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首页 环境化学课件(全)

环境化学课件(全)

环境化学课件(全)

snowdreamer
2011-05-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《环境化学课件(全)ppt》,可适用于高等教育领域

CHEMISTRYoftheENVIRONMENTCHEMISTRYoftheENVIRONMENTgongaijunsasustbeducnUNIVERSITYOFSCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY BEIJINGAIJUNGONGReferencesGuihuaWang,HaiouWang,YanjunZheng,JieminLiu,AijunGong,ChemistryoftheEnvironment,UniversityofScienceandTechnologyBeijingPress,ndedition,HaiouWang,GuihuaWang,YanjunZheng,JieminLiu,AijunGong,ChemistryoftheEnvironmentSolutionsManual,UniversityofScienceandTechnologyBeijingPress,ndedition,YanjunZheng,HaiouWang,GuihuaWang,JieminLiu,AijunGong,ChemistryoftheEnvironmentExperiment,UniversityofScienceandTechnologyBeijingPress,ndedition,ThomasGSpiro,WilliamMStigliani,ChemistryoftheEnvironment(SecondEdition),QinghuauniversitypressRonaldABailey,HerbertMClark,etal,ChemistryoftheEnvironment,AcademicPress,LiuZhaorong,atalIntroductiontochemistryoftheenvironment,Chemicalintrustrypress,WangXiaorong,ChemistryoftheEnvironment,NanjingUniversityPress,DengNansheng,WuFeng,IntroductionofChemistryoftheEnvironment,WuhanUniversityPress,EldonDEnger,BradleyFSmith,EnvironmentalScience–AStudyofInterrelationships(SeventhEdition),McGrawHillQinghuauniversitypress,CHAPTERINTRODUCTIONCHAPTERINTRODUCTIONSECTIONWhatisChemistryoftheEnvironmentDefinition ChemistryoftheEnvironmentisakindofscience,inwhichtheexistence,behavior,effect,andreducibleorremovablemethodsofpotentialharmfulchemicalmaterialsinenvironmentalmediaareresearchedBranchofEnvironmentalChemistryBranchofEnvironmentalChemistryChemistryoftheEnvironmentAnalyticalchemistryoftheenvironmentPollutionchemistryoftheenvironmentControlchemistryoftheenvironmentInorganicanalyticalchemistryoftheenvironmentOrganicanalyticalchemistryoftheenvironmentPollutionecologychemistryoftheenvironmentSoilchemistryoftheenvironmentWaterchemistryoftheenvironmentAtmospherechemistryoftheenvironmentAtmospherechemistryofpollutioncontrolWastechemistryofpollutioncontrolWaterchemistryofpollutioncontrolTaskofchemistryoftheenvironmentTaskofchemistryoftheenvironment()Toinvestigatetheexistence,chemicalcharacteristic,behavior,effectofpotentialharmfulchemicalmaterialsinenvironmentalmedia()Toresearchthechemicalprincipleandmethodforcontrollingthepollutant()TofindandsettletheenvironmentalproblemusingthechemicaltheoryandmethodResearchcontentforchemistryoftheenvironmentResearchcontentforchemistryoftheenvironmentConcentrationlevelandconformationofharmfulsubstanceinenvironment()ThesourceofpotentialharmfulsubstanceanditsenvironmentalbehaviorinindividualanddifferentmediaVideoAnInconvenienttruth()Mechanismandriskofharmfulsubstancetoenvironment,ecosystemandhumanhealth()Reviveandremoveofeffectproducedbyharmfulsubstance()FindamethodandprocesstopreventharmfulsubstancefromdoingharmCharacteristicofchemistryoftheenvironmentCharacteristicofchemistryoftheenvironment()Therearealotofsubstanceswithlargequantityandcomplexityintheenvironment()Therearelowconcentrationofpollutantugmlorugl()Chemicalreactioninenvironmentisnoteasytocontrol()Inordertostudychemistryoftheenvironment,itisnecessarytospanlongtimeandbigspaceDevelopmentdirectionofchemistryoftheenvironmentalDevelopmentdirectionofchemistryoftheenvironmentalPrecedingtechnologyforenvironmentalsampleisveryimportantAnalyticalobjectchangefrominorganiccompoundtoorganiccompoundandorganicmetalcompoundHowtoincreasethesensitivityandrepeatabilityforinstrumentalanalysis()Analyticalchemistryoftheenvironmentfocuson:()Pollutionchemistryoftheenvironmentfocuson:()Pollutionchemistryoftheenvironmentfocuson:Chemicalbehaviorandecologicaleffectofchemicalpollutantintheprocessofformation,transference,translationandeliminationinatmosphere,waterandsoil()Controlchemistryoftheenvironmentfocuson:()Controlchemistryoftheenvironmentfocuson:EndofpipeControlischangedtototalprocesscontrolTobringforwardthenewstratagemidea:PollutionPrevention,CleanerProduction,GreenChemistry,IndustrialEcologySECTIONEnvironmentalpollutionaffair()Harmfulmaterialspollutiontoair,water,soil,andpropagation()Interfereanddestroyofecosystem()Abuseofnonregenerateresources()Damageofwaste,disposal,noise,vibration,malodor,radiation.EnvironmentalpollutionEnvironmentalpollutionmainlyshowsthat:EightsocialeffectsofpollutionhappenedintheworldEightsocialeffectsofpollutionhappenedintheworld()PhotochemicalsmogaffairinMeuseofBelgium:Dec~,SOfromheavyindustryfactorypeopledied()PhotochemicalsmoginLosAngelesofAmerica,May~October,,peopledied()PhotochemicalsmoginLosAngelesofAmerica,May~October,,peopledied()PhotochemicalsmoginDonolaofAmericaOct~,,Donolatownweresicken,died()PhotochemicalsmoginLondonofUnitedKingdomDec~,,peoplediedHowaboutBeijingcity()AsthmaaffairinJapan~thousandweresickenAlotofpeopledied()AsthmaaffairinJapan~thousandweresickenAlotofpeopledied()PaindiseaseinJapan~Manypeopleweresickenanddied()MethylmercuricaffairinJapan~,sicken,died()MethylmercuricaffairinJapan~,sicken,died()CookingoilaffairinJapanMarch,thousandweresickendiedVideoThalliumElementPollutionVideoCadmiumMethylMercuricSickRecentyear,onaverage,environmentalaffairsperyearhavetakenplaceintheworldTypicalaffairshowasfollow:RecentenvironmentalaffairsintheworldRecentyear,onaverage,environmentalaffairsperyearhavetakenplaceintheworldTypicalaffairshowasfollow:()DioxinpollutioninItalyin()NuclearpowerstationaffairinAmericain()LiquidgasexplosioninMexicoin()ChemicalleakaffairinIndiain()NuclearpowerstationaffairinSovietUnionin()ChemicalpollutionaffairinRhinein()EnvironmentalpollutioningulfwarinandIraqwarin()SudanreddyeaffairinChinain()MelaminepollutionofmilkinChinainEatanddrinkfoodsafetySECTIONAcquaintanceshipprocesstoenvironmentalproblemEnvironmentalproblemEnvironmentalproblemisallkindofenvironmentaldepravationandvariousdisadvantageimpacttobiosphereMainenvironmentalproblemincludesAcidrain,Greenhouse,Ozonehole,Lackoffreshwater,ResourceShortage,andEcologicaldepravationVideoEnvironmentalProtectionAcquaintanceshipprocess()’senvironmentalproblemispollutionproblem(),Stockholmconference,environmentalproblemcontactwithsocialfactor()’s,bringforwardsustainable(),UNBrazilconference,relationshipbetweenhumanenvironmentanddevelopment(),UNSouthAfricasustainableconference,globaction()Nowenvironmentalproblemhasbecomeahotspotforinternationalsociety()Oneworldoneearth,****iscalledtheearthday,****iscalledtheenvironmentaldayWhatcanIdoApriltestWhatischemistryoftheenvironmentDescribethedefinition,branch,task,researchcontent,branch,characteristic,developmentaldirectionforchemistryoftheenvironmentIntroduceEightsocialeffectsofpollutionhappenedintheworldWhatisenvironmentalproblemWhatdayiscalledtheearthdayWhatdayiscalledtheenvironmentaldayNameclassNoWhatreactiondoestakeplaceinthesunHowlongdoesthesunexistHowlongwillthesunexistHowdoestheatmosphereevolveintheearthIsitpossibletofindhumanbeinginotherplanetVideocosmosandmanCHAPTERCLIMATECHAPTERCLIMATEWenowturnourattentiontoenvironmentalissuesassociatedwithEarth’satmosphere,atopicthatflowsnaturallyfromourpreviouscontemplation(考虑)ofenergysourcesanduses,becausetheburningoffuelshasalargeimpactontheatmosphereAirpollutionisamajorprobleminmostoftheworld’scities,anditoftentakesonregionaldimensionsTheatmosphereisarepository(储库)foremissionsfromcombustionandfrommanyotherhumanactivitiestheaircanbecleansedbynaturalmechanism,butthesecanbeoverwhelmedbytheamountsofpollutantsbeingproducedOnaglobalscale,wearecarryingoutvastinadvertent(不注意的)experimentsontheatmosphereHumanactivitiesareincreasingtheatmosphericconcentrationofcarbondioxideandother“greenhouse”gases,therebyalteringthewaythesun’sheatisdistributedontheEarth’ssurfaceandintheatmosphereInaddition,thestratospheric(平流层)ozoneshied,whichprotectsusfromthesun’sultravioletrays,isthreatenedbytheemissionofozonedestroyingchemicalsAlthoughsomeoftheworld’sleadingscientistsandthemostpowerfulcomputersaretryingtopredicthowtheseexperimentswillturnout,allscenarios(场景)forthefutureareriddledwithuncertaintiesAsweemphasizedinPartI,thesunprovidesEarthwithanenormousinputofenergyeverydayEarthridsitselfofenergyatthesamerateandtherebymaintainsasteadystate,withaconstantaveragetemperatureItlosesenergybyradiatinglightOfcourse,EarthdoesnotglowthewaythesundoesAhotbodygivesoffradiationwitharangeofwavelengthsThedistributionoftheradiationshiftstowardshorterwavelengthswithincreasingtemperatureThatiswhyapieceofironheatedinafurnaceglowsredandthenwhiteasitstemperatureincreasesThewavelengthsofEarth’sraysaretoolongtobedetectedbyoureyesTherelationsbetweenradiationwavelengthandtemperatureofbody SECTIONRadiationBalanceThespectraldistributionofradiationfromthesunandfromEarthisshowninFigureThecurvesaresomewhatidealizedtheyaretheexpected“blackbody”radiationofobjectswiththetemperatureofthesunandofEarthThespectrumofablackbodyissmooth,whereastheactualspectraofthesunandEartharesomewhatbumpy(崎岖不平的)becausespecificatomicandmoleculartransitions(跃迁)contributetotheemissionsForablackbody,thepeakwavelengthoftheradiationisinverselyproportionaltotheabsolutetemperature(Wein’sLaw):λpeak(nm)=×(nm×K)T(K)Thesunisaveryhotbodyitspeakwavelengthisnm,correspondingtoatemperatureof,KMostofitsraysfallbetweenandnm,intheregionofvisiblelightthesewavelengthsarevisiblebecauseoureyeshaveevolvedinresponsetosunlightEarthemitsradiationwithapeakwavelengthofabout,nm,correspondingtoanaveragetemperatureofKThus,whileEarthabsorbsradiationmainlyinthevisibleregion,characteristicofthehightemperatureatthesurfaceofthesun,itgivesoffradiationintheinfraredregion,whichcorrespondstothemuchlongerwavelengthscharacteristicofEarth’scoolersurfacetemperatureCantheenergybalancebeaffectedbyhumanenergyconsumptionInprinciple,ifwekeepincreasingtherateoffossilandnuclearfuelburning,theglobalheatloadmightbecomesignificantFromequation,wecancalculatehowmuchtheenergyinputtoEarthwouldneedtoriseinordertoincreasetheaveragetemperaturebyKThus,humanenergyutilizationwouldhavetoequalpercentofthesolarinputtoproduceaKriseintheaveragetemperaturetoreachpercentofthesun’senergywouldtakeaboutyearsThus,directheatingoftheplanetthroughourincreasinguseofenergyisnotlikelytobecomeaseriousproblemMoreseriousisthepotentialforalteringEarth’stemperatureindirectlythroughchangesinducedbyhumanactivityineitherthealbedo(反照率)orthegreenhouseeffectThesemattersareconsideredinthefollowingsectionsTheactualflowsofenergythroughtheatmospherearequitecomplicatedFigureshowstheplanet’sinputsandoutputsofenergyinunitsofkJperyearAboutunitsofsolarenergyimpinge(撞击)onEarthanditsatmosphere,butaboutunits(percent)arereflectedtospace,exertingnoinfluenceonEarth’sheatbalanceMostofthislightisreflectedbycloudsandtheatmosphereasmalleramount(units)isreflectedbyEarth’ssurfaceTheremainingunits(percent)areabsorbed,units(percent)bytheatmosphereandclouds,andunits(percent)byEarth’ssurfaceHeatbalanceofEarth=========Alloftheabsorbedsolarenergymustbelosttospaceinordertomaintaintheplanet’sheatbalanceHowever,amuchlargeamountofenergyisincirculationasaresultofthegreenhouseeffectWithanaveragetemperatureofK,theEarth’ssurfaceradiatesunits,consistentwiththeStefanBoltzmanlawAlmostallofthisradiationisabsorbedbytheatmosphere(includingclouds)onlypercentescapetospacethroughtheatmosphericwindowThustheatmosphereabsorbsunitsofradiantenergy,fromtheearthandunitsfromthesunTothismustbeaddedunitsoflatentheat,theenergytransferredtotheatmospherebytheevaporationofwater,andunitsofsensibleheat,theenergycarriedbyupdraftsofairThegrandtotalofenergygainedbytheatmosphereisunitsThisisbalancedbyradiativelosses,unitsbacktotheEarth,andunitstospaceThusmostoftheplanet’sradiativecooling,outofunits,isfromtheatmosphereTheabovediscussionreferstoglobalaveragesInfact,theheatflowpatternisnotuniformoverEarth’ssurfaceMostofthesun’sraysareabsorbedinthetropics,whiletheoutgoingradiationofEarthismoreuniformwithlatitudeThus,thereisconstantmovementofenergyfromtheequatortowardthepoles,throughtheatmosphereandtheoceansThesecomplexitiesdonotalterthefundamentalfactthattheEarthatmospheresystem,takenasawhole,receivesitsenergyfromthesunandreradiatesittospaceTheradiationbalancehastobemaintainedSECTIONALBEDO:PARTICLESANDCLOUDSThealbedoisacriticalfactorintheradiationbalancebecauseitdirectlydeterminesthefractionofthesolarradiationthatisabsorbedbytheEarthairsystemEvenaslightchangeintheaveragealbedoforaspecifiedsurfacetypedependsnotonlyonitsreflectivitybutalsoonitsspatial(空间的)coverageThealbedoofEarth’ssurfacevariesconsiderablyThedarkestregions(withthelowestalbedos)aretheoceans,whichconstituteaboutpercentofEarth’stotalareaAlbedosoftheoceansrangefrompercentinthelowlatitudestopercentnearthepoles,duetothelowsolarelevation(仰角)SeaicewithoverlyingsnowhasanalbedoofpercentThedarkestlandsurfacesarethetropicalforestsandcultivatedland(percent)Thebrightestpartsoftheglobearethesnowcoveredpolarareas,withalbedosashighaspercentThemajordesertshavealbedosofpercentThesurfacealbedocanbeaffectedbyhumanactivitiesForexample,thelocalalbedocanbeincreasedbyclearingforestlandforagriculture,followedbyerosionanddesertificationCloudsHowever,thedominantfactorintheglobalalbedoiscloudsPeakcloudreflectivityoccursoverthemidandhighlatitudeoceansandinthetropicalcirrussystemsAsaglobalaverage,cloudalbedoisaroundpercentSincetheannualaverageglobalcloudcoverisaroundpercent,thetotalsunlightreflectedbycloudsisaroundpercent,twothirdsoftheglobalalbedoTheremainingthirdisdividedbetweenbackscattering(反向散射)fromairmolecules(percentofincidentsunlight)andbyEarth’ssurface(onlypercent)Asnotedintheabovediscussion,cloudsabsorbbothsolarradiationandthelongwaveradiationemittedfromEarth’ssurfaceThehighalbedoofcloudstendstocoolEarth’ssurfacebyreflectingsunlighttospace,buttheabsorptionofoutgoingradiationworkstowarmthesurfacebythegreenhouseeffectTheoverallroleofcloudsindeterminingEarth’sheatbalancedependsontherelativestrengthsofthesetwocontrastingprocesses,whichiscurrentlythesubjectofintensiveresearchEvensmallshiftsinglobalcloudcoveragemightcontributetosignificantchangesintheheatbalanceCloudsareanaturalpartofthehydrological(水文学的)cycle,buttheextentofcloudinessisextremelyhardtopredictThesun’sheatevaporateswateratEarth’ssurfaceasthemoistairrisesandcools,thewatercondensesoutasdroplets,formingthecloudsHowever,coolingisnottheonlyfactorindeterminingwhenclouddropletsformParticlesfloatingintheairareequallyimportant,becausetheyfacilitatethecoalescence(合并)ofwatermoleculesThesecondensationnucleiprovideasurfacefortheaccumulationofwatermoleculesIntheabsenceofsuchasurfaceitisdifficultforthefirstfewwatermoleculestosticktooneanotherthehighsurfacetensionofsmallaggregatesofwatermoleculesfavorsevaporationHowever,thefilmofwateraroundacondensationnucleushassufficientlylowsurfacetensiontopermitdropletgrowthratherthanevaporationTheprincipleofrainmakingby“cloudseeding”istoinjectparticlesthatareeffectiveinnucleatingraindropsintosupersaturatedvaporThereisatradeoffbetweendropletsizeandthenumberofcondensationnucleiAgivenamountofwatervaporcanformasmallnumberoflargedropsoralargenumberofsmallonesAnexcessofcondensationnucleicanproducedropletsthataretoosmalltofallasrainThefogsthatoftenhoverovercitiesprobablyreflectthelargenumberofcondensationnucleiinpollutedairAnincreaseinthenumberofatmosphericparticlesislikelytoincreasethecloudcover,andthereforethealbedoAerosolparticlesSource:Totalsuspendedparticulatematterinairvariesfromlessthanμgmoverpolaricecapsandinmidocean,toasmuchas,μgmindesertduststormsorforestfiresInatypicalsampleofurbanair,mineraldust,sulfuricacid,ammoniumsulfate,organicmaterial,andsoot(煤烟)maybefoundbothaspureandasmixedparticles(solidorliquid)inconcentrationsofaroundμgmTheeffectofatmosphericparticlesontheheatfluxoftheatmospheredependslessontotalconcentrationthanonparticlesizeandcompositionLarge,darkparticlestendtoabsorblight,thuswarmingEarth’satmosphereThemostimportantofsuchparticlesissoot,arisingfromincompletecombustionofcarbonaceousfuelandtheburningofsavannas(热带稀树大草原)andforestsIncontrast,verysmallparticles,regardlessofcolorandcomposition,tendtoscatterlight,thusincreasingthealbedooftheatmosphereThelightscatteringeffectseemstoprevailatmostlatitudes,butathighlatitudes,wheresnowandicecoveredsurfacesarehighlyreflective,absorptioneffectsca

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