinvestmentcriteriawouldwarrantSuchdifferencesinviewpointhaveproduceduneasinessamongmanyminoritystaffmembers,whofeelthatminorityentrepreneursandbusinessesshouldbejudgedbyestablishedbusinessconsiderationsThesestaffmembersbelievetheirpointofviewisclosertotheoriginalphilosophyofMESBIC'sandtheyareconcernedthat,unlessamoreprudentcourseiffollowed,MESBICdirectorsmayreverttopolicieslikelytorecreatethedisappointingresultsoftheoriginalSBAapproachWhichofthefollowingbeststatesthecentralideaofthepassageATheuseofMESBIC'sforaidingminorityentrepreneursseemstohavegreaterpotentialforsuccessthandoestheoriginalSBAapproachBThereisacrucialdifferenceinpointofviewbetweenthestaffanddirectorsofsomeMESBIC'sCAfterinitialproblemswithmanagementandmarketing,minoritybusinesseshavebeguntoexpandatasteadyrateDMinorityentrepreneurswishingtoformnewbusinessesnowhaveseveralequallysuccessfulfederalprogramsonwhichtorelyAccordingtothepassage,theMESBICapproachdiffersfromtheSBAapproachinthatMESBIC'sAseekfederalcontractstoprovidemarketforminoritybusinessesBEncourageminoritybusinessestoprovidemarketsforotherminoritybusinessesCAttempttomaintainaspecifiedrateofgrowthintheminoritybusinesssectorDRelyontheparticipationoflargecorporationstofinanceminoritybusinessesWhichofthefollowingstatementsabouttheSBAprogramcanbeinferredfromthepassageAThemaximumtermforloansmadetorecipientbusinesseswasyearsBBusinessloanswereconsideredtobemoreusefultorecipientbusinessesthanwasmanagementandtechnicalassistanceCTheanticipatedfailurerateforrecipientbusinesseswassignificantlylowerthantheratethatactuallyresultedDRecipientbusinesseswereencouragedtorelocatetoareasmorefavorableforbusinessdevelopmentTheauthorreferstothe'financialandoperatingproblems'encounteredbyMESBIC'sprimarilyinordertoAbroadenthescopeofthediscussiontoincludethelegalconsiderationsoffundingMESBIC'sthroughsponsoringcompaniesBcallattentiontothefactthatMESBIC'smustreceiveadequatefundinginordertofunctioneffectivelyCshowthatsponsoringcompanieswerewillingtoinvestonly$,ofgovernmentsponsoredventurecapitalintheoriginalMESBIC'sDCompareSBAandMESBIClimitsonminimumfundingItcanbeinferredfromthepassagethattheattitudeofsomeMESBICstaffmembertowardtheinvestmentspreferredbysomeMESBICdirectorscanbebestdescribedasAdisappointingBIndifferentCShockedDDefensiveVocabularyimplement执行履行growthoriented增长潜力的有发展性的intermediarycompany中介公司中间公司venturecapital风险资本entrepreneur企业家创业者fluctuation波动涨落起伏pragmatically实用地难句译注Evenyearsaftertheprogramwasimplementedminoritybusinessreceiptswerenotquitetwopercentofthenationaleconomy'stotalreceipts【参考译文】甚至在这个计划执行后年少数民族工业的收入还不到全国总收入的%。Recentlyfederalpolicymakershaveadoptedanapproachintendedtoacceleratedevelopmentofthesupportinglarge,growthorientedminorityfirmsthroughintermediarycompanies【参考译文】最近联邦决策者采取一项措施旨在加速少数民族工商业的发展他们不再直接帮助小型的少数民族企业而是转向通过中间公司来支持规模较大、有发展潜力的少数民族公司。Bymakinguseofgovernmentsponsoredventurecapital利用政府资助的风险资本。TheMESBICthenprovidescapitalandguidancetominoritybusinessesthathavepotentialtobecomefuturesuppliersorcustomersofthesponsoringcompany【参考译文】然后再由MESBIC向那些少数民族企业提供资金、进行指导。这些企业是有成为赞助公司的未来供应商或客户的潜力的。MESBICminorityenterprisesmallbusinessinvestmentcompany少数民族小型企业投资公司。MESBIC'saretheresultofthebeliefthatprovidingestablishedfirmswitheasieraccesstorelevantmanagementtechniquesandmorejobspecificexperience,aswellassubstantialamountsofcapital,givesthosefirmsagreateropportunitytodevelopsoundbusinessfoundationsthandoessimplymakinggeneralmanagementexperienceandsmallamountsofcapitalavailable【参考译文】MESBIC的建立基于这种信念:为已建公司提供方便使它更容易获得相关的管理技术更具体的工作经验以及大笔资金要比简单地给予一般管理经验和小笔资金更能使它们获得机会去建立稳固的商业基础。Thelatteroftenstillthinkmainlyintermsofthe'socialresponsibilityapproach'andthusseemtopreferdealsthatareriskierandlessattractivethannormalinvestmentcriteriawouldwarrant【参考译文】后者――高级经理们――在有大多数情况下仍然常常从“社会责任的角度”来考虑问题因此他们似乎更倾向于选择那些比正常投资标准更具风险性而不太引人注目的项目。写作方法与文章大意文章主要采用因果以及对比的写作方法。先点出SBA计划――联邦政府对少数民族去也的赞助()的失败及其原因。为此联邦决策者改变方法通过中介公司建立MESBIC。由它来帮助少数民族企业――使其获得相应的管理技术、具体工作经验和大量资金甚至潜在的市场――取得了成功。可内部存在问题MESBIC的职工和领导者之间的意见分歧职工的投资观点更切实际而领导者仍从“社会责任的角度”来考虑问题若不改变有可能重蹈SBA之覆辙。答案详解A运用MESBIC来帮助少数民族企业似乎比原来SBA的方法更具成功的可能性。文章一开始就点名SBA(小型企业管理局)向少数民族企业提供联邦保证贷款政府资助管理和技术方面的帮助结果令人失望。组建成的少数民族新企业由于管理上缺乏经验、地点不佳、资金短缺而导致失败的情况很多。其他见难句译注、、。总之在MESBIC支持下:为它的潜在市场提供大量资金等使它们在地点和市场流通方面风险小的多从而带来足够的收入和保持所需的管理质量。这一切都说明MESBIC比SBA的成功可能性大。BMESBIC中的领导者和职工方面在观点上有着至关重要的分歧。C经历了早期管理和市场问题后少数民族企业已开始稳步发展。D希望组建新公司的少数民族企业家已有好几个成功的联邦计划可依靠。D依靠打工四向少数民族企业投资。见第二段第二句:大公司利用政府资助的风险资本参与成功而又稳固的少数民族企业的发展。参与的大公司用这笔资金建立了“少数民族小型企业投资公司”(MESBIC)A寻求为少数民族企业提供市场联邦合同。B鼓励少数民族企业为其他少数民族企业提供市场。C试图在少数民族部门保持特定的增长率。C预期加入SBA项目中的公司的失败率比实际失败率低得多。文内没有直接点出而是从(见第一题注释)SBA帮助的企业失败率很高――令人失望从而推断C项结论。A给企业贷款最高期限为年。B商业贷款对企业来说远笔管理和技术帮助重要。D鼓励接受贷款企业重新寻找利于企业发展的地区。B为的是引人注意这一实际情况:MESBIC必须取得足够的资金才能有效地运转。这在第三段最后一句:在经历了早期财政和运行问题后赞助公司给MESBIC注入的资金远远超过了万美元的法定最低限额以获得足够的收入并保持所需的管理质量。MESBIC现在正成为日益重要的少数民族企业的资金来源。这说明没有足够的资金是难以有效运转的。A扩大讨论范围以包括通过赞助公司投资MESBIC的合理性。C表明赞助公司愿意在原来的MESBIC只投资万政府资助的风险资本。D对比SBA和MESBIC最低投资限额。A失望。文章最后一段MESBIC的职工――一般是拉美和黑人专业人员在少数民族公司的投资上比MEBSIC的领导者更切实际。这些高级经理从社会责任角度看问题会选择更具风险性不太吸引人的项目。观点分歧使许多少数民族职工感到不安他们认为应以公司的业务爆出来评价少数民族企业家及其企业。者充分说明MEBSIC的职工对领导所青睐的投资项目不满意和失望。B漠不关心。C震惊。D持保留态度。PassageTen(TheImportanceofIndependentThinking)NoonecanbeagreatthinkerwhodoesnotrealizethatasathinkeritisherfirstdutytofollowherintellecttowhateverconclusionsitmayleadTruthgainsmoreevenbytheerrorsofonewhowithduestudyandpreparation,thinksforhimself,thanbythetrueopinionsofthosewhoonlyholdthembecausetheydonotsufferthemselvestothinkNothatitissolely,ofchiefly,toformgreatthinkersthatfreedomofthinkingisrequiredOnethecontrary,itisasmuchorevenmoreindispensabletoenableaveragehumanbeingstoattainthementalstaturewhichtheyarecapableofTherehavebeenandmanyagainbegreatindividualthinkersinageneralatmosphereofmentalslaveryButthereneverhasbeen,noreverwillbe,inthatatmosphereanintellectuallyactivepeopleWhereanyofheterodoxspeculationwasforatimesuspended,wherethereisatacitconventionthatprinciplesarenottobedisputed:wherethediscussionofthegreatestquestionswhichcanoccupyhumanityisconsideredtobeclosed,wecannothopetofindthatgenerallyhighscaleofmentalactivitywhichhasmadesomeperiodsofhistorysoremarkableNeverwhencontroversyavoidedthesubjectswhicharelargeandimportantenoughtokindleenthusiasmwasthemindofapeoplestirredupfromitsfoundationandtheimpulsegivenwhichraisedevenpersonsofthemostordinaryintellecttosomethingofthedignityofthinkingbeingsShewhoknowsonlyherownsideofthecaseknowslittleofthatHerreasonsmaybefood,andnoonemayhavebeenabletorefutethemButifshesequallyunabletorefutethereasonsoftheoppositesideifshedoesnotsomuchasknowwhattheyare,shehasnogroundforpreferringeitheropinionTherationalpositionforherwouldbesuspensionofjudgment,andunlessshecontentsherselfwiththat,sheiseitherledbyauthority,oradopts,likethegeneralityoftheworldthesidetowhichshefeelsthemostinclinationNorisitenoughthatsheshouldheattheargumentsofadversariesfromherownteachers,presentedastheystatethem,andaccompaniedbywhattheyofferasrefutations,Thatisnotthewaytodojusticetothearguments,orbringthemintorealcontactwithherownmindShemustbeabletohearthemformpersonswhoactuallybelievethemwhodefendtheminearnest,anddotheirveryutmostforthemShemustknowthemintheirmostplausibleandpersuasiveformshemustfeelthewholeforceofthedifficultywhichthetrueviewofthesubjecthastoencounteranddisposeofelseshewillneverreallypossessherselfoftheportionoftruthwhichmeetsandremovesthatdifficultyNinetynineinahundredofwhatarecallededucatedpersonsareinthisconditionevenofthosewhocanarguefluentlyfortheiropinionsTheirconclusionmaybetrue,butitmightbefalseforanythingtheyknowtheyhaveneverthrownthemselvesintothementalpositionofthosewhothinkdifferentlyformthemandconsideredwhatsuchpersonsmayhavetosayandconsequentlytheydonot,inanypropersenseoftheword,knowthedoctrineswhichtheythemselvesprofessThebesttitleforthispassageisATheAgeofReasonBTheneedforIndependentThinkingCTheValueofReasonDStirringPeople'sMindsAccordingtotheauthor,itisalwaysadvisabletoAhaveopinionswhichcannotberefutedBadoptthepointofviewtowhichonefeelsthemostinclinationCbeacquaintedwiththeargumentsfavoringthepointofviewwithwhichonedisagrees,DsuspendheterodoxspeculationinfavorofdoctrinaireapproachesAccordingtotheauthor,inagreatperiodsuchastheRenaissancewemayexpecttofindAacceptanceoftruthBcontroversyoverprinciplesCinordinateenthusiasmDadreadofheterodoxspeculationAccordingtotheauthor,thepersonwhoholdsorthodoxbeliefswithoutexaminationmaybedescribedinallofthefollowingwaysEXCEPTasAenslavedbytraditionBlessthanfullyrationalCdetermindedoncontroversyDhavingaclosedmindItcanbeinferredfromthepassagethattheauthorwouldbemostlikelytoagreewithwhichofthefollowingstatementsAAtrulygreatthinkermakesnomistakesBPeriodsofintellectualachievementareperiodsofunorthodoxreflection,CTherefutationofacceptedideascanbestbeprovidedbyone'sownteachersDexcessivecontroversypreventsclearthinking,Vocabularystature高度境界状况heterodox不合乎公认的标准的异端的异教的tacit心照不宣refute反驳adversary对立面对手敌人plausible善于花言巧语的辞令的似乎有理的有可能的doctrine教义学说profess表示明言承认自称信奉难句译注Truegainsmoreevenbytheerrorsofonewhowithduestudyandpreparation,thinksforhimself,thenbythetrueopinionsofthosewhoonlyholdthembecausetheydonotsufferthemselvestothink参考译文真理甚至从一个经过恰当研究和准备进行独立思考的人的错误中获得更多的东西而从那些只是因为不予思考却持有正确的观点中获得的少(一种经过恰当的研究和准备进行独立思考的人犯的错误另一种人是不予思考的却持有正确的观点真理从前者错误中获得的东西比从后者的正确观点中获得的要多)。mentalslavery思想禁锢精神受奴役状态Neverwhencontroversyavoidedthesubjectswhicharelargeandimportantenoughtokindleenthusiasmwasthemindofapeoplestirredupfromitsfoundationandtheimpulsegivenwhichraisedevenpersonsofthemostordinaryintellecttosomethingofthedignityofthinkingbeings结构简析这是一句以Never否定词开头的倒装句正常的句序应把never放在句中形成:themindofpeoplewasneverstirredupfromitsfoundations参考译文当辩论比开重大课题重大到足以燃起激起人们激热情的课题时那么一个民族的思想绝不会从天赋的情感和原始的基础上升华甚至使最普通智力的人上升到优点庄严的思想家水平上。Therationalpositionforherwouldbesuspensionofjudgement,andunlessshecontentsherselfwiththat,sheiseitherledbyauthority,oradopts,likethegeneralityoftheworld,thesidetowhichshefeelsthemostinclination参考译文对她来说理智的立场是停止判断而且除非她满足于这一点否则她不是为权威人物的观点所左右后者就像世界上芸芸众生一样倒向她感觉最倾向的一边。Thatisnotthewaytodojusticetothearguments,orbringthemintotealcontactwithherownmind结构简析dojusticeto公平对待适当处理。Bring,,intocontactwith使和,,接触/联系。参考译文这不是对正确观点评价的方法也不能使自己的思想真正接触到论点的实质。Shemustknowthemintheirmostplausibleandpersuasiveformshemustfeelthewholeforceofthedifficultywhichthetrueviewofthesubjecthastoencounteranddisposeofelseshewillneverreallypossessherselfoftheportionoftruthwhichmeetsandremovesthatdifficulty结构简析mostplausibleandpersuasiveform很善于辞令和有说服力形式。possessoneselfof获得据有把,,占为己有。them=arguments。else否则的话。Theirconclusionmaybetrue,butitmightbefalseforanythingtheyknowtheyhaveneverthrownthemselvesintothementalpositionofthosewhothinkdifferentlyformthemandconsideredwhatsuchpersonsmayhavetosayandconsequentlytheydonot,inanypropersenseoftheword,knowthedoctrineswhichtheythemselvesprofess结构简析throwoneselfinto,position设身处地使自己处于,,位置/地点。写作方法与文章大意这是一篇由一般到具体重要采用正反对比推理的写作方法的文章逻辑性强正反论证句子结构复杂冗长分两段给出内容第一段重点在:伟大的思想家的首要责任是奠定遵循自己智力所得出的结论。由此引起思想家和思想活跃的人民同时代环境的关系。只有思想后月的时期才有伟大的思想家和活跃的人民因为他们可以讨论重大主题而在思想禁锢时期只能产生个别伟大思想家。第二段具体的论证了独立思考涉及两方面既如自己一方种种也得知对手的一方种种(内容推理论点)才能真正获得真理。答案详解B独立思考的必要性。见难句译注1。这里说明进行独立思考的人即使犯错误真理也能从中获得东西而那些懒于思考人即使持有正确的观点真理也难以获得东西。第一段还点明思想禁锢时期即不能进行独立思考时期难以讨论重大议题产生不了活跃的人民绝不会出现像辉煌的文艺复兴那种时期(见第二题注)。第二段也是围绕独立思考而写只是从具体点着眼:人只知自己不知对方无法获得真理只有独立思考两方才能不为权威所左右不会跟着自己感觉走最终知道自己的真正主张。A理性时代。C驳斥的价值。D激发人民的思想。C熟悉有利于自己不同意/反对观点的论点。这是作者在第二段讲述的重要论点。他认为一个人只知自己一方推理极好无人能反驳却不知对方的推理也不能够予以反驳的话他就无权选择两方的任一论点其理智位置是停止判断。否则她就会(像世界上芸芸众生那样)不是为权威所“引导”就是跟着感觉(的倾向)走。其二作者提出:光听自己的老师讲述对立面的论点以及他们所提出的反驳论点。只是不够的必须倾听那些人(他们真正相信对立的观点)的论点并为此积极热情竭尽全力辩护才能使自己的思想和独立论点接触公正的作出公正的判断。A具有不能驳斥的观点。B采取个人感觉最倾向的观点。D停止有利于教条主义研究的异端思考。B辩论原则问题。答案在第一段:在思想禁锢的气氛中过去现在可能会产生个别的思想家但绝不会有思想活跃的人民在那里有一种心照不宣的惯律:原则决不能讨论认为占据人类心灵的最重大问题的讨论应封闭我们不能期望看到一般高级的思想活动。这种思想活动曾使历史上某些时期光辉灿烂。而文艺复兴就是思想活动的顶峰时期必然会讨论原则问题所以选B。A接受真理B周经过讨论才能接受真理。C过度的热情。D害怕异端思考。C在辩论上坚定不移。这是一道推断题一般讲:持有未经检验的正统信仰的人不会独立思考更不会怀疑他所信仰的东西。A为传统所奴役。B不B怎么理智。D头脑闭塞。这种人必然受传统思想控制C不D理智更不E愿接受外界新鲜事物。B在思想方面取得成就的时期就是进行非正统反思的时期。见3题注释。A一个真正的思想家不犯错误。C一个人的老师最能提供所接受思想观点的反驳。D过度的辩论会制止清晰的思考。PassageEleven(TheAffectofElectricityonCancer)CanelectricitycausecancerInasocietythatliterallyrunsonelectricpower,theveryideaseemspreposterousButformorethanadecade,agrowingbandofscientistsandjournalistshaspointedtostudiesthatseemtolinkexposuretoelectromagneticfieldswithincreasedriskofleukemiaandothermalignanciesTheimplicationsareunsettling,tosaytheleast,sinceeveryonecomesintocontactwithsuchfields,whicharegeneratedbyeverythingelectrical,frompowerlinesandantennastopersonalcomputersandmicrowaveovensBecauseevidenceonthesubjectisinconclusiveandoftencontradictory,ithasbeenhardtodecidewhetherconcernaboutthehealtheffectsofelectricityislegitimateortheworstkindofparanoiaNowthealarmistshavegainedsomequalifiedsupportfromtheUSEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyIntheexecutivesummaryofanewscientificreview,releasedindraftformlatelastweek,theEPAhasputforwardwhatamountstothemostseriousgovernmentwarningtodateTheagencytentativelyconcludesthatscientificevidence“suggestsacasuallink”betweenextremelylowfrequencyelectromagneticfieldsthosehavingverylongwavelengthsandleukemia,lymphomaandbraincancer,WhilethereportfallsshortofclassifyingELFfieldsasprobablecarcinogens,itdoesidentifythecommonhertzmagneticfieldas“apossible,butnotproven,causeofc
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