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首页 英语国家概况-名词解释系列

英语国家概况-名词解释系列.pdf

英语国家概况-名词解释系列

咖啡豆
2011-05-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语国家概况-名词解释系列pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

英语国家概况名词解释系列()AmerigoVespucciAmerigoVespucci,anavigator,provedthatthelandwasnotIndia,butanewcontinentTherefore,thelandwasnamedAmericaafterThePuritansThePuritanswerewealthy,welleducatedgentlemenTheywantedtopurifytheChurchofEnglandandthreatenedwithreligiouspersecution,thePuritansleaderssawtheNewworldasthearefugeprovidedbyGodforthoseHemeanttosave英语国家概况名词解释系列()TheBillofRightsIn,JamesMadisonintroducedintheHouseofRepresentativesaseriesofamendmentswhichlaterweredraftedintotwelveproposedamendmentsandsenttothestatesforratificationTenofthemwereratifiedinandthefirsttenamendmentstotheconstitutionwerecalledtheBillsofRightsbecausetheyweretoinsureindividuallibertiesTheEmancipationProclamationAftertheCivilwarbegan,LincolnissuedtheEmancipationProclamationtowinmoresupportathomeandabroadItgrantedfreedomtoallslavesinareasstillcontrolledbytheConfederacy英语国家概况名词解释系列()PilgrimsThanksgivingDayThePilgrimsin,ofthemsailedtotheNewWorldinashipcalledMayflowerThefirstwinteraftertheirarrivalwasverycoldandwhenspringcame,halfofthemweredeadThentheIndianscametotheirhelpandtaughtthemhowtogrowcornTheyhadagoodharvestthatyearSotheyinvitedtheIndiansandheldthefirstThanksgivingcelebrationinAmericatogivethankstoGodTheChunnelIntheBritishgovernmentandFrenchgovernmentdecidedtobuildachanneltunnel,whichiscalled“Chunnel”,undertheStraitsofDoversothatEnglandandFrancecouldbejoinedtogetherbyroadTheChunnelwasopentotrafficinMay英语国家概况名词解释系列()EisteddfodEisteddfodistheWelshwordfor“sitting”NationalEidteddfodisthemostfamousfestivalofmusicandverseinWalesIttakesplaceeachAugustandlastsforaboutaweekThehighlightofthefestivaliscompetitionforthebestepicpoemaboutWaleswrittenandreadinWelshThewinneriscrownedBoard,consideredthesupremehonourinWalesInthiswaytheWelshpeoplekeeptheWelshlanguageandculturealiveCockneyAcockneyisaLondonerwhoisbornwithinthesoundofBowBellstheBellsofthechurchofStMaryLeBowineastLondon英语国家概况名词解释系列()StonehengeItisagroupofhugemonumentsofgrantrockSlabsonsalisburyplaininSouthwestEnglandbuiltaslongagoastheNewStoneAgeItisgenerallybelievedthatstonehengeservedsomesortofreligiouspurposesTheCeltsTheCeltscametoBritaininthreemainwavesThefirstwaveweretheGales,thesecondwaveweretheBrythonsandtheBelgaecameaboutBCTheCeltswerepractisedfarmersTheCeltictribesareancestorsoftheHighlandScots,theIrishandtheWelsh,AndtheirlanguagesarethebasisofbothWelshandGaelicTheyreligionwasDruidism英语国家概况名词解释系列()NormanConquestTheNormanConquestofisperhapsthebestknowneventinEnglishhistoryWilliamtheconquerorconfiscatedalmostallthelandandgaveittohisNormanfollowersHereplacedtheweakSaxonrulewithastrongNormangovernmentSothefeudalsystemwascompletelyestablishedinEngland满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlAlfredtheGreatHewaskingofWessex,oneofthesevenAngloSaxonKingdomsItwashewholedtheAngloSaxontoflightagainsttheinvadingDanesandmaintainedpeaceforalongtimeAlfredwasnotonlyabravekingatwartime,butalsoawisekingatpeacetimeHeencouragededucationandintroducedalegalsystemHeisknownas“thefatheroftheBritishnavy”英语国家概况名词解释系列()StAugustineIn,PopeGregoryIsentStAugustine,thePriorofStAndrew’sMonasteryinRome,toEnglandtoconverttheheathenEnglishtoChristianityThatyear,StAugustinebecamethefirstArchbishopofCanterburyAugustinewasremarkablysuccessfulinconvertingthekingandthenobility,buttheconversionofthecommonpeoplewaslargelyduetothemissionaryactivitiesofthemonksinthenorthDomesdayBookItisabookcompiledbyagroupofclerksunderthesponsorshipofKingWilliamtheFirstinThebookwasinfactapropertyrecordItwastheresultofageneralsurveyofEnglandItrecordedtheextent,value,stateofcultivation,andownershipofthelandItwasoneoftheimportantmeasuresadoptedbyWilliamItoestablishthefullfeudalsysteminEnglandToday,itiskeptinthePublicRecordsOfficeinLondon英语国家概况名词解释系列()GeoffreyChaucerHewasanimportantEnglishpoetinthefourteenthcenturyHisbestknownisTheCanterburyTales,whichdescribesagroupofpilgrimstravellingtoCanterburytovisitThomasBecket’stombBecausehewasthefirstimportantEnglishpoettowriteinEnglishHehasbeenknownasthe“FatherofEnglishPoetry”TheBlackDeathItisamodernnamegiventothedearlybubonicplague,anepidemicdiseasespreadthroughEuropeinthefourteenthcenturyparticularlyinItcamewithoutwarning,andwithoutanycueInEngland,itkilledalmosthalfofthetotalpopulation,causingfarreachingeconomicconsequences英语国家概况名词解释系列()TheWarsofRoses玫瑰战争thenameWarsoftheRoseswasrefertothebattlesbetweentheHouseofLancaster,symbolizedbythereadrose,andthatofYork,symbolizedbythewhite,fromtoHenryTudor,descendantofDukeofLancasterwonvictoryatBosworthFireldinandputthecountryundertheruleoftheTudorsFromtheseWars,EnglishfeudalismreceiveditsdeathblowThegreatmedievalnobilitywasmuchweakenedTheGloriousRevolutionof光荣革命InCharlesIIdiedandwassucceededbyhisbrotherJamesIIJameswasbroughtupinexileinEurope,wasaCatholicHehopedtorulewithoutgivinguphispersonalreligiousviesButEnglandwasnomoretolerantofaCatholickinginthanyearsagoSotheEnglishpoliticiansrejectedJamesII,andappealedtoaProtestantking,WilliamofOrange,toinvadeandtaketheEnglishthroneWilliamlandedinEnglandinThetakeoverwasrelativelysmooth,withnobloodshed,noranyexecutionofthekingThiswasknownastheGloriousRevolution英语国家概况名词解释系列()TheGunpowderPlotof火药阴谋案TheGunpowderPlotofwasthemostfamousoftheCatholicconspiraciesOnNov,,afewfanaticalCatholicsattemptedtoblowKingJamesandhisministersupintheHouseofParliamentwhereGuyFawkeshadplantedbarrelsofgunpowderinthecellarsTheimmediateresultwastheexecutionofFawkesandhisfellowconspiratorsandimpositionofsevereantiCatholiclawsThelongtermresulthasbeenanannualcelebrationonNov,whenabonfireislittoturnaguyandafireworkdisplayisarranged满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlBloodMary血腥玛丽ItisthenicknamegiventoMaryI,theEnglishQueenwhosucceededtothethroneafterHenryVIIIShewasadevoutCatholicandhadsomanyProtestantsburnttodeaththatsheisrememberedlessbyherofficialtitleMaryIbyhernicknameBloodMary英语国家概况名词解释系列()Thatcherism撒切尔主义TheelectionofreturnedtheConservativePartytopowerandMargaretThatcherbecamethefirstwomanprimeministerinBritainHerpoliciesarepopularlyreferredtoasstateownedindustries,theuseofmonetaristpoliciestocontrolinflation,theweakingoftradeforcesunions,thestrengtheningoftheroleofmarketforcesintheeconomy,andanemphasisonlawandorderTheTradeUnionActof工会法ItlegalizedthetradeunionsandgivefinancialsecurityItmeantthatinlawtherewasnodifferencebetweenmoneyforbeneficpurposesandcollectingittosupportstrikeaction英语国家概况名词解释系列()Agribusiness农业产业Thenewfarminghasbeencalled“agribusiness”,becauseitisequippedandmanagedlikeanindustrialbusinesswithasetofinputsintotheprocesseswhichoccuronthefarmandoutputsorproductswhichleavethefarmBritishdisease英国病Theterm“Britishdisease”isnowoftenusedtocharacterizeBritain’seconomicdecline英语国家概况名词解释系列()Constitutionalmonarchy君主立宪制ItisapoliticalsystemthathasbeenpractisedinBritainsincetheGloriousrevolutionofAccordingtothissystem,theConstitutionissuperiortotheMonarchInlaw,theMonarchhasmanysupremepowers,butinpractice,therealpowerofmonarchyhasbeengreatlyreducedandtodaytheQueenactssolelyontheadviceofherministersShereignsbutdoesnotruleTherealpowerliesintheParliament,ortobeexact,intheHouseofCommonsPrivyCouncil枢密院AconsultativebodyoftheBritishmonarchItsorigincanbetracedbacktothetimesoftheNormanKingsAftertheGloriousRevolutionof,itsimportancewasgraduallydiminishedandreplacedbytheCabinetToday,itisstillaconsultationbodyoftheBritishmonarch,Itsmembershipisabout,andincludesalCabinetministers,thespeakeroftheHouseofCommons,theArchbishopsofCanterburyandYork,andseniorBritishandCommonwealthstatesmen英语国家概况名词解释系列()TheNationalHealthServiceItisaveryimportantpartofthewelfaresysteminBritainItisanationwideorganizationbasedonActsofParliamentItprovidesallkindsoffreeornearlyfreemedicaltreatmentbothinhospitalandoutsideItisfinancedmainlybypaymentsbythestateoutofgeneraltaxationPeoplearenotobligedtousethisserviceTheserviceisachievingitsmainobjectiveswithoutstandingsuccessComprehensiveschoolsComprehensivesschoolstakepupilswithoutreferencetoabilityoraptitudeandprovideawiderangingsecondaryeducationforallormostofthechildreninadistrict英语国家概况名词解释系列()ReutersItwasfoundedinbytheGerman,JuliusReuterItisnowapubliclyownedcompany,employingoverstaffincountriesIthasmorethanstaffjournalistsandphotographersTheCrownCourtAcriminalcourtthatdealswiththemoreseriouscasesandholdssessionsintownsthroughoutEnglandandWalesItispresidedovereitherbyajudgefromtheHighCourtofJusticeoralocalfulltimejudge满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtml英语国家概况名词解释系列()TheGreatlakesTheGreatLakesarethefivelakesinthenortheastTheyareLakeSuperiorwhichisthelargestfreshwaterlakeintheworld,LakeMichigan(theonlyoneentirelyintheUS),LakeHuron,LakeEireandLakeOntarioTheyarealllocatedbetweenCanadaandtheUnitedStatesexpectLakeMichiganTheMississippiTheMississippihasbeencalled“fatherofwaters“or”oldmanriver”ItandItstributariesdrainoneoftherichestfarmareasintheworldItisthefourthlongestriverintheworldandthemostimportantriverintheUnitedStates英语国家概况名词解释系列()UncleTom’sCabinItwasasentimentalbutpowerfulantislaverynovelwrittenbyHarrietBeecherStoweItconvertedmanyreaderstotheabolitionistcauseGettysburgItrefertotheshortspeechPresidentLincolnmadewhenhededicatedthenationalcemeteryatGettyburgHeendedthespeechwith“thegovernmentofthepeople,bythepeople,forthepeople,shallnotperishfromtheearth”英语国家概况名词解释系列()TheRedScareWhentheWWIwasover,thereexistedahighlyaggressiveandintolerantnationalismBetweenand,theRedScarehappenedOnNov,andJan,,theJusticeDepartmentlaunchedtwowavesofmassarrestsOversuspectedCommunistsandradicalwerearrestedTheNewDealInordertodealwiththeDepression,PresidentFranklinRooseveltputforwardtheNewDealprogramItpassedalotofNewDeallawsandsetupmanyefficientsocialsecuritysystemsTheNewDealhelpedtosaveAmericandemocracyandthedevelopmentofAmericaneconomy英语国家概况名词解释系列()TrumanDoctrineOnMar,,PresidentTrumanputforwardtheTrumanDoctrineinhisspeechtothejointsessionofCongressTheDoctrinemeanttosupportanycountrywhichsaiditwasfightingcommunismMarshallPlanItwasannouncedbyGeorgeMarshallonJune,,andwastheeconomicaidplanforWesternEuropeItwasalsousedtopreventthelossofWesternEuropeintotheSovietsphere英语国家概况名词解释系列()LondonsmogIn,thesulphurdioxideinthefourdayLondonsmog,anunhealthyatmosphereformedbymixingsmokeanddirtwithfogItleftpeopledeadordyingSincethenmostcitiesinBritainhaveintroduced“cleanairzones”wherebyfactoriesandhouseholdsareonlyallowedtoburnsmokelessfuelFamilyDoctorInordertoobtainthebenefitsoftheNHSapersonmustnormallyberegisteredonthelistofageneralpractitioner,sometimesknownasa“familydoctor”Thefamilydoctorgivestreatmentorprescribesmedicine,or,ifnecessary,arrangesforthepatienttogotohospitalortobeseenathomebyaspecialist英语国家概况名词解释系列()MarvellousMelbourneAfterthegoldrushinsands,therewasanimportantrevolutionintransport,especiallywiththenetworkoftramandrailwaysystemsThischangedthepaceofurbanlifeandtheappearanceofthecityandsoonpeoplewerecallingthecity“MarvellousMelbourne”Butbythesoutsiderswerecallingthecity“MarvellousMelbourne”becauseofthebadsmellofthecityWaitangiDayInthefirstofficialgovernor,WilliamHobson,wassenttonegotiatewithMaorileadersInHobson,representingQueenVictoria,andsomeMaorichiefs,signedtheTreatyofWaitangiModernNewZealandwasfoundedTheanniversaryofthesigning,February,iscelebratedas满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtmlNewZealandNationalDay,WaitangiDay,andisanationalholiday英语国家概况名词解释系列()MulticulturalismThetermmulticulturalismwascoinedinCanadainthelatesItwasinofficialuseinAustraliabyInotherwords,undermulticulturalismmigrantgroupsareabletospeaktheirownlanguageandmaintaintheirowncustomsMulticulturalismasapolicyrecognizesthatsocialcohesionisattainedbytoleratingdifferenceswithinanagreedlegalandconstitutionalframeworkQuietRevolutionEversince,whenFrancelostitsempireinNorthAmericatoEngland,FrenchCanadianshavestruggledtopreservetheirlanguageandcultureIntheearlysFrenchCanadiansbecamemorevocalintheirprotestsInparticular,theycomplainedthatwerekeptoutofjobsingovernmentandinsomelargebusinessesbecausetheyspokeonlyFrenchTheyhavebeenstrugglingmorerightscommonwhichwascalled“Quietrevolution”满分网(wwwmanfennet)更多学习资料请访问:http:wwwmanfennetthreadhtml

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英语国家概况-名词解释系列

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