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Hamlet_eText.pdf

Hamlet_eText

熊猫
2011-05-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Hamlet_eTextpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

HamletbyWilliamShakespeareAllnewmaterial©EnotescomIncoritsLicensorsAllRightsReservedNoportionmaybereproducedwithoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherForcompletecopyrightinformationpleaseseetheonlineversionofthistextathttp:wwwenotescomhamlettextTableofContentsStrategiesforUnderstandingShakespeare'sLanguageReadingPointersforSharperInsightsDramatisPersonaeActISceneISceneIISceneIIISceneIVSceneVActIISceneISceneIIActIIISceneISceneIISceneIIISceneIVActIVSceneISceneIISceneIIISceneIVSceneVSceneVISceneVIIActVSceneISceneIIiStrategiesforUnderstandingShakespeare'sLanguageWhenreadingverse,notetheappropriatephrasingandintonationDONOTPAUSEATTHEENDOFALINEunlessthereisamarkofpunctuationShakespeareanversehasarhythmofitsown,andonceareadergetsusedtoit,therhythmbecomesverynaturaltospeakinandreadBeginningreadersoftenfindithelpfultoreadashortpauseatacommaandalongpauseforaperiod,colon,semicolon,dash,orquestionmarkHere'sanexamplefromTheMerchantofVenice,ActIV,Scenei:Thequalityofmercyisnotstrain'd,(shortpause)ItdroppethasthegentlerainfromheavenUpontheplacebeneath:(longpause)itistwiceblest(longpause)Itblessethhimthatgives,(shortpause)andhimthattakes(longpause)'tismightiestinthemighties(longpause)itbecomesThethronedmonarchbetterthanhiscrown(longpause)ReadingfrompunctuationmarktopunctuationmarkformeaningInadditiontohelpingyoureadaloud,punctuationmarksdefineunitsofthoughtTrytounderstandeachunitasyouread,keepinginmindthatperiods,colons,semicolons,andquestionmarkssignaltheendofathoughtHere'sanexamplefromTheTamingoftheShrew:LUCTranio,Isawhercorallipstomove,AndwithherbreathshedidperfumetheairSacred,andsweet,wasallIsawinherTRANay,then,'tistimetostirhimfromhistranceIpray,awake,sir:ifyoulovethemaid,Bendthoughtsandwitstoachieveher(I,i)Thefirstunitofthoughtisfrom“Tranio”to“air”:Hesawherlipsmove,andherbreathperfumedtheairThesecondthought(“Sacred,andsweet…”)reemphasizesthefirstTraniorepliesthatLucentioneedstoawakenfromhistranceandtrytowin“themaid”ThesetwosentencescanbeconsideredoneunitofthoughtInaninvertedsentence,theverbcomesbeforethesubjectSomelineswillbeeasiertounderstandifyouputthesubjectfirstandrewordthesentenceForexample,lookatthelinebelow:“Neverwasseensoblackadayasthis:”(RomeoandJuliet,IV,v)Youcanchangeitsinvertedpatternsoitismoreeasilyunderstood:StrategiesforUnderstandingShakespeare'sLanguage“Adayasblackasthiswasneverseen:”AnellipsisoccurswhenawordorphraseisleftoutInRomeoandJuliet,BenvolioasksRomeo'sfatherandmotheriftheyknowtheproblemthatisbotheringtheirsonRomeo'sfatheranswers:“Ineitherknowitnorcanlearnofhim”(RomeoandJulietI,i)Thissentencecaneasilybeunderstoodtomean,“Ineitherknowthecauseofit,norcanIlearnaboutitfromhim”Asyoureadlongerspeeches,keeptrackofthesubject,verb,andobject–whodidwhattowhomIntheclausesbelow,notethesubject,verbs,andobjectsROSS:Thekinghathhappilyreceived,Macbeth,Thenewsofthysuccess:andwhenhereadsThypersonalventureintherebel'sfight…(MacbethI,iii)stclause:Thekinghathhappilyreceived,Macbeth,Thenewsofthysuccess:SUBJECT–ThekingVERB–hasreceivedOBJECT–thenewsofMacbeth'ssuccessndclause:andwhenhereadsthypersonalventureintherebel'sfight,SUBJECT–hethekingVERB–readsOBJECT–aboutyourventureInadditiontofollowingthesubject,verb,andobjectofaclause,youalsoneedtotrackpronounreferencesInthefollowingsoliloquyRomeo,whoismadlyinlovewithJuliet,secretlyobservesherasshestepsoutonherbalconyTohelpyoukeeptrackofthepronounreferences,we'vemademarginnotes(NotethatthefemininepronounsometimesreferstoJuliet,butsometimesdoesnot)But,soft!whatlightthroughyonderwindowbreaksItistheeast,andJulietisthesun!Arise,fairsun,andkilltheenviousmoon,Who*isalreadysickandpalewithgrief,Thatthouher*maidartmorefairthanshe:*“Who”referstothemoon“thouhermaid”referstoJuliet,thesun“she”and“her”refertothemoonIntrackingthelineofactioninapassage,itisusefultoidentifythemainthoughtsthatarebeingexpressedandparaphrasethemNotethefollowingpassageinwhichHamletexpresseshisfeelingsaboutthedeathofhisfatherandtheremarriageofhismother:StrategiesforUnderstandingShakespeare'sLanguageOGod!abeastthatwantsdiscourseofreasonWouldhavemourn'dlonger–marriedwithmyuncle,Myfather'sbrother,butnomorelikemyfatherThanItoHercules(I,ii)Paraphrasingthethreemainpoints,wefindthatHamletissaying:amindlessbeastwouldhavemournedthedeathofitsmatelongerthanmymotherdid♦shemarriedmyuncle,myfather'sbrother♦myuncleisnotatalllikemyfather♦IfyouarehavingtroubleunderstandingShakespeare,thefirstruleistoreaditoutloud,justasanactorrehearsingwouldhavetodoThatwillhelpyouunderstandhowonethoughtisconnectedtoanotherShakespearefrequentlyusesmetaphortoillustrateanideainauniquewayPaycarefulattentiontothetwodissimilarobjectsorideasbeingcomparedInMacbeth,Duncan,thekingsays:Ihavebeguntoplantthee,andwilllabourTomaketheefullofgrowing(I,v)ThekingcomparesMacbethtoatreehecanplantandwatchgrowAnallusionisareferencetosomeevent,person,place,orartisticwork,notdirectlyexplainedordiscussedbythewriteritreliesonthereader'sfamiliaritywiththeitemreferredtoAllusionisaquickwayofconveyinginformationorpresentinganimageInthefollowinglines,RomeoalludestoDiana,goddessofthehuntandofchastity,andtoCupid'sarrow(love)ROMEO:Well,inthathityoumiss:she'llnotbehitwithCupid'sarrow,shehathDian'switandinstrongproofofchastitywellarm'd(I,i)ContractedwordsarewordsinwhichaletterhasbeenleftoutSomethatfrequentlyappear:be'ton'twi'do'tt''sblood'gainstta'eni''tise'en'boutknow'st'twillne'ero'o'erStrategiesforUnderstandingShakespeare'sLanguageArchaic,obsoleteandfamiliarwordswithunfamiliardefinitionsmayalsocauseproblemsArchaicWordsSomearchaicwords,likethee,thou,thy,andthine,areinstantlyunderstandable,whileothers,likebetwixt,causeamomentarypause♦ObsoleteWordsIfitwerenotforthenotesinaShakespearetext,obsoletewordscouldbeaproblemwordslike“beteem”areusuallynotfoundinstudentdictionariesInthesesituations,however,aquickglanceatthebook'snoteswillsolvetheproblem♦FamiliarWordswithUnfamiliarDefinitionsAnotherproblemisthosefamiliarwordswhosedefinitionshavechangedBecausereadersthinktheyknowtheword,theydonotcheckthenotesForexample,inthiscommentfromMuchAdoAboutNothing,thewordanmeansif:Beatrice:Scratchingcouldnotmakeitworse,an'tweresuchafaceasyourswere(I,i)Forthiskindofword,wehaveincludedmarginnotes♦Wordplay:puns,doubleentendres,andmalapropismsApunisaliterarydevicethatachieveshumororemphasisbyplayingonambiguitiesTwodistinctmeaningsaresuggestedeitherbythesamewordorbytwosimilarsoundingwords♦Adoubleentendreisakindofpuninwhichawordorphrasehasasecond,usuallysexual,meaning♦AmalapropismoccurswhenacharactermistakenlyusesawordthatheorshehasconfusedwithanotherwordInRomeoandJuliet,theNursetellsRomeothatsheneedstohavea“confidence”withhim,whensheshouldhavesaid“conference”Mockingly,Benvoliothensayssheprobablywill“indite”(ratherthan“invite”)Romeotodinner♦Shakespeare'sLanguageOurfinalwordonShakespeare'slanguageisadaptedbyspecialpermissionfromRalphAlanCohen'sforthcomingbookShakesfearandHowtoCureItAGuidetoTeachingShakespeareWhat'ssohardaboutShakespeare'slanguageManystudentscometoShakespeare'slanguageassumingthatthelanguageofhisperiodissubstantiallydifferentfromoursInfactofthewordsinShakespearearecurrentusageEnglishwordsSowhydoesitsometimesseemhardtoreadShakespeareTherearethreemainreasons:Originally,ShakespearewrotethewordsforanactortoillustratethemashespokeInshort,theplayyouhaveathandwasmeantforthestage,notforthepage♦ShakespearehadthesameloveofreformingandrearrangingwordsinsuchplacesashiphopandsportscastingtodayHisplaysreflectanexcitementaboutlanguageandaninventivenessthatbecomesenjoyableoncethereadergetsintothespiritofit♦StrategiesforUnderstandingShakespeare'sLanguageSinceShakespeareputsalltypesofpeopleonstage,thosecharacterswillincludesomewhoarepompous,somewhoaredevious,somewhoareboring,andsomewhoarecrazy,andallofthesewillspeakinwaysthataresometimestryingModernplaywrightscreatingsimilarcharactershavethemspeakinsimilarlychallengingways♦StageDirections:PrestwickHouseandtheAmericanShakespeareCentersharethebeliefthatShakespeare'sstagecraftwenthandinhandwithhiswordcraftForthatreason,webelieveitisimportantforthereadertoknowwhichstagedirectionsaremodernandwhichderivefromShakespeare'searliesttextthesingleplayQuartosortheFolio,thefirstcollectedworks()Allstagedirectionsappearinitalics,butthebracketsenclosemodernadditionstothestagedirectionsReadersmayassumethattheunbracketedstagedirectionsappearintheQuartoandorFolioversionsoftheplaySceneLocations:Shakespeareimaginedhisplay,firstandforemost,onthestageofhisoutdoororindoortheatreTheoriginalprintedversionsoftheplaysdonotgiveimaginaryscenelocations,exceptwhentheyareoccasionallymentionedinthedialogueAsanaidtothereader,thiseditiondoesincludescenelocationsatthebeginningofeachscene,butputsallsuchlocationsinbracketstoremindthereaderthatthisisnotwhatShakespeareenvisionedandonlypossiblywhatheimaginedStrategiesforUnderstandingShakespeare'sLanguageReadingPointersforSharperInsightsAsyoureadHamlet,beawareofthefollowingthemesandconcepts:Death:TraceHamlet'sunderstandingofdeathfromhisfirstencounterwithhisfathertoActV,sceneii,whenhequotestheBookofMatthewDoeshecometoanunderstandingofdeath,ordoesheprotestagainstitSymbolsofdeathtolookoutfor:skulls,maggots,worms,rot,dust,ghostsSickness,imbalance:WritersofShakespeare'sdayusedtheword“complexion”tomeannotonly“appearanceoftheface,”but“moodorcharacter”One'scomplexionwastheresultoffourfluidscalledhumors(seepage)Ifthesewereoutofbalance,apersoncould,becomeill,developmooddisordersorevengoinsaneInHamlet,notonlythecharacters,butthewholestateofDenmark,withKingClaudiusatthehead,isoutofbalanceWhatkindofmedicinewillittaketohealthekingdom•Takespecialnoteofthemelancholyhumor,associatedwithdepressionandanger,thecolorblack,andearth,cold,anddrynessWhichcharacterbestfitsthishumorTracetheappearanceofthesequalitiesintheplay•Madness:ItissometimesdifficulttosaywhoissaneandwhoisinsaneinthisplayHamletbelievesthathe,andperhapsHoratio,aretheonlysaneobserversinthecourtothercharacters,especiallyGertrude,fearthatHamletisill(seeabove)AsHamletpointsout,thewholecourtisfullofspiesandcorruptionifherefusestogoalongwithhisuncle,whomheconsidersevil,ishereallyinsane•DoanyofHamlet'sactionsconvinceyou,inspiteofwhathesays,thathereallyhaslosthismind•WhatcharactersbesidesHamletexhibitsignsofmadnessWhatcausestheirbehavior•Actingandplays:Lookforreferencestoacting,pretending,andlyingWheredoesonestopandthenextbeginHamletdeclarestoHoratiothathewill“puton”an“anticdisposition”“Antic”means“foolishandsilly,”butalso“grotesque”Hamletwillbecomeanactorportrayingamadman•InActII,atroupeoftravelingplayersarrivesatthecastleHamletknowsthemall,andshowshimselftobeabigfanofthetheaterShakespearemakessomereferencestohisownactorsatthispoint•ReadingPointersforSharperInsightsInActIII,Hamletinsertslinesintothespeechofoneofthetravelingplayersinorderto“catchtheconscience”ofKingClaudius•Childrenandparents:HowisHamlet'srelationshiptohisfatherdifferentfromthatofOpheliaandLaertestoPolonius•WhatdoesGertrudethinkofHamletDoesherattitudetowardhimchangeduringtheplay•Sleepanddreams:InthemostfamousspeechinEnglishliterature,Hamletdiscussessuicide,andwonderswhypeoplechoosetoliveratherthantodie“ButinthatsleepofdeathWhatdreamsmaycome,”hesays,“mustgiveuspause”Hecomparestheboundarybetweenlifeanddeathtothatbetweensleepandwaking,betweenthedreamworldandrealityThiswholeplaytakesplacerightonthatlineReadingPointersforSharperInsightsDramatisPersonaeCLAUDIUS,KingofDenmark•GERTRUDE,QueenofDenmark,motherofHamlet•GhostofHamlet'sFather•HAMLET,sontothelateKing,andnephewtoClaudiusthepresentKing•OPHELIA,daughterofPolonius•HORATIO,friendofHamlet•POLONIUS,LordChamberlain,advisortoClaudius•LAERTES,sonofPolonius•VOLTIMAND,courtier•CORNELIUS,courtier•ROSENCRANTZ,courtier•GUILDENSTERN,courtier•OSRIC,courtier•AGentleman,courtier•APriest•MARCELLUS,anofficer•BERNARDO,anofficer•FRANCISCO,asoldier•REYNALDO,servanttoPolonius•FORTINBRAS,PrinceofNorway•Players•TwoClowns,gravediggers•ANorwegianCaptain•EnglishAmbassadors•Lords,Ladies,Officers,Soldiers,Sailors,Messengers,Attendants•DramatisPersonaeActISceneIElsinoreAplatformbeforetheCastleEnterBernardoandFranciscotwoSentinelsBERNARDO:Who'sthereFRANCISCO:Nay,answermeStandandunfoldyourselfBERNARDO:LonglivetheKing!FRANCISCO:BernardoBERNARDO:He()FRANCISCO:YoucomemostcarefullyuponyourhourBERNARDO:'tisnowstrucktwelveGettheetobed,FranciscoFRANCISCO:Forthisreliefmuchthanks'tisbittercold,AndIamsickatheartBERNARDO:Haveyouhadquietguard()FRANCISCO:NotamousestirringBERNARDO:Well,goodnightIfyoudomeetHoratioandMarcellus,Therivalsofmywatch,bidthemmakehasteFRANCISCO:IthinkIhearthemStand,ho!Whoisthere()EnterHoratioandMarcellusActIHORATIO:FriendstothisgroundMARCELLUS:AndliegementotheDaneFRANCISCO:GiveyougoodnightMARCELLUS:O,farewell,honestsoldierWhohathrelievedyou()FRANCISCO:BernardohathmyplaceGiveyougoodnightExitFranciscoMARCELLUS:Holla,Bernardo!BERNARDO:Say,What,isHoratiothere()HORATIO:ApieceofhimBERNARDO:Welcome,HoratioWelcome,goodMarcellusMARCELLUS:What,hasthisthi

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