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首页 [美国.时代周刊].Time.2011-05-09.pdf

[美国.时代周刊].Time.2011-05-09.pdf

[美国.时代周刊].Time.2011-05-09.pdf

上传者: 风生水起王大福 2011-05-19 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《[美国.时代周刊].Time.2011-05-09pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含COVERCoverStory:IstheFBIUptotheJobYearsAfterByBARTONGELLMANThursday,May,Ph符等。

COVERCoverStory:IstheFBIUptotheJobYearsAfterByBARTONGELLMANThursday,May,PhotographbyMarcoGrobforTIMEThisstoryoriginallyappearedintheMay,,issueofTIMEOnMay,theWhiteHouseannouncedthatPresidentObamawillseekatwoyearextensionofMueller'syeartermasFBIdirector,whichissettoexpireinSeptemberFBIDirectorBobMuellerglancedattheblackchronographhewearsMarinestyle,thefaceinsidehiswristItwas:amNotquitetimeHereviewedhisinboxDrummedafourfingeredstaccatoonthedeskConsultedhiswristagain::MuellerhadalreadyslashedthroughtheredleatherbriefingbookthatheadquartersdispatchedtohisGeorgetownhomebeforedawnThetitleembossedonthecoverwassimply"Director,"abovethewords"TopSecretContainsCodewordMaterial"YellowhighlightsflaggedthepointsMuellerwantedtoprobeAnalQaedaaffiliatewasevadingsurveillancewithanewcovertchannelofcommunicationCyberintrudershadbreachedadefensecontractor'sfirewallTheTucson,Ariz,shootingofRepresentativeGabrielleGiffordshadbecomeagrotesquerecruitingtoolforantigovernmentextremistsTurmoilinBahrainhadleftFBIagentsunabletoserveafugitivewarrantEgypt'smeltdownwascausingtroubleforavaluablecounterintelligencesourceOneofthreedeputyUSmarshalsshotinWestVirginiahadsuccumbedtohiswoundsTwomorefederalofficers,fromImmigrationandCustomsEnforcement,hadbeenambushedinnorthernMexico,onefatallyMexicanauthoritieswantedaccesstoFBIfiles,andMuellerhadtodecidehowmuchtoshareSomethingmorepressingwasonMueller'smindonFeb,whenTIMEshadowedhimthroughmuchofhisdayThedirectorhadlockedhissightsonLubbock,Texas,andSpokane,Wash,wherehisagentswereclosinginonapairofunrelatedterroristplotsMuellerstoodupabruptlyat:,fiveminutesaheadofschedule,andsweptintoconferenceroomHisdivisionchiefshadlearnedbynow,someofthemthehardway,toassembleearlyMoreanalystsbeamedinfromtheNationalCounterterrorismCenterinsuburbanVirginia,linkedbysecurevideotoinplasmadisplaysonthreewallsSaidMueller:"We'llspend,minutesgoingthroughwhathappenedovernight"Ashenearstheendofayearterm,Mueller,,iseasilythelongestservingofhispeersatopthenationalsecurityestablishmentHisanonymityintheroleisalmostaparlortrickHeremadethebureauinhisimage,pushedouttheoldguardandhiredmorethanhalfitspresentcohortBehindthescenes,hefoughthistoricbattleswiththeWhiteHouse,twicecompellingGeorgeWBushtochangecourseunderthreatthatMuellerwouldresignYetheissocarefultododgethespotlight,sorigorouslyblandwhencaughtonstage,thathecoulddrinkunrecognizedatanybarinAmericaItisarevelationtoseeMuellerinhisowndomainThere,heisacharismaticfigure,levelvoicedandseldomprofane,whokeepshisstaffoffbalancewithdeadpanremarksthatmayormaynotbejokesHeplayedicehockeylongpastcollege,untilhiskneesgaveout,andherunsoperationsbriefsasacontactsport"Itendtobeimpatient,"Muellersays"Sometimesthat'sgoodSometimesthatisnotgoodAcertaindegreeofimpatienceisnecessarytogetdecisionsmadeandimplementedandtomoveagroupofindividualsinacertainway"Muellerinheritedfieldoffices,eachadistantfiefdomrunbyaspecialagentinchargeOldschoolSACs(pronouncedSAC,neversack)measuredprogressbyarrests,kepttheirfilestothemselvesandlivedbythemotto"Realagentsdon'ttype"Theywereaccountabletonoonebutthedirector,andeventhosechainswerelooseThencamethesearingfailureofSept,,sevendaysafterMueller'sswearinginItwastheworsthourintheFBI'syearhistory"Youtalkaboutalearningcurve,"recallsArtCummings,whoworkedalongsidehim"He'sbarelybeenonthejob,hasn'tmetmanyofhisseniorexecutives"andsuddenlyisfacedwith"the'oh,crap'moments"FieldofficesinPhoenixandMinneapolishadimportantcluestotheplotlongbeforetheattacksNeitherknewwhattheotherknew,andnooneputthepiecestogetherCriticsbegantosaytheFBIwasirreparablybroken,illequippedtocollectintelligenceanddisinclinedtoshareitanywayThelaborforceheavilywhiteandmale,withabluecollarculturethatprizedphysicalcourageoverbooksmartslackedthelanguageandtechnicalskillstoadaptOtheragenciestooktheirlumpsafter,notleasttheCIA,buttheFBIwasonthechoppingblockwhenCongressbegancarvingupgovernmentagenciesToavoiddismemberment,MuellermadeboldpromisestocurewhatailedtheFBIfromwithinrebuildingitintoamodern,intelligencedrivenenterpriseHisdepartureinSeptemberwillmarktheendofaneraandanotherbigchangetoanObamateamthatwillsoonseeLeonPanettaheadingtothePentagonandGeneralDavidPetraeussucceedinghimattheCIAMuellerputhismoneywherehismouthwas,doublingtheagentforceonnationalsecurityandtriplingthenumberofanalystsTheFBIbuiltatripwiresystemofearlywarningsthatpreemptedsomeseriousplotsButevenadecade'sreformhasnotchangedJEdgarHoover'sgangbustersintoastcenturycounterterroristforceTheFBIlumpstogetherinonesuperagencydomesticlawenforcementtasks(suchasfightingkidnapping,bankfraudandorganizedcrime)withdomesticintelligenceroles(suchascounteringterrorandespionageplots)ButnearlyeveryUSallytheUK,forinstance,withScotlandYardandMIkeepsthemseparateItisfarfromclearthatanyagencycandoagoodjobatboth"TheproblemwiththeFBIisthatithasafundamentalinstitutionalculturethatdoesnotmeshwellwiththeneedsofintelligence,"saysJudgeRichardPosneroftheSeventhCircuitCourtofAppealsPolicedotheirworkinaworldofknowncrimesandcriminals,whileanintelligenceservicemustdevoteyearsto"lookingassiduouslyandcompetentlyforsomethingthatmaynotexist"TearingdownoldfolkwaysinanFBIgrownscleroticwithtraditioncalledforashiftofpowerfromautonomousfieldofficestothebigbluechairinthedirector'sconferenceroomThatsuitedMuellerfineHewasanoutstandingMarineofficercandidatein,authorGarrettGraffreportsinTheThreatMatrix,butheearnedaDfordelegationHeisnotamanwhosuffersattemptstochauffeurhimaroundabriefing"He'saperpetualmotionmachine,"saysThomasJHarrington,whoholdstheFBI'sthirdhighestpost,associatedeputydirector"Helikestodrivethethingthewholetime"AmongMueller'sdisconcertinghabitsisagesturewithacuppedrighthandthatbeckonsabriefertoquittalkingandslideoverhisnotesMuellerscansthemandskipstocrossexaminationTwomen,,milesapart,hadMueller'sattentionwhenheconvenedhisoperationsbriefonFebKhalidAliMAldawsari,ayearoldSaudinational,studiedchemicalengineeringatTexasTechUniversityKevinWilliamHarpham,,anunemployedArmyveteranandavowedwhitesupremacist,livedinasmalltownnearSpokaneOnthisdaytheFBI'sinterestwasacloselyguardedsecret,butindictmentstocomewouldallegethatthetwomenwerebehindseparateplotstosetoffpowerfulhomemadebombsUntilrecently,theFBIhadnotheardofeithermanTheSpokaneattackstruckwithoutwarningonJanShortlybeforethestartofSpokane'sMartinLutherKingJrDayparade,cityworkersfoundanabandonedbackpackalongtherouteInsidewasanexplosivecorelacedwithratpoisonananticoagulantandsurroundedbyleadfishingweightsAremotecarstarterandcellphonepartswerematedinadetonationcircuitTheFBIlabinQuantico,Va,recoveredDNA,buttherewasnosuspecttotestforamatchGoodluckandshoeleatherledtheFBItoAldawsari,theSaudistudentOneofthetripwireprogramsrolledoutafterinvitedvendorsofhazardousgoodstoreportunusualpurchasestothefedsAldawsariwentundetectedatfirstasheacquiredtheingredientsofTNP,anexplosiveusedinWorldWarIartilleryshellsAmazoncomfilledanorderforgalofconcentratedsulfuricacid,andtheGeorgiabasedQualiChemTechnologiesshippedboxesofnitricacidtoaFedExmaildropNeitherreportedthebuysAldawsarialsododgedastudentvisareviewafterflunkingoutofTexasTechOnlyonFeb,whenheorderedphenol,hislastingredient,didAldawsaritripanalarmCarolinaBiologicalSupplytippedtheFBI'sCharlotte,NC,fieldoffice,andConWayFreight,whereAldawsariplannedtotakedelivery,sentwordtotheDallasfieldofficebywayoftheLubbockpoliceInMueller'sFBI,DallasandCharlottealertedheadquarters,whichputtheleadstogetherandtookcommandMuellerhadeveryreasontobelievehistermasdirectorwouldendlongbeforethisdayHehadwrittenhisresignationletteronMarch,,andfullyexpectedtodeliveritAtissuewasahighlyclassifiedsurveillanceprogram,calledStellarWind,thatPresidentBushapprovedafterForthefirsttimesinceCongressforbadethepracticein,theNationalSecurityAgencywasspyingondomesticcommunicationstrafficwithoutawarrantInthesecondweekofMarch,AttorneyGeneralJohnAshcroft'sJusticeDepartmentruledthatStellarWindwasillegalThenextday,AshcroftfellgravelyillwithacutepancreatitisBushsenttwotopaidestoGeorgeWashingtonUniversityHospital,wheretheAttorneyGenerallayincriticalconditionWhiteHousecounselAlbertoGonzalesandchiefofstaffAndrewCardJraskedthesemiconsciousAshcrofttosignadocumentreversingtheJusticeDepartment'srulingMuellerarrivedatthehospitaljustafterCardandGonzalesretreatedindefeatHisnotesdescribedAshcroftas"feeble,barelyarticulate"AcloseassociatesaysMuellersawthevisitasa"cowardlyandoutrageous"attempttotakeadvantageofasickmanThenextafternoon,MuellerlearnedthatBushhadreauthorizedStellarWindoverformalJusticeDepartmentobjectionsThatnight,heshutdowntheFBI'spartinitandstayedupuntil:amcomposingaletter:"ShouldthePresidentorderthecontinuationoftheFBI'sparticipationintheprogram,andintheabsenceoffurtherlegaladvicefromtheAG,IwouldbeconstrainedtoresignasDirectoroftheFBI"MuellerknewthestakesActingAttorneyGeneralJamesComey,togetherwithnearlythewholetopcadreatJustice,wasalsopreparingtoleaveameltdownthatwouldhavedwarfedRichardNixon'sSaturdayNightMassacre"Irememberitallverywell,"saysValerieCaproni,thenandnowtheFBIgeneralcounsel"Frommyperspective,therewasaveryreallikelihoodofacollapseofgovernment"EarlyonFriday,March,MuellerstoodwithComeyinafoyeroutsidetheOvalOffice"Weknewthiswasourlastmorning,"Comeyrecalls"Webothwerejuststaringout,lookingattheRoseGarden,thinking,ThisisthelasttimeI'lleverseethis"Mueller,Comeysays,"wasn'trattled,butIcouldtellhewasjustverysad"IntheprivatediningroomabuttingtheOvalOffice,MuellertoldBushoneononethathewouldnotcarryoutthePresident'sorderHeofferedhisresignationBushpulledbackfromthebrink,submittingtotheJusticeDepartment'slegalrulingMuellerwillnotspeakoftheepisode,butwhenasked,heoffersanindirectreply"Therearedaysthatgoby,butnotmany,thatyou'renotbalancingnationalsecurityagainstcivillibertieswhenyou'readdressingterrorism,"hesays"Sotheyarenoteasydecisions""Butthere'saplacewhereyoudrawablackandwhitelineandsay,'Ican'tdothat'"Iask"Yes,"Muellerreplies"'IfI'morderedtodothat,Ican't'""YesYes"TheStellarWindconfrontationwasararemomentinpresidentialhistory,anactofdefiancethatturnedtheCommanderinChiefinhistracks"Youcanonlydothatonce,threatentoresign,"saysFrancesFragosTownsend,whowasthenBush'scounterterrorismadviser"Thesecondtimeyoudoit,you'regoingtobetold,'Accepted'"ThatwasnothowitturnedoutforMuellerHediditagaintwoyearslater,withmuchthesameresultOnMay,,withJusticeDepartmentbacking,MuellerobtainedasearchwarrantforthelegislativeofficeofRepresentativeWilliamJeffersonTheseizureofdocumentsthere,inacorruptionprobe,touchedoffafuriousprotestonCapitolHill,wheremembersofbothpartiesaccusedtheBushAdministrationofcrossingaconstitutionallineSeparationofpowers,Jefferson'slawyersargued,forbadeexecutiveintrusionintotheprotectedspacesoftheHouseIntensenegotiations,aidestoBushinstructedtheFBItoreturnJefferson'spapersMuelleragainjoinedbytopJusticeDepartmentofficialspassedwordthathewouldleavebeforehandingbackevidenceobtainedbyalawfulcourtorderAstandoffensuedFinally,BushwithdrewtheinstructionHeaskedtheFBItosealJefferson'spaperstemporarilywhiletheCongressmanmadeaconstitutionalchallengeMuelleragreed,thesearchwarrantwasupheld,andJeffersonwasconvictedofbribery,racketeeringandmoneylaunderingHeremainsfreependingappeal(SeeaphotographicfarewelltoGeorgeWBush)MuellerhasneverspokenpubliclyofthisepisodeeitherIaskhimwhatissueofprinciplewasatstake"Ithinkyou'veperhapshitona"Muellersays,thenstops"I'mjustgoingtostayawayfromitIwasclose,butI'vejustgottostayawayfromit"WhenMuellerconvenedhisexecutiveteamonFeb,AldawsarihadbeenunderamicroscopefortwoweeksFourshiftsofagentswatchedtheSaudiengineeringstudenthoursadayVehiclesequippedwithStingRaytransceiversfollowedhimaroundgreaterDallas,recordinghiscellphonecallsAgentshadslippedsecretlyintoAldawsari'sapartment,armedwithawarrantfromtheForeignIntelligenceSurveillanceCourtTheyinventoriedhischemicals,clonedhiscomputerdriveandcopiedajournalhandwritteninArabicHoursbeforethatmorning'sbriefing,AldawsarihadpublishedablogpostalludingtoaspecialcelebrationofhisupcomingstbirthdayOneofhishandwrittenjournalentries,accordingtoahastyFBItranslation,said,"Andnow,aftermasteringtheEnglishlanguage,learninghowtobuildexplosivesandcontinuousplanningtotargettheinfidelAmericans,itistimeforjihad"Meanwhile,intheSpokaneoperation,investigatorshadcaughtabreakHarpham,aformermemberoftheneoNaziNationalAlliance,wasalreadyasuspect,butuntilnowhecouldnotbelinkedforensicallytothebombplotHundredsofagents,canvassingretailpurchasesthatmatchedbombcomponents,finallyfoundadebitcardtransactioninHarpham'snameThecardhadbeenusedtobuyaquantityoffishingweightsatWalmart,thesamebrandandbatchusedasshrapnelinthebackpackbombAscriminalcases,LubbockandSpokanewerewellinhandBynow,theFBIofoldwouldhaveplacedthesuspectsunderarrestWaitingraisedtheriskthattheymightslipsurveillanceandfleeorlaunchanunexpectedattackButMuellerhaschangedthiswayofthinkingMovingintoosoonwouldtiptheFBI'shand,riskingthelossofvaluableintelligenceHarphamandAldawsarilookedlikeclassiclonewolves,butinvestigatorscouldnotyetruleoutaccomplicesWerethereopportunitiestotraceanetworkofsupportfinancial,operationalorideologicalthatmightleadtoplottersofotherwiseunrelatedattacksThisnewwayofthinking"iswickedlyimportanttohim,"saysTracyReinhold,theFBI'sassistantdirectorforintelligence"Youwanttomakesurethatyougatheralltheintelligenceyoucanpossiblygetbeforeyoudecidetodisrupt"Muellerdugin,detailbygranulardetailDidHarphamhaveofflinecontactswithhisonlinecorrespondentsintheVanguardNewsNetwork,wherehepostedmessagescallingforracewarHadhisArmyserviceatFortLewis,Wash,overlappedwithsoldierstherewhoprovokedascandalwithwhitesupremacisttattoosWhatwasholdingupdeliveryofHarpham'sArmyDNArecordsInLubbock,theteamthatsearchedAldawsari'sapartmenthadbeeninterruptedanddidnothavetimetolearnwhetherhehadunpackedhischemicalsorwhetherhehadthemakingsforahighexplosivethatrequirednophenolThehastyretreatalsoleftagapinelectronicsurveillance,whichnowadayshastoincludenotonlyphonetapsandpinholecamerasbutvoiceoverInternet,socialnetworkmessagingandonlinegamingconsolesTheTexasplotwasunfoldingacrossthreeemailaddresses,whichsentoneanotherlistsof"targets"and"nicetargets"anddirectionsforhandlingTNPWasitonemanTwoThreeThesearchteamhadtogetbackinMuellerhadnopatienceforexplanationsthatagentsweredoing"patternoflifeanalysis"tofindanopening"You'renotgettingitdone,"Muellersaid"Whatareyougoingtodoaboutit"Laterthatday,thesneakandpeeksquadgotitdoneThentheinvestigatorssolvedthemysteryofthethreeemailaddresses:Aldawsariwasusingallofthem,theyconcluded,tosendnotestohimselfOneweeklater,onFeb,agentsplacedAldawsariunderarrestOnMarchtheFBI'selitetacticalforce,theHostageRescueTeam,movedinonHarphamBothmenwerechargedwithattempteduseofaweaponofmassdestruction,whichthelawdefinesbroadlyenoughtocoveranykindofbombBothhavepleadednotguilty,andtheirlawyersnotetheyareentitledtoapresumptionofinnocenceHarpham'splot,iftheallegationsprovetrue,turnedouttobethemoreadvancedHehadbuiltapowerfulbombandplacedit,formaximumcarnage,atopametalbenchwithabrickwallbehindittofocustheblastThehalfcompleteworkofAldawsari,anArabwhosejihadiaimsfitthepopularimageofaterrorist,receivedfarmorepublicattentionMorethanayearago,Muellerraisedsomeeyebrowswhenhetestifiedthat"homegrownandlonewolfextremistsposeanequallyseriousthreat"ButthatmessagedidnottakerootinthebodypoliticoreveninthenationalsecurityestablishmentAstheFBIchasedthetwinterroristplotsallthroughFebruary,PresidentObama'steamhearddailyreportsaboutAldawsari'scasebutnotHarpham'sSomeofMueller'slieutenantsmarveledatthecontrastDomesticplotsarenotroutinelyincludedinthePresident'sdailybriefingortheinteragencythreatmatrix,anFBIofficialsays,eventhough"thedegreeofharmisoftengreater"thaninjihaditerroristplots"AnyquestionsWe'vegotacoupleofminutes,"Muellersaystomebetweenmeetings,eyesdriftingtohiswrist"Actually,aboutoneminute"Well,sureAnytoughdecisionslatelyButMuellerisalreadytrottingdownthehallandtwoflightsofstairstotheFBIheadquarters'innermostsanctumMinuteslater,at:,AttorneyGeneralEricHolderJrarrivesforhisowndailybriefingThetwoofthemdisappearintoanarealabeled"RestrictedAccess"and"AuthorizedPersonnelOnly"UnliketheWhiteHouseSituatio

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