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首页 Brian Bix,State of the Art in Legal Philosophy, …

Brian Bix,State of the Art in Legal Philosophy, and Perspectives on Its Future

Brian Bix,State of the Art in L…

蓟门烟树
2011-05-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Brian Bix,State of the Art in Legal Philosophy, and Perspectives on Its Futurepdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

访谈INTERVIEWStateoftheArtinLegalPhilosophy,andPerspectivesonItsFuture:ResponseofBrianHBixQuestion:WhatislegalphilosophyWhatisthepurposeofthestudyoflegalphilosophyWhatisitspropermethodologyBix:“Legalphilosophy”isthenameforthebroadphilosophicalstudyofissuesrelatingtolawThecoreofit,Ibelieve,remainsinquiriesintothenatureoflawHowever,“legalphilosophy”isfarmorethanthat:itrangesfrombroadandabstractenquiriesaboutthenatureoressenceoflawtomoredetaileddiscussionsofthenatureandinteractionofvariouslegalconcepts(eg,legalobligation,legalduty,proximatecause)toanalysesofthephilosophicalfoundationsofdifferentareasoflaw(eg,contractlawortortlaw)tomoralandpoliticalinvestigationsoftheproperlimitsoflawgenerallyorcriminallawinparticularAsforpurpose,thecorequestionsoflegalphilosophy,inquiriesintothenatureoflawandtheproperunderstandingofcentrallegalconcepts,havenopurposebeyondknowledgeforitsownsakeThoughthispropositioniswidelyheldamong(Englishlanguage)legaltheorists,itisaviewthatmanyacademicsoutsidethefield(particularly,itseems,Americanlegalacademics)resistIntheirview,almostalltheorieshavepracticalimplications,andiftheydonot,theyarenotworthourattentionThismakesithard,sometimes,topresent,jurisprudentialpaperstoAmericanaudiences(Ishouldaddherethatthereisone,veryprominentEnglishlanguagelegaltheoristwhoclaimsastrongconnectionbetweenone’slegaltheoryanddaytodaylegaloutcomes,andthatisRonaldDworkinHebelievesthattheresolutionofeachspecificlegaldisputeexpressesorentailsaviewongeneraljurisprudentialissues,andthateverypositionongeneraljurisprudentialissueswillhaveasaconsequencedifferentoutcomesonmanyparticularlegaldisputes)Asformethodology,thereislittlereasontoassumethatthereisasinglerightmethodologyforallthedifferenttopicsorinquiriesthatfallwithinlegalphilosophyForexample,theanalysisofthenatureoflaworthenatureoflegalrightscouldveryeasilyrequireadifferentsetofmethodologicaltoolsthandeterminingthephilosophicalfoundationsoftortlawAdditionally,evenasregardsthenatureoflaw,onecouldapproachlaw(asmanyofthenaturallawtheoristsdo)asanaspectofpracticalreasoning,oronecouldapproachit(asmanyofthelegalpositivistsdo)asakindofsocialpracticeThe访谈INTERVIEWtheoreticalapproachonewouldbringtoanaspectofmoralreasoningwilllikelydifferfromtheapproachonebringstosocialtheoryQuestion:WhatisyourpersonalexperienceHowdidyoustartonlegalphilosophyWhichpeopleinfuencedmoresubstantiallyinyourworkBix:DuringmyfirstyearasauniversityundergraduatestudentatWashingtonUniversityIhadthegoodfortune,first,tobepartofasmallgroupwhosecoursesfocusedonthetopic,“lawandsociety,”includinglegaltheory,legalhistory,andlegalanthropologyand,second,tohaveasoneofmyteachersinthatgroup,thegreatKelsenscholar,StanleyPaulsonAftergraduatingfromWashingtonUniversity(withaBAdegree,with“majors”inPhilosophyandPoliticalScienceanda“minor”inBiology),Iwenttoobtainalaw(JD)degreefromHarvardUniversityWhilethere,Ihadtheopportunitytospeakwithandlearnfromsomeoftheprominentcriticallegaltheoristsofthetime,includingDuncanKennedy,MortonHorwitz,RobertoUnger,GeraldFrug,andDavidKennedy(Ihaveneverbeenacriticallegaltheorist,butIhavetriedtolearnfromCLSThisismyattitudetomanydifferentschoolsoflegalthought:Imaynotagreewiththem,buttheirviewscontainimportanttruthsfromwhichIcanlearnIthinkthisistruenotonlyofCLS,butalsoofnaturallawtheory,criticalracetheory,feministlegaltheory,lawandeconomics,Americanlegalrealism,Scandinavianlegalrealism,historicaljurisprudence,andmanyotherapproaches)Later,inthecourseofmydoctoralworkatOxfordUniversity,IhadtheopportunitytohavemythesissupervisedbyJosephRaz,andtotakecoursesbyRonaldDworkin,JohnFinnis,andJWHarrisAlso,whileIwasatOxford,IhadthechancetoattendlecturesandclassesbyimportantfiguresinWittgensteinstudies,philosophyoflanguage,andmoralphilosophy:egMichaelDummett,SimonBlackburn,CrispinWright,BernardWilliams,JohnMcDowell,DavidPears,GPBakerandPeterHackerAlongwiththeabovetheorists,IalsofeelastronginfluencebyHLAHart(especiallytheEnglishcommonsenseapproachandclarityoflanguageandargumentinhiswork)LudwigWittgenstein(especiallyhisefforttodissolvetheproblemsofphilosophygenerally,andthoseofmeaninginparticular)andRobertGordon(theCriticalLegalStudiesandlegalhistoryscholar)Question:WhicharetheareasandtopicshaveyouworkedonlegalphilosophyWhatareyour访谈INTERVIEWmaincontributionstotheareaBix:Manyofmyjurisprudentialwritingsfitintooneoftwocategories:()therelationshipofphilosophyoflanguagetophilosophyoflaw()methodologicalissuesrelatingtotheoriesaboutthenatureoflawand()thenatureoftruthinlawIcannotclaimanyschoolsofthoughtorparticulargrandnewideasMostlymyworkhasbeencontributingtothecollectiveworkofmany:eg,ontheunderstandinganddefenseoftheoriesofthenatureoflawasconceptualtheoriesonclarifyingthe(limited)roletheoriesfromphilosophyoflanguagecanplaywithinissuesoflegalreasoning,legalinterpretation,andlegaldeterminacyandoninvestigatingthenatureoftruthinlawAsrelatedtophilosophyoflanguageandphilosophyoflaw,Ithinkitimportantnottogiveintothetemptationofunderestimatingtherolethatpolitics(understoodascollectivechoice,howeverarbitrary)doesplay,andshouldplay,inlawIndiscussionsonthenatureoftruthforlegalpropositions,Ihavefocusedontwoissues:(a)contrastingbutintersectingrolesof“will”and“reason”ingroundingthetruthoflegalpropositionsand(b)theconceptualdifficultiesofclaimingglobalerroraboutsomelegalmatterQuestion:WhichisthefutureoflegalphilosophyWhichproblemsdoyouthinkshouldreceivemajorattentioninthefollowingyearsWhichdoyouthinkarethemorefruitfulwaystoapproachtheseproblemsBix:Iforeseethefutureoflegalphilosophylookingnotthatdifferentfromitspresent:atheoreticalstruggletoobtainacleareroverviewofthenatureoflawthenatureoflegalconceptslikeright,duty,causation,andownershipandthephilosophicalfoundationsofproperty,contractlaw,andtortlawandsoonThereisanongoingcontroversywhetherthereis(ever)progressinphilosophy,orwhetherwejustmovefromone“fashionable”theorytothenext,fromonesetofobscureandmystifyingjargontermstoanotherIthinkthattherehasbeenprogressinsomewaysinlegaltheoryinrecentdecades–inpart,becauseIthinkthebaselinehadbeensolowTherearemajorfiguresofearlierdecadeswhoarestillwellworthreading–butwho,tous,seemtobedreadfullylackingintheoreticaltoolsandsophisticationForexample,withJohnAustin(thefirstmodernlegalpositivist,andperhapsthefirstanalyticallegalphilosopher),onecannoteventellfromthetextwhethertheclaimsbeingmadearedescriptive,conceptualorsomethingelseTheprominentAmericanlegalrealistsKarlLlewellynandJeromeFrankstraintomakeclaimsaboutthenatureoflanguageandrules,andthe访谈INTERVIEWeconomiceffectsoflegalrules,buttheyjustdonothavethetoolstoworkthroughtheirideaswithcareAndLonFuller’sinsightsaboutproceduraljustice,ruleoflaw,andinstitutionalcompetenceneedtobeextractedfromanalysisthatisfartoooftenmuddledandcarelessThereisanimpressivegroupoflegaltheoristsworkingtodaywhobringinsophisticatedtheoreticaltoolsfromphilosophyoflanguage,practicalreasoning,sociology,economics,culturalstudies,literarytheory,andmanyotherfieldsIthinkthatthereiseveryreasontothinkthattherewillbeacontinualstringofexcellentworkbringingavarietyofinterdisciplinarymethods,offeringnewinsightsandperspectivesWhileeverygenerationraisesdifferentsetsofquestionswithinlegaltheory,reflectingtheconcernsoftheirsocietiesandtheirage,Ithinkthatcertainbasicquestionsstillremaintobeanswered,andwillwarrantfurtherattention:eg,onthegroundsoftruthforlegalpropositions(eg,whatisitthatmakesstatementslike“AandBhaveavalidcontract”and“XhasarightthatYpayher$”trueorfalse)theproperunderstandingofdeonticlogic,onitsownandasappliedtolegalnormsthebestunderstandingofthevariousconnectionsbetweenlawandmoralityandwhetherwecansensiblytalkabout“thenatureoflaw”WhatIwouldemphasizeisthecomplexityoftheinquiry:eg,oneshouldnotfocusonthepracticalreasoningaspectoflawwhileignoringthesocialpracticesaspectAndoneshouldfocusonthephilosophyoflanguageaspectoflegalreasoningwhileforgettingthepartthatbothdeonticlogicandpoliticalchoiceplays

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Brian Bix,State of the Art in Legal Philosophy, and Perspectives on Its Future

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