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首页 [美国.时代周刊].Time.2011-04-25.pdf

[美国.时代周刊].Time.2011-04-25.pdf

[美国.时代周刊].Time.2011-04-25.pdf

上传者: 风生水起王大福 2011-05-19 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《[美国.时代周刊].Time.2011-04-25pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含COVERRELIGIONPastorRobBell:WhatifHellDoesn'tExistByJONMEACHAMThursday,Apr,符等。

COVERRELIGIONPastorRobBell:WhatifHellDoesn'tExistByJONMEACHAMThursday,Apr,RobBellBrentHumphreysforTIMEAspartofaseriesonpeacemaking,inlate,PastorRobBell'sMarsHillBibleChurchputonanartexhibitaboutthesearchforpeaceinabrokenworldItwasjustthekindofavantgardeprojectthathadhelpedpowerMarsHill'sgrowth(theMichiganchurchattracts,peopleeachSunday)asanontraditionalcongregationthatemphasizesdiscussionratherthandogmaticteachingAnartistintheshowhadincludedaquotationfromMohandasGandhiHardlyacontroversialtouch,onewouldhavethoughtButonewouldhavebeenwrongAvisitortotheexhibithadstuckanotenexttotheGandhiquotation:"Realitycheck:He'sinhell"BellwasstruckReallyherecallsthinkingGandhi'sinhellHeisWehaveconfirmationofthisSomebodyknowsthisWithoutadoubtAndthatsomebodydecidedtotakeontheresponsibilityoflettingtherestofusknowSobeginsBell'scontroversialnewbestseller,LoveWins:ABookAboutHeaven,Hell,andtheFateofEveryPersonWhoEverLivedWorksbyEvangelicalChristianpastorstendtobepiousoratleastontheologicalmessageThestandardChristianviewofsalvationthroughthedeathandresurrectionofJesusofNazarethissummedupintheGospelofJohn,whichpromises"eternallife"to"whosoeverbelievethinHim"Traditionally,thekeyistheacknowledgmentthatJesusistheSonofGod,who,inthewordsoftheancientcreed,"forusandforoursalvationcamedownfromheavenandwasmademan"IntheEvangelicalethos,oneeitheracceptsthisandgoestoheavenorrefusesandgoestohellBell,atall,yearoldsonofaMichiganfederaljudge,begstodifferHesuggeststhattheredemptiveworkofJesusmaybeuniversalmeaningthat,ashisbook'ssubtitleputsit,"everypersonwhoeverlived"couldhaveaplaceinheaven,whateverthatturnsouttobeSuchasimplepremise,butwithEasterathand,thisslim,livelybookhasignitedanewholywarinChristiancirclesandbeyondWhenwordofLoveWinsreachedtheInternet,oneconservativeEvangelicalpastor,JohnPiper,tweeted,"FarewellRobBell,"unilaterallyattemptingtoevictBellfromtheEvangelicalcommunityRAlbertMohlerJr,presidentoftheSouthernBaptistTheologicalSeminary,saysBell'sbookis"theologicallydisastrousAnyofusshouldbeconcernedwhenamatteroftheologicalimportanceisplayedwithinasubversiveway"InNorthCarolina,ayoungpastorwasfiredbyhischurchforendorsingthebookThetraditionalistreactionisunderstandable,forBell'sargumentsaboutheavenandhellraisedoubtsaboutthecoreoftheEvangelicalworldview,changingthecommonunderstandingofsalvationsomuchthatChristianitybecomesmoreofanethicalhabitofmindthanafaithbasedondivinerevelation"Whenyouadoptuniversalismanderasethedistinctionbetweenthechurchandtheworld,"saysMohler,"thenyoudon'tneedthechurch,andyoudon'tneedChrist,andyoudon'tneedthecrossThisisthetragedyofnonjudgmentalmainlineliberalism,andit'sRobBell'stragedyinthisbooktoo"ParticularlygallingtoconservativeChristiancriticsisthatLoveWinsisnotanattackfromoutsidethewallsoftheEvangelicalcitybutamutinyfromwithinarebellionledbyacharismatic,popularandsavvypastorwithafollowingIsBell'sChristianitylessjudgmental,morefluid,opentoquestioningthemostancientofassumptionsonaninexorablerise"IhavelongwonderedifthereisamassiveshiftcominginwhatitmeanstobeaChristian,"Bellsays"Somethingnewisintheair"WhichiswhathasmanytraditionalEvangelicalsworriedBell'sbookshedslightnotonlyonenduringquestionsoftheologyandfatebutalsoonashiftwithinAmericanChristianityMoreindierockthan"RockofAges,"withitsvideosandcomfortwithirony(BellsometimesseemsanoddcombinationofBillyGrahamandConanO'Brien),hisstyleofdoctrineandworshipisclearlyplayingalargerroleinreligiouslife,andtheferocityofthereactionsuggeststhatheisaforcetobereckonedwithOtherwise,whyreckonwithhimatallAsimilarworkbyapastorfromoneofthedecliningmainlineProtestantdenominationsmighthavemeritedahostileblogpostortwobloggers,likepreachers,alwaysneedmaterialbutitisdifficulttoimaginethatanEpiscopalpriest'seschatologicalmusingswouldhaveprovokedthevolumeofcriticismdirectedatBell,whosereachthreatensprevailingEvangelicaltheologyBellinsistsheisonlyraisingthepossibilitythattheologicalrigidityandthusafaithofexclusionisadangerousthingHebelievesinJesus'atonementhesaysheisjustunclearonwhethertheredemptionpromisedinChristiantraditionislimitedtothosewhomeetthetestsofthechurchItisacaseforlivingwithmysteryratherthandemandingcertitudeFromatraditionalistperspective,though,totakeawayhellistoleavethechurchwithoutitsmostpowerfulsanctionIfheaven,howeverdefined,iseveryone'sultimatedestinationinanyevent,thenwhat'stheincentivetoconfessJesusasLordinthislifeIf,inotherwords,Gandhiisinheaven,thenwhybotherwithacceptingChristIfyousaytheBibledoesn'treallysaywhatalotofpeoplehavesaiditsays,thenwheredoesthatstopIftheversesabouthellandjudgmentaren'tliteral,whatabouttheonesonadultery,say,orhomosexualityTakentotheirlogicalconclusions,suchquestionscouldunderminemuchofconservativeChristianityWhattheHellFromtheApostlePaultoJohnPaulII,fromAugustinetoCalvin,Christianshavedebatedatonementandjudgmentfornearly,yearsEarlyinthethcentury,HarryEmersonFosdickcametorepresenttheologicalliberalism,arguingagainsttheliteraltruthoftheBibleandtheexistenceofhellItwastime,progressivesargued,forthefaithtosurrenderitssupernaturalclaimsBellismoreathomewiththisexpansiveliberaltraditionthanheiswiththeoldtimebelieversofInherittheWindHebelievesthatJesus,theSonofGod,wassacrificedforthesinsofhumanityandthattheprospectofaplaceofeternaltormentseemsirreconcilablewiththeGodofloveBeliefinJesus,hesays,shouldleadhumanbeingstoworkforthegoodofthisworldWhatcomesnexthastowait"Whenwegettowhathappenswhenwedie,wedon'thaveanyvideofootage,"saysBell"Solet'satleastbehonestthatwearespeculating,becauseweare"Heisquicktonote,though,thathisownspeculation,whileunconventional,isnotunprecedented"AtthecenteroftheChristiantraditionsincethefirstchurch,"Bellwrites,"havebeenanumberwhoinsistthathistoryisnottragic,hellisnotforever,andlove,intheend,winsandallwillbereconciledtoGod"ItisalsotruethattheChristiantraditionsincethefirstchurchhasinsistedthathistoryistragicforthosewhodonotbelieveinJesusthathellis,forthem,foreverandthatlove,intheend,willenvelopthosewhoprofessJesusasLord,andtheyandtheyalonewillbereconciledtoGodSuchviewscannotbedismissedbecausetheyareinconvenientoruncomfortable:theyarebasedonthesameBiblethatliberalsusetomaketheoppositecaseThisisonereasonreligiousdebatecanseemawildernessofmirrors,anoldCIAphrasedescribingthebewilderingworldofcounterintelligenceStill,thedominantviewoftherighteousinheavenandthedamnedinhellowesmoretotheartisticlegacyoftheWest,fromMichelangelotoDantetoBlake,thanitdoestohistoryortounambiguousbiblicalteachingNeitherpagannorJewishtraditionofferedatrulyequivalentvisionofaplaceofeternaltormenttheGreekandRomanunderworldstendedtobemorallyneutral,asdidmuchoftheHebraictraditionconcerningSheol,therealmofthedeadThingsmanyChristianbelieverstakeforgrantedaremorecomplicatedthantheyseemItwasonlywhenJesusfailedtoreturnsoonafterthePassionandResurrectionappearancesthattheearlychurchwascompelledtomakesenseofitsrecollectionsofhisteachingsLiketheBibleadocumentthatoftencontradictsitselfandfromwhichonecanconstructsharplydifferentargumentstheologyistheproductofhumanhandsandheartsWhatmanybelieversinthestcenturyacceptasimmutabledoctrinewasfirstformulatedinthefogandconfusionofthestcentury,atimewhenthefollowersofJesuswerebaffledandoverwhelmedbytheirexperienceoflosingtheirLordmanyhadexpectedtheirMessiahtobeaDavidicmilitaryleader,notanatoninghumansacrificeWhenJesusspokeofthe"kingdomofheaven,"hewasmostlikelyreferringnottoaplaceapartfromearth,oneofcloudsandharpsandaneternitywithyourgrandmother,buttowhatheelsewherecalledthe"kingdomofGod,"aworldredeemedandrenewedinwaysbeyondhumanimaginationTostcenturyearsinancientJudea,Jesus'talkofthekingdomwascenteredontheimminentarrivalofanewordermarkedbythedefeatofevil,therestorationofIsraelandageneralresurrectionofthedeadall,inthewordsoftheprayerhetaughthisdisciples,"onearth"Thereis,however,noescapingthefactthatJesusspeaksintheBibleofahellforthe"condemned"HesometimesusesthewordGehenna,whichwasavalleynearJerusalemassociatedwiththesacrificeofchildrenbyfiretothePhoeniciangodMolochelsewhereintheNewTestament,writers(especiallyPaulandJohntheDivine)tellofafierypit(TartarusorHades)inwhichthedamnedwillspendeternity"Departfromme,youcursedones,intotheeternalfirepreparedforthedevilandhisangels,"JesussaysinMatthewInMarkhespeaksof"theunquenchablefire"TheBookofRevelationpaintsavividpictureinafantastical,problematicworkthatJohntheDivinesayshecomposedwhenhewas"inthespiritontheLord'sday,"asignalthatthisisnotanAssociatedPressreportofthelakeoffireandthedismissalofthedamnedfromthepresenceofGodtoaplacewhere"theywillbetormenteddayandnightforeverandever"Andyetthereisacontraryscripturaltrendthatsuggests,asJesusputsit,thatthegatesofhellshallnotfinallyprevail,thatGodwillwipeawayeverytearnotjustthetearsofEvangelicalChristiansbutthetearsofallBellputsmuchstockinreferencestotheuniversalredemptionofcreation:inMatthew,Jesusspeaksofthe"renewalofallthings"inActs,PetersaysJesuswill"restoreeverything"inColossians,Paulwritesthat"Godwaspleasedtoreconciletohimselfallthings,whetherthingsonearthorthingsinheaven"SoisitheavenforChristianswhosaytheyareChristiansandhellforeverybodyelseWhataboutbabies,orpeoplewhodiewithouteverhearingtheGospelthroughnofaultoftheirown(AsBellputsit,"Whatifthemissionarygotaflattire")WhoknowsSuchtangleshaveconsumedChristianityformillenniaandlikelywillformillenniatocomeWhatgivesthedebateoverBellnewsignificanceisthathismessageispartofanintriguingscholarlytrendunfoldingsimultaneouslywiththecultural,generationalanddemographicshiftsmademanifestatMarsHillBestexpressed,perhaps,intheworkofNTWright,theAnglicanbishopofDurham,England(BellisaWrightdevotee),thisschoolfocusesonthemeaningofthetextsthemselves,readingthemanewandseeking,whereappropriate,toaskwhetheranideaistrulyrootedintheNewTestamentorisattributabletosubsequentchurchtraditionandtheologicaldogmaForthesenewthinkers,heavencanmeandifferentthingsInsomebiblicalcontextsitisasynonymforGodInothersitsignifieslifeintheNewJerusalem,which,properlyunderstood,istherealitythatwillresultwhenGodbringstogethertheheavensandtheearthInyetothersitseemstosuggestmomentsofintensehumancommunionandcompassionthatare,intheologicalterms,glimpsesofthedivinelovethatonemightexpectintheworldtocomeOnethingheavenisnotisanexclusiveplaceremovedfromearthThislineofthinkinghasimplicationsforthelifeofreligiouscommunitiesinourowntimeIftheearthis,inaway,tobeoureternalhome,thenitscare,andthecareofallitscreatures,takesonfreshurgencyBell'sJourneyTheeasynarrativeaboutBellwouldbeoneofrebellionthatheisreactingtothestricturesofasuffocatingchildhoodbyquestioninglongstandingdogmaTheoppositeistrueBell'screedofconvictionanddoubtandhiscomfortwithambiguityandparadoxcomesfromanupbringinginwhichhewasimmersedinfaithbutencouragedtoaskquestionsHisfather,acentralfigureinhislife,isafederaljudgeappointedbyPresidentReaganin(RobstillremembersthedrivetoWashingtoninthefamilyOldsmobilefortheconfirmationhearings)"IrememberhimgivingmeCSLewisinhighschool,"Bellsays"Myparentswerebothveryintellectuallyhonest,straightforward,andforthem,faithmeantthatyouwerefullyengaged"Astheywereraisingtheirfamily,theBells,inadditiontoregularchurchgoing,createdarigorousethosofdevotionanddebateathomeDinnertableconversationswerepointedLewis'novelsandnonfictionwererequiredreadingTherootsofLoveWinscanbepartlytracedtothedeathbedofamanRobBellnevermet:hisgrandfather,acivilengineerinMichiganwhodiedwhenRob'sfatherwasTheBells'wasaveryconservativeEvangelicalhouseholdWhentheseniorBelldied,therewastobenogrief"Weweren'tallowedtomourn,becausethefuneralofaChristianissupposedtobeacelebrationofthebelieverinheavenwithJesusrightnow,"saysRobertBellSr"Butifyou'reyearsoldandyourdadthebreadwinnerjustdied,itfeelsdifferentSad"Thestoryofhowhisdad,stillachild,wastodealwithdeathhasstayedwithRob"Toweep,toshedanytearsthatwouldbedoubtingthesovereigntyofGod,"Robsaysnow,lookingback"Thatwasthething'They'reallinheaven,sowe'rehappyaboutthat'Itdoesn'tmatterhowyouareactuallyhumanlyrespondingtothismoment"Bellpausesandchucklesironically,abitincredulous"We'realljustsupposedtobethrilled"Robbyhismotherstillcallshimthatwasemotionallyprecocious"Whenhewasaroundyearsold,Idetectedthathehadagreatinterestandconcernforpeople,"hisfathersays"Therehe'dbe,ridingalongwithme,withhislittleblondhair,goingtoseesickfolksorfriendswhowerehavingproblems,andhewouldgetbackinthetruckafteravisitandbegintoanalyzethemandtheirsituationsveryacutelyHehadafeelforpeopleandhowtheyfeltfromveryearlyon"RobwasatwiceaweekchurchgoerattheBaptistandnondenominationalchurchesthefamilyattendedatdifferenttimesservicesonSunday,youthgrouponWednesdayHerecallsakindofquietfrustrationeventhen"Irememberthinking,'Youknow,ifJesusiswhothisguystandinguptheresaysheis,thisshouldbewaymorecompelling'ThisshouldhaveabitmoreelectricityTheknobshouldbewaymoretotheright,youknow"Music,notthechurch,washisfirstconsumingpassion(HiswifeKristenclaimshesaidhewantedtobeapastorwhentheyfirstmetearlyonatWheatonCollegeinIllinoisBellisskeptical:"Isweartothisdaythatthatwasaline")Heandsomefriendsstartedabandwhenhewasasophomore"Ihadalwayshadcreativeenergybutnooutlet,"hesays"Ireallydiscoveredmusic,writingandplaying,workingwithwordsandimagesandmetaphorsYoumightsaythemusicunleashedamonster"ThebandbecamecentraltohimThentwothingshappened:theguitarplayerdecidedtogotoseminary,andBellcamedownwithviralmeningitis"Ittookthewindoutofoursails,"hesays"IhadnoPlanBIwasawreckIwasdevastated,becauseourbandwasgoingtomakeitWeweregoingtoliveinaterriblelittlehouseanddoterriblejobsatfirst,becausethat'swhatgreatbandsdotheystartoutlivinginterriblelittlehousesanddoingterriblelittlejobs"Hisillness"afreakbraininfection"changedhislife,BellsaysAt,RobwasteachingbarefootwaterskiingatHoneyRockCamp,nearThreeLakes,Wis,whenhepreachedhisfirstsermon"Ididn'tknowanything,"hesays"ItookoffmyBirkenstocksbeforehandIhadthisawarenessthatmylifewouldneverbethesameagain"TheremovaloftheshoesisaninterestingdetailforBelltoremember("Donotcomeanycloser,"GodsaystoMosesintheBookofExodus"Takeoffyoursandals,fortheplacewhereyouarestandingisholyground")Bellsaysitwasjustintuitive,buttheintuitionsuggestshehadasenseofhimselfasaplayerintheunfoldingdramaofGodinhistory"Createthingsandsharethem,"Bellsays"ItallmadesenseThatmomentisetchedIrememberthinkingdistinctly,'Icouldbeterribleatthis'ButIknewthiswouldgetmeupinthemorningIwenttoFullerthatfall"FullerTheologicalSeminary,inPasadena,Calif,isaneclecticplace,attracting,studentsfromcountriesandmorethandenominations"It'sprettyhardtositwithPentecostalsandHolinesspeopleandmainlinePresbyteriansandAnglicansandcomeawaywithaclosedmindsetthatdrawsfirmboundariesabouttheology,"saysFullerpresidentRichardMouwAfterseminary,Bell'sworkmovedintwodirectionsHewasrecoveringthecontextoftheNewTestamentwhilecreatingaseriesofpopularvideosonChristianitycalledNooma,GreekforwindorspiritHebegantoattractafollowing,andMarsHillnamedforthesiteinAthenswherePaulpreachedtheChristiangospelofresurrectiontothepaganworldwasfoundedinGrandRapids,Mich,in"Wheneverpeoplewonderwhyachurchisgrowing,theysay,'He'spreachingtheBible'Well,lotsofpeoplearepreachingtheBible,andtheydon'thaveparkingproblems,"saysBellMarsHilldidhaveparkingproblems,andBell'ssuddenpopularityposedsomerisksfortheyoungpastorPrideandselfinvolvementareperennialissuesforministers,who,likepoliticians,growaccustomedtothesoundoftheirownvoicessayingImportantThingsandtothedeferenceoftheflockBythetimeBellwas,hewasanEvangelicalcelebrity(HehadfoundedMarsHillwhenhewas)Hewasreferredtoasa"rockstar"inthismagazine"Therewasthisgiantspotlightonme,"hesays"AllofasuddenyourwordsareparsedIfoundmyselfandIthinkthishappenstoalotofpeoplewantingtoshrinkawayfromitButIdecided,JustownitI'mverycomfortableinaroomwiththousandsofpeopleIdohavethisvoiceWhatwillIsay"AndhowwillhesayitThehistoryofEvangelismisinpartthehistoryofmediaandmethods:BillySundaymasteredtheradio,BillyGrahamtelevisionnowchurcheslikeBell'sareatworkinthedigitalvineyardsofdownloadsandsocialmediaDemographyisalsoworkinginBell'sfavor"He'stryingtoreachagenerationthat'smorecomfortablewithmystery,withunsolvedquestions,"saysMouw,notingthathisowny

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