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首页 Incoterms+2010英文对照版

Incoterms+2010英文对照版.pdf

Incoterms+2010英文对照版

余从
2011-05-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Incoterms+2010英文对照版pdf》,可适用于贸易领域

Pageof上海简拓企业管理咨询有限公司ShanghaiJitLogisticsConsultingLtdTel:Fax:Email:salesJitLogisticscomcnWebsite:wwwJitLogisticscomcnForewordByRajatGuptaICCCbairmanTheglobaleconomyhasgivenbusinessbroaderaccessthaneverbeforetomarketsallovertheworldGoodsaresoldinmorecountriesinlargequantities,andingreatervarietyButasthevolumeandcomplexityofglobalsalesincrease,sodopossibilitiesformisunderstandingsandcostlydisputeswhensalecontractsarenotadequatelydraftedTheIncoterms®rules,theICCrulesontheuseofdomesticandinternationaltradeterms,facilitatetheconductofglobaltradeReferencetoanIcotermsruleinasalecontractclearlydefinestheparties'respectiveobligationsandreducestheriskoflegalcomplicationsSincethecreationoftheIncotermsrulesbyICCin,thisgloballyacceptedcontractualstandardhasbeenregularlyupdatedtokeeppacewiththedevelopmentofinternationaltradeTheIncotermsrulestakeaccountofthecontinuedspreadofcustomsfreezones,theincreaseduseofelectroniccommunicationsinbusinesstransactions,heightenedconcernaboutsecurityinthemovementofgoodsandconsolidatesintransportpracticesIncotermsupdatesandconsolidatesthe'delivered'rules,reducingthetotalnumberofrulesfromto,andoffersasimplerandclearerpresentationofalltherulesIncotermsisalsothefirstversionoftheIncotermsrulestomakeallreferencestobuyersandsellersgenderneutralThebroadexpertiseofICC'sCommissiononCommercialLawandPractice,whosemembershipisdrawnfromallpartsoftheworldandalltradesectors,ensuresthattheIncotermsrulesrespondtobusinessneedseverywheredefinestheparties'respectiveobligationsandreducestheriskoflegalcomplicationsICCwouldliketoexpressitsgratitudetothemembersoftheCommission,chairedbyFabioBortolotti(Italy),totheDraftingGroup,whichcomprisedCharlesDebattista(CoChair,France),JensBredow(Germany),JohnnyHerre(Sweden),DavidLwee(UK),LauriRailas(Finland),FrankReynolds(US),andMiroslavSubert(SzechRepublic),andtoAskoRaty(Finland)forassistancewiththeimagesdepictingtherules前言国际商会主席RajatGupta全球经济一体化使得商业通向世界各地市场的途径空前宽广。各种各样的货物被销售到世界各地。然而随着全球贸易数额的增加和贸易复杂性的加强,因贸易合同起草不恰当而带来的误解和高代价争端也可能随之增加。国际贸易术语解释通则国际商会规则在国内和国际贸易用语的使用促进了全球贸易的进行。在贸易合同中引用国际贸易术语解释通则可明确界定各方义务并降低法律纠纷产生的风险。自从年国际商会制定出国际贸易术语解释通则之后此项在全球范围内被采用的合同标准就经常性地更新换代与国际贸易的发展步调一致。国际贸易术语解释通则考虑了免税贸易区的不断增加电子沟通在商务中的不断增多以及被更加重视的货物运输中的安全和变化等问题。国际贸易术语解释通则更新并加强了交货规则将规则总量从条减少到了条并且使得所有规则的表述更加简洁明确。国际贸易术语解释通则同时也是第一个使得所有在买卖双方中的适用保持中立的第一个国际贸易术语解释版本。国际商会的商法和实践委员会成员来自世界各地和多个贸易部门该委员会广泛的专业技能确保了国际贸易术语解释通则与各地的商贸需求相适应。国际商会向FabioBortolotti(意大利)的商法和实践委员会的成员表示谢意向由CharlesDebattista(副组长英国)ChristophMartinRadtke(副组长法国)JensBredow(德国)JohnnyHerre(瑞典)DavidLwee(英国)LauriRailas(芬兰)FrankReynold(美国)MiroslavSubert(捷克)组成的起草小组致谢并且向对条规则的表述给予帮助的AskoRaty(芬兰)致谢。Pageof上海简拓企业管理咨询有限公司ShanghaiJitLogisticsConsultingLtdTel:Fax:Email:salesJitLogisticscomcnWebsite:wwwJitLogisticscomcnINTRODUCTIONTheIncoterms®rulesexplainasetofthreelettertradetermsreflectingbusinesstobusinesspracticeincontractsforthesaleofgoodsTheIncoterms®rulesdescribemainlythetasks,costsandrisksinvolvedinthedeliveryofgoodsfromsellerstobuyersHowtousetheIncoterms®rulesIncorporatetheIncoterms®rulesintoyourcontractofsaleIfyouwanttheIncoterms®rulestoapplytoyourcontract,youshouldmakethisclearinthecontract,throughsuchwordsas,“thechosenIncotermsruleincludingthenamedplace,followedbyIncoterms®”ChoosetheappropriateIncotermsruleThechosenIncotermsruleneedstobeappropriatetothegoods,tothemeansoftheirtransport,andabovealltowhetherthepartiesintendtoputadditionalobligations,forexamplesuchastheobligationtoorganizecarriageorinsurance,ontheselleroronthebuyerTheGuidanceNotetoeachIncotermsrulecontainsinformationthatisparticularlyhelpfulwhenmakingthischoiceWhicheverIncotermsruleischosen,thepartiesshouldbeawaretheinterpretationoftheircontractmaywellbeinfluencedbycustomsparticulartotheportorplacebeingusedSpecifyyourplaceorportaspreciselyaspossibleThechosenIncotermsrulecanworkonlyifthepartiesnameaplaceorport,andwillworkbestifthepartiesspecifytheplaceorportaspreciselyaspossibleAgoodexampleofsuchprecisionwouldbe::“FCACoursAlberter,Paris,FranceIncoterms”UndertheIncotermsruleExWorks(EXW),FreeCarrier(FCA),DeliveredatTerminal(DAT),DeliveredatPlace(DAP),DeliveredDutyPaid(DDP),FreeAlongsideShip(FAS),andFreeonBoard(FOB),thenamedplaceistheplacewheredeliverytakesplaceandwhereriskpassesfromthesellertothebuyer介绍Incoterms®規則規定了一系列在貨物銷售商業合同實踐中使用的三字母系列貿易術語Incoterms®规则主要描述了货物从卖方到买方运输过程中涉及的责任费用和风险的划分。如何适用Incoterms®规则把Incoterms®规则应用到销售合同中如果要使合同适用Incoterms规则应在合同中明确表明例如:所選擇的Incoterms規則(含指定地點)適用Incoerms®規則。选择适宜的Incoterms规则所選的Incoterms规则需要与货物采取的运输方式相适宜最重要的是合同双方是否意欲添加额外的义务例如将办理运输或保险的义务加于买方或卖方。每个贸易术语的指导性解释中的信息对作出如此的决定非常有帮助。不论选用何种Incoterms规则双方应该意识到对合同的解释会受到使用的港口或地址惯例影响。尽可能精准地描述你方地址或港口名称只有当事人双方选定特定的一个收货地或港口时所选术语才能发挥作用。地点或港口名称越精准Inconterms规则越有效。以下精准描述就是一个很好的例子:IncotermsFCA规则法国巴黎CoursAlberter在Incoterms规则下:EXW工厂交货(……指定地点)FCA货交承运人(……指定地点)”DAT终点站交货(……指定目的地)DAP地点交货(……指定目的地)DDP完税后交货(……指定目的地)FAS船边交货(……指定装运港)FOB船上交货(……指定装运港)此处所指地点为交货地点同时风险也从卖方转移至买方Pageof上海简拓企业管理咨询有限公司ShanghaiJitLogisticsConsultingLtdTel:Fax:Email:salesJitLogisticscomcnWebsite:wwwJitLogisticscomcnUndertheIncotermsruleCarriagePaidto(CPT),CarriageandInsurancePaidto(CIP),CostandFreight(CFR)andCost,InsuranceandFreight(CIF),thenamedplacediffersfromtheplaceofdeliveryUnderthesefourIncotermsrules,thenamedplaceistheplaceofdestinationtowhichcarriageispaidIndicationsastoplaceordestinationcanhelpfullybefurtherspecifiedbystatingaprecisepointinthatplaceordestinationinordertoavoiddoubtorargumentRememberthatIncotermsrulesdonotgiveyouacompletecontractofsaleIncotermsrulesdosaywhichpartytothesalecontracthastheobligationtomakecarriageorinsurancearrangements,whenthesellerdeliversthegoodstothebuyer,andwhichcostseachpartyisresponsibleforIncotermsrules,however,saynothingaboutthepricetobepaidorthemethodofitspaymentNeitherdotheydealwiththetransferofownershipofthegoods,ortheconsequencesofabreachofcontractThesemattersarenormallydealtwiththroughexpresstermsinthecontractofsaleorinthelawgoverningthatcontractThepartiesshouldbeawarethatmandatorylocallawmayoverrideanyaspectofthesalecontract,includingthechosenIncotermsrulesMainfeaturesoftheIncoterm®rulesTwonewIncotermsrulesDATandDAPhavereplacedtheIncotermsrulesDAF,DES,DEQandDDUThenumberofIncotermsruleshasbeenreducedfromtoThishasbeenachievedbysubstitutingtworulesthatmaybeusedirrespectiveoftheagreedmodeoftransportDAT,DeliveredatTerminal,andDAP,DeliveredatPlacefortheincotermsrulesDAF,DES,DEQandDDUIncoterms规则下CPT运费付至(……指定目的地)CIP运费、保险费付至(…指定目的地)CFR成本加运费(……指定目的港)CIF成本、保险费加运费(指定目的港)所指地点随交货地不同而不同。在这些Incoterms规则下所指地点为运费付至地。为了避免疑问和争议指定地点或目的地可以进一步阐述为一个精确的地点。谨记Incoterms规则并没有给当事人提供一份完整的销售合同Incoterm规则确有阐述销售合同中当事人的特定义务当卖方将货物运至买方时办理运输和保险义务的承担。然而Incoterms并没有任何关于付款价格或付款方式的规定或是货物所有权的转移违约的后果等。这些问题通常是通过销售合同的明示条款和适用的法律条文来解决。当事人需要注意的是当地强制适用的法律有可能优先于销售合同的内容包括所选择的Incoterms规则。Incoterms®的主要特征两个新的贸易术语即DAT和DAP代替了原来Incoterms的DAF,DES,DEQ和DDU术语。贸易术语的数量从原来的个减少到个。Incoterms用两个可以不顾及已议定的运输模式的新术语DAT目的地交货和DAP指定地交货代替了Incoterms中的DAF,DES,SEQ和DDU术语。Pageof上海简拓企业管理咨询有限公司ShanghaiJitLogisticsConsultingLtdTel:Fax:Email:salesJitLogisticscomcnWebsite:wwwJitLogisticscomcnUnderbothnewrules,deliveryoccursatanameddestination:inDAT,atthebuyer’sdisposalunloadedfromthearrivingvehicle(asundertheformerDEQrule)inDAP,likewiseatthebuyer’sdisposal,butreadyforunloading(asundertheformerDAF,DESandDDUrules)ThenewrulesmaketheIncotermsrulesDESandDEQsuperfluousThenamedterminalinDATmaywellbeinaport,andDATcanthereforesafelybeusedincaseswheretheIncotermsruleDEQoncewasLikewise,thearriving“vehicle”underDAPmaywellbeashipandthenamedplaceofdestinationmaywellbeaport:consequently,DAPcansafelybeusedincaseswheretheIncotermsruleDESoncewasThesenewrules,liketheirpredecessors,are“delivered”,withthesellerbearingallthecosts(otherthanthoserelatedtoimportclearance,whereapplicable)andrisksinvolvedinbringingthegoodstothenamedplaceofdestinationClassificationoftheIncoterms®rulesTheIncoterms®rulesarepresentedintwodistinctclasses:RULESFORANYMODEORMODESOFTRANSPOTREXWEXWORKSFCAFREECARRIERCPTCARRIAGEPAIDTOCIPCARRIAGEANDINSURANCEPAIDTODATDELIVEREDATTERMINALDAPDELIVEREDATPLACEDDPDELIVEREDDUTYPAIDRULESFORSEAANDINLANDWATERWAYTRANSPORTFASFREEALONGSIDESHIPFOBFREEONBOARDCFRCOSTANDFREIGHTCIFCOSTINSURANCEANDFREIGHTDAT和DAP术语都规定需在指定地点交货:在DAT情况下从运输工具上卸下货物交由买方处置(这和先前的DEQ术语一样)在DAP情况下同样交由买方处置但需做好卸货的准备(这和先前的DAF,DES和DDU术语一样)。新贸易术语的使用使Incoterms中的DES和DEQ成为多余。DAT的目的地可以是港口因此DAT可以用于在Incoterms下DEQ适用的情况。同样的DAP中运达货物的交通工具可以是轮船而目的地也可以是港口因此DAP可以用于Incoterms下DES适用的情况。这两个新的术语和先前的几个术语一样是由卖方承担所有费用(除了与进口清算有关的费用)和货物到达目的地前的风险。Incoterms®中种贸易术语的分类Incoterms®种贸易术语目前被分为两类:适用于任何运输方式的术语:EXW工厂交货FCA货交承运人CPT运费付至CIP运费及保险费付至DAT目的地交货DAP所在地交货DDP完税后交货适用于海上和内陆水上运输的术语:FAS船边交货FOB船上交货CFR成本加运费CIF成本、保险费加运费Pageof上海简拓企业管理咨询有限公司ShanghaiJitLogisticsConsultingLtdTel:Fax:Email:salesJitLogisticscomcnWebsite:wwwJitLogisticscomcnThefirstclassincludesthesevenIncoterms®rulesthatcanbeusedirrespectiveofthemodeoftransportselectedandirrespectiveofwhetheroneormorethanonemodeoftransportisemployedEXW,FCA,CPT,CIP,DAT,DAPandDDPbelongtothisclassTheycanbeusedevenwhenthereisnomaritimetransportatallItisimportanttoremember,however,thattheserulescanbeusedincaseswhereashipisusedforpartofthecarriageInthesecondclassofIncoterms®rules,thepointofdeliveryandtheplacetowhichthegoodsarecarriedtothebuyerarebothports,hencethelabel“seaandinlandwaterway”rulesFAS,FOB,CFRandCIFbelongtothisclassUnderthelastthreeIncotermsrules,allmentionoftheship’srailasthepointofdeliveryhasbeenomittedinpreferenceforthegoodsbeingdeliveredwhentheyare“onboard”thevesselThismorecloselyreflectsmoderncommercialrealityandavoidstheratherdatedimageoftheriskswingingtoandfroacrossanimaginaryperpendicularlineRulesfordomesticandinternationaltradeIncotermsruleshavetraditionallybeenusedininternationalsalecontractswheregoodspassacrossnationalboardersInvariousareasoftheworld,however,tradeblocs,liketheEuropeanUnion,havemadeborderformalitiesbetweendifferentcountrieslesssignificantConsequently,thesubtitleoftheIncoterms®rulesformallyrecognizethattheyareavailableforapplicationtobothinternationalanddomesticsalecontractsAsaresult,theIncoterms®rulesclearlystateinanumberofplacesthattheobligationtocomplywithexportimportformalitiesexistsonlywhereapplicableTwodevelopmentshavepersuadedICCthatamovementinthisdirectionistimelyFirstly,traderscommonlyuseIncotermsrulesforpurelydomesticsalecontractThesecondreasonisthegreaterwillingnessintheUnitesStatestouseIncotermrulesindomestictraderatherthantheformerUniformCommercialCodeshipmentanddeliveryterms第一种分类中的七种贸易术语不用考虑所选用运输方式的种类。EXW,FCA,CPT,CIP,DAT,DAP和DDP都属于第一种分类。它们甚至可以运用于没有海上运输的情况下。谨记只要运输中一个部分运用过船只便可以适用此类术语。在第二类术语中交货点和把货物送达买方的地点都是港口所以只适用于“海上或内陆水上运输”。FAS,FOB,CFR和CIF都属于这一类。最后的三个术语删除了以越过船舷为交货标准而代之以将货物装运上船。这更准确的反应了现代商业现实避了以往风险围绕船舷这条虚拟垂线来回摇摆。国内贸易和国际贸易的规定传统的Incoterms规则只在国际销售合同中运用此种交易货物运输都需跨越国界。在世界许多地区商业集团如欧盟使得不同国家间的过关手续不再重要。所以Incoterms®正式认可所有的贸易规则既可以适用于国内交易也可以适用于国际交易。所以Incoterms®在一些地方明确规定只有在适当的时候才有义务遵从进口或者出口的手续。两个新发展使得ICC相信向这个方向的改革是适宜的。首先商人们普遍在国内贸易合同使用Incoterms规则。其次比起先前提到的统一的商业规则中的运输和交付术语在国内贸易中更多美国人愿意使用Incoterms中的术语。Pageof上海简拓企业管理咨询有限公司ShanghaiJitLogisticsConsultingLtdTel:Fax:Email:salesJitLogisticscomcnWebsite:wwwJitLogisticscomcnGuidanceNotesBeforeeachIncoterms®ruleyouwillfindaGuidanceNoteTheGuidanceNotesexplainthefundamentalsofeachIncotermsrule,suchaswhenitshouldbeused,whenriskpasses,andhowcostsareallocatedbetweensellerandbuyerTheGuidanceNotesarenotpartoftheactualIncoterms®rules,butareintendedtohelptheuseraccuratelyandefficientlysteertowardstheappropriateIncotermsruleforaparticulartransactionElectroniccommunicationPreviousversionsofIncotermsruleshavespecifiedthosedocumentsthatcouldbereplacedbyEDImessagesArticlesABoftheIncoterms®rules,however,nowgiveelectronicmeansofcommunicationthesameeffectaspapercommunication,aslongasthepartiessoagreeorwherecustomaryThisformulationfacilitatestheevolutionofnewelectronicproceduresthroughoutthelifetimeoftheIncoterms®rulesInsurancecoverTheIncoterms®rulesarethefirstversionoftheIncotermsrulessincetheversionoftheInstituteCargoClausesandtakeaccountofalterationsmadetothoseclausesTheIncoterms®rulesplaceinformationdutiesrelatingtoinsuranceinarticlesAB,whichdealwithcontractsofcarriageandinsuranceTheseprovisionshavebeenmovedfromthemoregenericfoundinarticleABoftheIncotermsrulesThelanguageinarticlesABrelatingtoinsurancehasalsobeenalteredwithaviewtoclarifyingtheparties’obligationsinthisregardSecurityrelatedClearancesandinformationrequiredforsuchclearancesThereisheightenedconcernnowadaysaboutsecurityinthemovementofgoods,requiringverificationthatthegoodsdonotposeathreattolifeorpropertyforreasonsotherthantheirinherentnature.引言在Incoterms®的每条规则前面都有一条引言。引言解释每条贸易规则的基本内容比如说什么时候被运用到什么时候风险转移还有费用在卖方和买方间是怎样分配的等等。引言并不是Incoterms®的内容但是它们能帮助使用者更准确更有效率的针对特定的贸易运用合适的贸易条款。电子通信上一版本的Incoterms规则已经确定了可以被电子数据交换信息替代的文件。然而Incoterms®规则中的AB赋予电子通信方式和纸质通讯相同的效果只要缔约双方同意或存在国际惯例。这一规定有利于促进Incoterms®规则中新的电子程序的演进。保险范围Incoterms®规则是协会货物条款修订以来的最新版国际贸易术语规则并就对那些条款的变更做了考虑。Incoterms®规则把关系到保险的信息义务规定在AB这涉及到运输和保险合同。这些条款已经从更为普通的国际贸易术语中AB的文章中删除。为了明确缔约双方的义务条款AB中涉及保险的行文也做了变化。与安全有关的清关需要的信息现在人们高度关注货物运输中的安全问题需要确认货物不会对生命和财产有威胁除了其自身固有的属性。Pageof上海简拓企业管理咨询有限公司ShanghaiJitLogisticsConsultingLtdTel:Fax:Email:salesJitLogisticscomcnWebsite:wwwJitLogisticscomcnTherefore,theIncoterms®ruleshaveallocatedobligationsbetweenthebuyerandsellertoobtainortorenderassistanceinobtainingsecurityrelatedclearances,suchaschainofcustodyinformation,inarticlesABandABofvariousIncotermsrulesTerminalhandlingchargesUnderIncotermsrulesCPT,CIP,CFR,CIF,DAT,DAP,andDDP,thesellermustmakearrangementsforthecarriageofthegoodstotheagreeddestinationWhilethefreightispaidbytheseller,itisactuallypaidforbythebuyerasfreightcostsarenormallyincludedbythesellerinthetotalsellingpriceThecarriagecostswillsometimesincludethecostsofhandlingandmovingthegoodswithinportorcontainerterminalfacilitiesandthecarrierorterminaloperatormaywellchargethesecoststothebuyerwhoreceivesthegoodsInthesecircumstances,thebuyerwillwanttoavoidpayingforthesameservicetwice:oncetotheselleraspartofthetotalsellingpriceandonceindependentlytothecarrierortheterminaloperatorTheIncoterms®rulesseektoavoidthishappeningbyclearlyallocatingsuchcostsinarticlesABoftherelevantIncotermsrulesStringsalesInthesaleofcommodities,asopposedtothesaleofmanufacturedgoods,cargoisfrequentlysoldseveraltimesduringtransit“downastring”whenthishappens,asellerinthemiddleofthestringdon’thavetoshipthegoodsbecausethesehavealreadybeenshippedbythefirstsellerinthestringThesellerinthemiddleofthestringthereforeperformsitsobligationstowardsitsbuyernotbyshippingthegoods,butby“procuring”goodsthathavebeenshippedForclarificationpurposes,Incoterms®rulesincludetheobligationto“procuregoodsshipped”asanalternativetotheobligationtoshipgoodsintherelevantIncotermsrules因此Incoterms®规则已经在买家和卖家间分配了义务在与安全有关的清关获得或者提供帮助例如在多种多样的国际贸易术语中AB和AB的监管链相关信息终点站操作费在国际贸易术语CPTCIPCIFDATDAP和DDP项下卖家必须做好安排使货物到达指定目的地。虽然运费是由卖方支付的但因为运费一般被卖方包含在销售价格中所以实际上运费是由买方支付的。货运费有时包括港口或集装箱码头内的理货和运输费用承运人和终点站运营方也可能向收到货物的买家收取这笔费用。在这种情况下买家会想要避免对同一服务重复付费:一次付给卖家作为销售价格中的一部分一次单独地付给承运人或者终点站运营方。Incoterms®规则在相关国际贸易术解释规则的AB条款明确的分配此项费用力求避免重复付费。连环合同与工业制成品的销售不同在农矿产品的销售中货物经常在沿销售链运转过程中被频繁销售多次。这种情况下在运输中的卖家不用再运输货物因为货物已被第一个卖家装船运输了。中途的卖方通过接收货物而

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Incoterms+2010英文对照版

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