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首页 490个语法分析王若平基础

490个语法分析王若平基础.pdf

490个语法分析王若平基础

刘志道
2017-06-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《490个语法分析王若平基础pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

考研英语语法串讲与练习主讲:王若平“考试虫”学习体系的核心耕耘者第一节主语 说起主语大家似乎很熟悉实际上主语是很复杂的请同学们思考一下:什么词可以充当句子的主语?可以充当英语句子主语的成分有:一、名词二、名词化的形容词三、代词四、数词五、动词不定式六、动名词七、名词化的现在分词、过去分词八、短语九、句子。如:○Pessimistssaythatthehumanisfacingextinction 主谓宾从thehumanisfacingextinction主谓宾(名词作主语)○Nowkeepingpetsismoreandmoreprevalentinmanydevelopedcountries状主系表状(名词作主语)○Whenalightpassengerplaneflewoffcoursesometimeagoitcrashedinthe 状从主谓状mountainsanditspilotwaskilled (代词作主语)连主谓Whenalightpassengerplaneflewoffcoursesometimeago连主谓状状○Tocommitsuicideisacowardlybehavior(动词不定式短语作主语) 主系表○ItisimpossibleformostlearnerstolearnEnglishabroad 形主系表真主(不定式短语为真正主语it为形式主语)○ThathastemakeswasteisaproverbfulloflogicThehastemakeswaste主从系表定主谓宾(句子作主语)  ○Howeveradversethecircumstancethestronginlifefirmlybelievesactionismore 状从主定状谓宾从reliablethanluck Howeveradversethecircumstance(maybe)连表主系actionismorereliablethanluck(isreliable)主系表状从(名词化的形容词作主语)○Eachyearthousandsofgraduatesfloodthejobmarketwavingtheircollegediplomas 名主定谓宾状andcertificates (数词作主语) 一、名词作主语 从实用的角度看名词可分为:)不可stryandboomingdomesticmarket,moreandmoremanufacturers状定主arerealizingtheimportanceofmediainthepromotionoftheirproducts 谓宾定定○Manufacturersmustplaceimportanceonensuringqualityandguaranteeingservicesto主谓宾状maintainconsumerloyalty  ②现在分词也可以作后置定语如: ○Somecommonformsofpollutionarewastesfromtheburningfossilfuelsand定主定系表定sewagerunningintorivers 表定○Afriendlysmilecanandwillremovebarriershinderingsocialinteraction定主谓宾定八、过去分词作定语 过去分词作定语即可前置也可后置。 ①过去分词有时可作前置定语如: ○Smokinganddrinkingisanacquiredtasteandisnotinborn(taste) 主系定表连系表②过去分词在多数情况下作后置定语如: ○Fromthetable,wecanseetheaveragescoresachievedinfiveschoolsubjects状主谓定宾定byschoolboysandschoolgirls ○IwishtoapplyforthepositionadvertisedinBeijingEvening 主谓宾定九、动词不定式作定语 ①不定式作定语总是后置如: ○Thereisstillalongwaytogotowardssolvingtheproblem 谓状定主定○Failuretohaltthespreadofweaponsofmassdestructionincreasesthechancefora主定谓宾定nuclearwar②不定式复合结构作定语也要后置如: ○Ifoneisreallyinadeadendjob,thenitisthetimeforhimtoleave  状从状主系表定○Theneedforonetorationallyevaluatethecircumstancesofanysituationisabsolutely主定系状essential  表十、动名词作定语 动名词作定语总是前置如: ○Tourismleadstothedevelopmentofhotels,shoppingfacilitiesandotherfundamental主谓宾定constructions (此处的shopping不可理解成现在分词如果是分词则有下面的逻辑关系:facilitiesareshopping。下同) ○Aswellasdeepeningthecitizen'sreadingability,newspapersalsoencouragethereader状主谓宾totakedownadictionarytolookupanexactreference 宾补十一、短语作定语短语的构成有以下几种形式: ①名词名词如: ○TheneedforimprovedSinoUSrelationsisobvious主定系表○Theargumentofparentalinfluenceoveryoungpeoplecanbeansweredbysimple主定谓observationofdaytodaylife  状②形容词名词 ○Afewuniversities,bydrawingtopqualityprofessorsfromtheworld,maydevelop定主状谓intoworldclassuniversities  状③名词形容词 ○Somepeopleprefertochoosingoneoccupationastheirlifelongcareer  主谓宾○Therearemanydutyfreecommoditiesavailableinthisstore  谓定主定④副词形容词 ○Ontheotherhand,itmustbeadmittedmigrantworkersputanextraburdenonthe状形主谓主从alreadyseriousproblemsoftheurbanareas migrantworkersputanextraburdenonthealreadyseriousproblemsoftheurbanareas主谓宾状⑤数词名词 ○Afivedayweekhasfoundanimmediatewelcomeandmuchpopularitysinceitwas定主谓宾officiallyadoptedacrossthecountry 状从sinceitwasofficiallyadoptedacrossthecountry连主谓状谓状⑥副词现在分词 ○Aworthyleaderisafarseeingpolitician  定主系定表○China'sreformhasproducedafarreachinginfluenceonothercountries  主谓定宾状⑦名词现在分词 ○WecancreateanEnglishspeakingenvironmentwherewecanstilllearnEnglishwell主谓定宾定从ifwehavenochancetogoabroad 状从wherewecanstilllearnEnglishwell连主谓宾状ifwehavenochancetogoabroad 连主谓宾定○Chinesepeoplearepeacelovingpeopleandagainstunjustwars  定主系定表连表⑧副词过去分词 ○YaoMinghasbecomeawellknownbasketballplayerintheworld  主系定表状○Thisnewlybuiltgymnasiumisequippedwithmodernfacilitiesandhasreceived定主谓宾连谓favorablecommentsfromthemasses  定宾定⑨形容词现在分词 ○Somegoodlookingapplesmaynottastegood  定主系表十二、量词作定语 量词作定语修饰不可数名词和可数名词。 ①量词修饰不可数名词如: ○Peopleshouldnotonlyeatalotofmeatandmilk,butalsoenoughgrain,fruitand主谓定宾连宾vegetablesforthesakeoftheirhealth 状○Theincreasinghumanoccupationofspaceandenvironmentalpollutioncausethe定主谓extinctionofalotofwildlife  宾定②量词修饰可数名词如: ○Abunchofflowersisneveranoutdatedgifttoalady  定主系状定表状○Childdevelopmentdependsonanumberoffactors,bothphysicalandpsychological主谓定宾定十三、从句作定语 从句作定语有以下几种: )关系代词引导的定语从句 ①who引导的定语从句如: ○Peoplewhoarefilledwithhatredfortheirworkcanhardlyhaveremarkable主定从谓定achievements  宾whoarefilledwithhatredfortheirwork主谓宾定○Thosewhoclaimthattheydon'thavegoodluckjustcan'trecognizeormakegood主定从状谓谓useofopportunity 宾whoclaimthattheydon'thavegoodluck主谓宾从thattheydon'thavegoodluck连主谓定宾②关系代词which引导的定语从句如: ○Tosumup,therecanbenoachievementwhichisnotbasedonsolidfoundationofpractice状谓主定从whichisnotbasedonsolidfoundationofpractice主谓定宾定删除的内容:○Weareenteringanewerawhichrequirescontinuingpersonalsacrifices 主谓宾定从whichrequirescontinuingpersonalsacrifices主谓定宾③关系代词that引导的定语从句如: ○Iamwritingtoyouinthehopeofobtainingthejobasasecretarythatyou主谓状状定从advertisedinthenewspaper (指代人) thatyouadvertisedinthenewspaper连主谓状○Oneofthebestqualitiesthatmostpeopleadmireisthewillingnesstoadmitone's主定定从系表定ownmistakes(指代物) thatmostpeopleadmire连主谓○Oneofthemostseriousproblemsmanypeopletalkaboutcentersonthelack主定定从谓宾ofadequatehousingspace (that引导定语从句如在从句中作宾语时that可省略。) 定④关系代词在从句中作定语时要用whose如: ○Childrenwithparentswhoseguidanceisfirm,consistent,andrationalareinclinedto主定定谓possesshighlevelsofselfconfidence  宾)关系副词引导的定语从句 ①关系副词why引导的定语从句如: ○AfurtherreasonwhyIadvocateanattitudeofcompetitionisthatpeopleoften定主定从系表从makegreateffortsinacontest whyIadvocateanattitudeofcompetition关系副词(状)主谓宾定thatpeopleoftenmakegreateffortsinacontest连主谓宾状○Therearevariousreasonswhythelandlockedwesthaslaggedbehindinitseconomic谓定主定从developmentwhythelandlockedwesthaslaggedbehindinitseconomicdevelopment关系副词(状)主谓状状②关系副词where引导的定语从句如: ○Theissueofparentalinfluenceoveryoungpeopleisanareawherereligiousthought主定系表定从agreeswithscience wherereligiousthoughtagreeswithscience关系副词(状)主谓宾③关系副词when引导的定语从句如: ○Thereareinstanceswhenonemustabandonthetendencyforselfpreventioninorderto谓主定从assistapersoningravedanger whenonemustabandonthetendencyforselfpreventioninordertoassista关副(状)主谓宾定状personingravedanger ④关系副词how引导的定语从句如: ○That'sthewayhowIsolvedthedifficultproblem 主系表定从howIsolvedthedifficultproblem关副(状)主谓定宾)非限定性定语从句 非限定性定语从句与限定性定语从句有三点明显的区别:A非限定性定语从句中的关系代词指代的面比较宽它可以指主句中一个词、一个短语或整句或句中的实质内容而限定性定语从句中的关系代词只能指代主句中一个词B非限定性定语从句前面要用逗号隔开限定性定语从句前面不用标点符号C非限定性定语从句中的关系代词指人时只能用who指物时只能用which限定性定语从句中的关系代词无论指人还是指物还可用that。who修饰人如: ○Asoldier,whodoesnotwanttobemarshal,isnotagoodsoldier  主定从系定表whodoesnotwanttobemarshal主谓宾○Aman,whodoesnotwanttoexcelothersinknowledge,hastosighatother'sachievement 主定从谓状whodoesnotwanttoexcelothersinknowledge主谓宾○Intheeternalnature,joyisadrivingpower,whichpushestheworldforward  状主系定表定从whichpushestheworldforward主谓宾状○After,therapideconomicgrowthdemandedimportationofhightechnology,状定主谓宾定whichinturnboosteditsdevelopment 定从whichinturnboosteditsdevelopment主状谓宾○Physicalexercisehelpscutyourmedicalbill,whichisofteneatingabigchunkof主谓宾连(主)谓定yourfamilyincome 宾○Asaresult,tobaccoconsumptionisexperiencingadecreasedayandday,which状主谓宾状主leadstothedeclineoftheproduction (指代整句) 谓宾定○Inthepastfewyears,somenarrowstreetswerewidened,whichreducedthe状定主谓主谓congestionofthetraffic (指代整句)宾定)which在定语从句中作定语与of连用作状语与其他介词连用。①作定语与of连用如: ○Perhapsnoissuesaremorecontroversialthaneuthanasiaandabortion,bothof状主系表状从引whichinvolvetakingthelifeofahumanbeing 谓宾定②作状语与其他介词连用如: ○Learningisaprocessinwhichmanadaptstohissurroundings 主系表状主谓宾)定语被分割 定语从句通常都有它的固定位置紧紧地放在它所修饰的名词之后但也有被分割的。定语从句被分割有两种情况:一是被介词短语分割二是被谓语分割。这种分割往往会给我们的阅读造成困难搞不清定语从句的修饰对象。 ①被介词短语所分割如: ○OnlynaturalborncitizensoftheUnitedStateswhohaveattainedtheageof定主定主谓宾yearsandwhohavelivedintheUnitedStatesforyearsmaybeelected连主谓状状系谓president  主补○Tourismcancreatejobsforlocalpeoplewhichcaneasilygetbigmoney  主谓宾状主谓宾②被谓语分割 在英语句型中如果主语有较长的定语修饰谓语又很短为了保持句子的平衡结构这些定语往往被谓语分割如: ○Inpractice,whatoftenhappensisthatanewtheoryisdevisedthatisreallyan状主从系表从主谓定从extensionoftheprevioustheory○Eventuallystoriesarosewhichexplainedorveiledthemysteriesoftherites状主谓定从whichexplainedorveiledthemysteriesoftherites主谓宾第七节状语 中国学生写作时增加句子的复杂程度常常靠状语状语在写作中具有突出地位。我们要重点解决两个问题:一、什么成分可以充当状语二、状语可修饰哪些词。一、什么成分可以充当状语 可以充当状语的成分有:  .副词作状语 副词作状语的位置很灵活大致可分四种: )状语放在助动词与主动词之间如: ○Withoutparents'fullsupport,eventhebestteacherscanhardlyachievethe状状定主谓状谓宾successineducatingchildren  定○Asensiblepersoncanreadilyrecognizethedifferencebetweenappropriateand定主谓状谓宾定inappropriatebehavior)状语放在动词之前如: ○Forthereasonspresentedabove,Istronglycommittothenotionthat状主状谓宾advertisementcanbringusnumerousbenefits 同位从thatadvertisementcanbringusnumerousbenefits 连主谓间宾定直宾○Manyinstitutionstraditionallyplacemoreemphasisonthecompetitivespirit  主状谓宾状)状语放在动词之后如: ○Itismoredifficulttowritesimply,directly,andeffectivelythantoemployflowery形主系表真主状butvagueexpressionsthatonlyobscureone'smeaning 定从thatonlyobscureone'smeaning主状谓宾○Morethananytimeinthepast,studentsnowadaysneedmorepressurefromtheir状主状谓宾定teacherstomakethemstudyharder 状)状语放在句首如: ○Quiteobviously,immediateactionisneededtoextricatemillionChinesepeople状定主谓主补fromthegripsofpoverty ○Unfortunately,availableevidencefailstoestablishanydirectlinkbetweensmoking状定主谓宾定andcancer 介词短语作状语 介词短语作状语是最常见的修饰手段用途很广可以作:)方式状语)条件状语3)原因状语4)结果状语5)让步状语6)表示关于7)表示对于 ○Wemustsettlethisbyargumentnotbyfighting(方式) 主谓宾状○Asahuman,onecanhardlydowithoutafriend (条件) 状主谓状谓状○Weshouldnotabandonaworkableplansimplybecauseofminorsetbacks(原因) 主 谓定宾状○Hewassentencedtodeath (结果)主谓状○Despitethelackofexperience,hehasfinishedthetaskgivenbyhisleaderintime状主谓宾定状(让步) ○Thereisnoconsensusofopinionamongpeopleastohowtoviewopportunity(关于)谓主定定○AIDSisnolongeroneofthetopAmericankillers,butthesamecan'tbesaid主系状表定连主谓formanycountries(对于)状不定式作状语 ○FromnowonIwillconcentrateallmyenergyonmystudiessoastoqualifymyself状主谓宾状状asatalentinthestcentury (目的状语可放在句首或在inorder,soas,not,forsb之后或在某些不及物动词之后) ○Toabsorbforeignfunds,wemustimproveourinvestmentclimate  状主谓宾○Hemadealongspeech,onlytoshowhisignoranceofthesubject (不定式作结果状主谓定宾状语在only,enough,soas,notsoas,never,too之后或在某些不及物动词之后) ○Iamveryhappytoworktogetherwithyou (原因状语在形容词之后或由hear,主系表状learn等构成的不定式短语)○You'llbesokindenoughtoletmeknow (条件状语跟will,should,could等情主系表状状态动词连用)现在分词作状语 ○Studyingathome,youarefreefromthedistractionswhichcomefromother状主谓宾主谓宾studentsaroundyou (时间)定○Havingbeengivensuchagoodchance,howcouldIletitslipaway (原因)状疑问词助主谓宾宾补○Inordertogetthebestscoreintheirexamination,studentscompetefiercely,thus状主谓状状impellingthemtolearnmore (结果) ○Havingbeenaskedtostay,Icouldn'tverywellleave (让步)状主谓状谓○Havingonlybookknowledge,youcannotworkwellinthefuture (条件现在分词状主谓状状作条件状语时主句多半用情态动词can和will) ○SeeingthatNieHaishengcameoutofthespacecapsule,manycitizenswentoutand状主谓marchedthroughthestreets,singinganddancing(伴随)状状○Standingonthetopofthemountain,hegazedfaraway (方式)  状主谓状过去分词作状语 ○Borninadifferentage,theoldergenerationexperiencedallsortsofhardships(原因) 状主谓定宾○Hegothomeatlast,(being)listlessandexhausted (结果)主谓 状状○Theterroristsfledintomountainspursuedbythearmy (伴随) 主谓状状○Grantedyourpromise,yourconclusionisstillfalse (条件) 状主系表○Noonecansailtheoceanoflifesinglehanded (方式) 主谓宾定状名词作状语名词作状语后置如: ○Tomaketheworldabetterplacetolive,wemustworkhandinhandtoprotectwater状主谓状状resources ○Therehasbeenamodestdecreaseinhousepricesthisyear  谓定主状状状语从句 状语从句是修饰主句中的谓语动词的可以表达:)时间)条件)原因)让步)结果)目的)比较)方式)地点)伴随等概念在写作中起着重要作用。 )时间状语从句 引导时间状语从句的连词有:when,whenever,while,as,assoonas,aslongas,before,after,till,until,once,sincenowthat,themoment,everytime,如:○Whenyoustartajob,youmuststicktoit (when比while使用的面要宽它既可连主谓宾主谓宾以跟表持续动作的动词连用也可跟表示暂短的动作的动词如本句中的start连用然而while只能跟表持续动作的动词连用不能跟表示暂短动作的动词连用。本句中的when不可替换成while。)○WhileIwasreadinginthelibrary,hewaswatchingTVinthedormitory(while可连主谓状主谓宾状替换when))条件状语从句 引导条件状语从句的连词有:if,evenif,unless,as(so)longas,incase,suppose,supposing,provided,providing,oncondition,sofaras,如:○Ifyouwanttopursueyourprofessionalcareersuccessfully,itisessentialtofind连主谓宾状形主系表真主asatisfactoryjob  ○Aslongaswelearnsomethingfromfailure,we'llcertainlymakeourmarksin连主谓宾状主谓状谓宾状theend○Suppose(supposing)(that)Ishallnotfindasuitablejobaftergraduation,I'llgo连主谓定宾状主谓abroadtotakeupadvancedstudies 状 )原因状语从句引导原因状语从句的连词有because,inthat,as,since,nowthat,seeingthat,consideringthat,notthatbutthat,如: ○ManychildreninthewestofChinadroppedoutofschoolbecausetheirparentsare主定谓状状从toopoortopaythefeesbecausetheirparentsaretoopoortopaythefees 连主系表状○Anthropologyisascienceinthatanthropologistsusearigoroussetofmethods主系表连主谓定宾andtechniquestodocumentobservationsthatcanbecheckedbyothers  状thatcanbecheckedbyothers主谓状)让步状语从句 引导让步状语从句的有: ①连词though(although),while,as,nomatter ○Thoughcomputersdonotthinkintelligentlyasman,withsoftwaretheycancarry连主谓状状从状主谓outmissionsimpossibleforhumanbeings 宾定○Whilefiguresofstatisticsaremostoftenmathematicallycorrect,Isuggestthey连主定系表主谓caneasilybemanipulatedtoserveone'spurpose宾从theycaneasilybemanipulatedtoserveone'spurpose主谓状②关系代词whatever ○Whateverwedo,therearealwaystwopossibleresults:successorfailure  状从谓状定主同位语Whateverwedo宾主谓③关系副词however ○Howevergreatthedemandtosucceed,oneshouldneverabandonhismoralandsocial状从主谓定consciousness 宾Howevergreatthedemandtosucceedis表主定系)结果状语从句 引导结果状语从句的连词有:sothat,sothat,suchthat ○Thedifficultiesinvolvedinthistaskaresogreatthatwecan'thopeformorethana主定系表状从tentativeandincompleteanswer thatwecan'thopeformorethanatentativeandincompleteanswer连主谓宾)目的状语从句 引导目的状语从句的连词有:sothat,inorderthat,incase,lest,forfearthat,如:○Entertainmentisnecessarysothatwecanhavesomemomentsofrelaxation 主系表连主谓宾定)比较状语从句 ○Systematicstudiesprovethatpeopleplacegreatervalueonpersonalexperiencewith主谓宾从productsthantheydoonadvertisements  状thatpeopleplacegreatervalueonpersonalexperiencewithproductsthantheydo连主谓宾状状从onadvertisements○Infact,youcanlearnmorefromtheInternetthanyoucanatschool  状主谓宾状状)方式状语从句 引导方式状语从句的连词有:as,asif(though)如: ○Leavethingsastheyare!  谓宾状从astheyare连主系○WheninRome,doastheRomansdo 状从谓状从When(youare)inRome连主系表astheRomansdo连主谓)地点状语从句 ○Hewantstoworkwhereothersarenotwillingtowork 主谓宾状从whereothersarenotwillingtowork连主谓)伴随状语从句 ○Inthelasttwocenturies,asindustrializationandman'sthirstformaterialgoodsgrew,the状状从naturalbalanceinthebiologicalworldwasalteredinavarietyofways 主定谓状asindustrializationandman'sthirstformaterialgoodsgrew连主定谓二、状语可修饰哪些词 状语可以修饰:动词形容词介词连词数词副词句子 修饰动词 副词修饰动词的位置比较活可中可前可后参见“副词作状语”。但修饰动词不定式以及作定语的分词和动名词要放在前面。 ①修饰不定式如: ○Engineersusecomputerstoautomaticallycontrolcomplicatedindustrialproduction 主谓宾状○Someseemtototallyignorethefactthatprogressdependsonchange  主谓状谓宾同位从thatprogressdependsonchange连主谓宾②副词修饰现在分词如: ○Theexplosivelygrowinghumanpopulationhasresultedintheworld'swildlife 状主谓宾extinction ③副词修饰过去分词如: ○Ontheotherhand,yourstomachwouldturnattheideaoffryingpotatoesinanimal 状主谓状定fatthenormallyacceptedpracticeinmanynortherncountries  同位定○Wehaveonlylimitedtimetolearnunlimitedknowledge 主谓状定宾定④副词修饰动名词如: ○Fromthegraph,wecanseethedramaticallyincreasingofoutputofTVset  状主谓宾定 修饰形容词 副词修饰形容词时要前置如: ○Thistremendoustobaccoconsumptionnotonlycausesvasteconomic 定主连谓状定consumptionbutalsothreatenspeople'shealth  宾连谓宾butalsothreatenspeople'shealth连谓宾○Itisabsolutelyessentialtoreversetheirrationalmisuseofnonrenewableresource 形主系状表真主修饰介词 副词修饰介词时前置如: ○Trueromanceisfoundonlyintherealityofhardwork  主谓状状○GreatchangeshavetakenplaceinChinapartiallyduetotheforeigninvestment 主谓状状 修饰连词 副词修饰连词要前置如: ○Longbeforechildrenareabletospeakorunderstandalanguage,theycommunicate连主谓宾主谓throughfacialexpressionsandbymakingnoises 状修饰数词 副词修饰数词要前置如: ○Smokersaccountforapproximatelypercentoftheworldpopulation 主谓宾 ○Accordingtorecentstatistics,thereareovertwomillionchildreninChinawho状谓主状hasdroppedoutofschool 定从whohasdroppedoutofschool主谓状修饰副词 副词修饰副词要前置如: ○Wecan,andquiteoftendo,blameourcontemporariesforpersonalfailures 主情态动词助动词谓宾状 ○Archaeologicaldataareallchangesinthematerialworldresultingfromhumanaction主系表定定or,moresuccinctly,thefossilizedresultsofhumanbehavior  状表定修饰句子 副词修饰整个句子其位置通常放在句首并用逗号与句子隔开如: ○Similarly,ifpracticeisnotsufficientlydone,youcan'texpectacheftocook状连主谓状谓主谓宾宾补adeliciousdish,amechanictofixacar,andanacrobattoperformonarope 宾宾补宾宾补○Fortunately,theworld'sattentionhasnowadaysbeenshiftedtoecologicalbalance 状定主谓状谓状第八节同位语 同位语是变相的定语当两个句子成分处于同等位置后者用来说明或解释前者时后者就是前者的同位语。 一、名词作同位语 名词充当同位语可归纳为四种情况: ①单个名词作同位语不用逗号如: ○Thewordtoleranceisanambiguoustermthat,Ibelieve,isworththinkingabout 主同位系定表连插入语谓○Alotofusstudentsatcollegedreamofgoingabroadforfurtherstudy 定主同位语状谓宾状②名词短语作同位语要用逗号隔开如: ○Mostpeoplebelievethatfaminesarecausedbydroughtsorfloods,factorsbeyond主谓宾从同位humancontrolthatfaminesarecausedbydroughtsorfloods连主谓状○BillGates,founderofMicrosoft,isaclassicexampleofsuccess  主同位系定表定③解释性的同位语用破折号隔开如: ○Onequalityofleadershipisimaginationtheabilitytoseeawaythroughproblems主定系表同位语andtodevelopnewideas ○Anumberoffactorscontributetochangingmoralvaluesselfindulgence,thelack定主谓宾同位ofconsciousnessandthedegenerationofsocietyitself ④类似于举例性质的同位语用冒号隔开如: ○Therearemanyformsoflifeonearth:organisms,animals,plants,andhumanbeings 谓主定同位○Withtheprocessofglobalization,manywesterncountriesfeelChineseimpact:状定主谓宾Chineseboxing,ChinesefoodandChineseculture  同位二、数词作同位语 ○Whilewetwoadvocatecompetition,wecannotforgetcooperation 连主同位谓宾主谓宾 ○Theprojectwascompletedwithintwoweeks,halftheusualtime 主谓状同位三、代词作同位语 ○Iappreciatethatweallhavearesponsibilitytorespectnature 主谓连主同位 谓宾定○Nothingmattersmorethanlifeitself 主谓状状从thanlifeitself(matters)连主同位谓 四、由thatis,especially,suchas,or,particularly等词语引出的同位语。 ○Thereisanotherruletohelpone'saccomplishments,thatis,punctuality 谓主定连同位○Everyoneintheworldfearstheoutbreakofawar,especiallyanotherworldwar主定谓宾定同位inwhichnuclearweaponmaybeused  定从inwhichnuclearweaponmaybeused 状主谓○Factorssuchasselfconfidenceandambition,combinedwithdeterminationandwill 主同位状power,contributetoeventualsuccess 谓宾○HelikesalltheTVprograms,particularlyquizshows 主谓宾同位 五、同位语从句 同位语从句和定语从句鉴别的方法是看引导词同位语从句中的引导词在句中不作句子成分定语从句中的引导词在句子中担当成分。○Perhapsitistimetoreexaminetheideathatcollegedegreesareaguaranteeof状形主系表真主同位从intelligencethatcollegedegreesareaguaranteeofintelligence连主系表定○Whethertherewasproofthatthedefendantwasnotonthecrimespotisessentialin 主从系表proofofhisinnocence (that引导同位语从句修饰proof)状Whethertherewasproofthatthedefendantwasnotonthecrimespot连谓主同位从thatthedefendantwasnotonthecrimespot连主系表第九节省略 省略是使句子简练的修辞手段更是使句子难懂的修辞手段在阅读中给同学们带来了很多麻烦。省略分成:一、并列句的省略 在并列句中后分句中出现与前分句相同的部分往往省略以求句子结构的简练。 ○Thereasonsforpovertyaremany,butforthemostpart(thereasons)centeron主定系表连状主谓illiteracy,thelackofopportunitiesandinsomecasespurelaziness 宾(center前省略主语thereasons)○Weoftenignoretherealproblemand(we)insteadsearchforaneedleina 主状谓定宾连主状谓宾haystack (and后省略主语we) 定○HemajorsinEnglish,andI,(major)inFrench(I后省略谓语major)  主谓状连主谓状○Aswecanseefromthebargraph,fromMarchtoMay,thereweretwofemaledeaths定从状谓定主while(therewere)nomaleones (while后省略therewere)状从Aswecanseefromthebargraph关系代词主谓状○Selfconfidencegivesyoulightwhenyouareindarkandencouragementwhenyouare主谓间宾直宾状从直宾状从dismay(省略selfconfidencegivesyou)二、状语从句的省略 状语从句的省略规则是:当主句的主语和从句的主语相同从句的谓语动词是be动词时可同时省略主谓。 )时间状语从句的省略如: ○Youwillseesomerealcollisionsofideasandperspectiveswhenreadingbooksof主谓宾状从differentopinions (省略youare)○Somepeopledonothingbutcomplainaboutthemselvesandtheobjectiveconditions主谓状whenfacedwithfailures 状从)条件状语从句的省略 ○If(itis)handledproperlyandnotmisused,theclonetechnologywillonlybring状从主谓状谓morebenefitthan(itwillbring)disastertomankind 宾状从○If(itis)convenient,pleasesendmeanapplicationformforgraduateadmission  状从状谓间宾直宾状)让步状语从句的省略 ○Although(theyare)apparentlyrigid,bonesexhibitadegreeofelasticitythat状从主谓定宾enablestheskeletontowithstandconsiderableimpact  定从Althoughtheyareapparentlyrigid连主系状表thatenablestheskeletontowithstandconsiderableimpact主谓宾补○Anyopinion,whether(itis)rightorwrong,shouldbeconsidered  主状从谓)比较状语从句 ①省主语 ○Wefoundthepressurehigherthanwasneeded 主谓宾宾补状从○Thesituationisdevelopingfasterthanwasexpected 主谓状状从②省略主谓宾 ○Criticismcontendsthattheselectionofthewinnersoftenhaslesstodowithtrue主谓连主定状谓writingabilitythanwiththepeculiarinternalpoliticsoftheAcademyandSwedenitself  宾状从③省略主系 ○Itisbettertobepreparedthanunprepared 主系表真主状从 ④省略系词 ○Friendshipismoreimportantthanmoney(is)  主系表状○NooneisasrichasBillGates(is) 主系表状从⑤省略主系表 ○Inwinter,itiscolderinBeijingthaninGuangzhou  状主系表状状从⑥省略谓语 ○Womenareprovingthattheycancontributejustasmuchasmen(do)tosociety  主谓宾从thattheycancontributejustasmuchasmen(do)tosociety连主谓状状从)方式状语从句的省略 ○Somepeoplelookasifafraidofnothing主谓状从asif(theywere)afraidofnothing连主系表

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