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首页 TheChangingEnglishVocabulary1

TheChangingEnglishVocabulary1.pdf

TheChangingEnglishVocabulary1

薛琼月
2017-05-24 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《TheChangingEnglishVocabulary1pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

ChapterTheChangingEnglishVocabularyWhyareneologismsproductsoftheconstantchangeintheEnglishlanguageWhatisanewwordaccordingtoTheOxfordDictionaryofNewWordspublishedinWhatisanewwordaccordingtoTheOxfordEssentialDictionaryofNeuuWordspublishedinDescribethedefinitionofneologismsaccordingtotheauthorofthisbookTherearetwomainsourcesofnewwordsintheEnglishvocabulary,whataretheyInwhichyearsdidthefollowingnewwordsappearintheEnglishvocabulary)upload)webcam)webcast)readonlymemory(ROM))searchengine)spam')spacewalk)madcowdisease)AIDS(anabbreviationof))SARS(anabbreviationof))SIDS(anabbreviationof))euro)nuclearwinter)peacesymbol)spokespeople)women'sstudies)Bschool)homeschool)electronica)kungfu)ebook)ecommerce)ATM(anabbreviationof))DVD(anabbreviationof))lightpollutionDoyouknowwhichtesteverystudentshouldtakebeforethegraduationofhighschoolintheUnitedStatesWhendidthenewexpressionwholelanguageappearTranslatethefollowingnewwordsornewexpressionsintoChinese)hypermedia)faxmodem)telemarketing)telemedicine)informationsuperhighway)ATM)digitalcamera)disco)Eurocurrency)Eurodollar)homepage)bullettrain)cellphone)videophone)picturephone)sportsmedicine)slimnastics)powerwalk)kungfu)gameball)autocross)aerobics)CAI)sexism)Bschool)electronicpublishing)gradepointaverage)womanism)women'sstudies)spokesperson)newsperson)communicationgap)credibilitygap)culturegap)peacesign)peacesymbol)teachin)peacenik)callin)ableism)ThirdWorlder)freedomrider)Interpol)greenrevolution)cybercafe)cybercitizen)cybersurfer)webcam)webcast)waronterrorism)antiBushenthusiasm)prisonerabusescandal)phasedown)globalvillage)firststrike)ECU)dominotheory)VchipPointoutwherethefollowingwordscamefrom)earthrise)ecommerce)picturephone)moonquake)househusband)Gmail)fourthworld)airtel)airbag)apoluneWhatareobsoletewordsObsoletewordsmaybestillusedatthepresenttimeGiveexamplesforillustrationWhyarechangesinvocabularymuchfasterthanchangesinpronunciationandgrammarTherearefourtendenciesinsemanticchangesWhataretheyGivesomeexamplesofwideningofmeaningPointoutsomeexamplesofnarrowingofmeaningWhichwordsbelongtoelevationofmeaningWhichwordsbelongtodegradationofmeaningWhatisametaphorHowdoesametaphordifferfromasimileTherearethreemajorgroupsofmetaphorsaccordingtofunctionandcharacterWhataretheyWhichwordscanbeusedasmetaphorsGivesomeexamplesforillustrationWhatismetonymyUnderlinethefollowingwordsorphrasesbelongingtometonymy)Shakespeare(Shakespeare'splays))withopenarms)Itneverenteredhisheadtohelpme)Thisfinepictureistheprideofmycollection)Thekettleisboiling)Hehas£innotesand£insilver)Hedrankacup)SheisagreatbeautyWhatissynecdocheChapterTheChangingEnglishVocabularyWhenanewproductismade,anewconceptioncomesintoman'sthought,andanewnamemustbefound,thatis,anewwordappearsinthelanguageTherefore,neologismsareproductsoftheconstantchangeintheEnglishlanguageAccordingtoTheOxfordDictionaryofNewWordseditedbyElizabethKnowleswithJuliaElliott,publishedin,"Anewwordisanyword,phrase,orsensethatcameintopopularuseorenjoyedavogueinthegivenperiod"AccordingtoTheOxfordEssentialDictionaryofNewWordseditedbyErinMickean,publishedinJuly,"AnewwordisnovelarrangementofletterswithameaningnotquiteduplicatedbyanyotherarrangementoflettersThisistheidealformofanewwordLikemostideals,thisisrarerthanwe'dlikeRealworldnewwordsaremessierForonething,new'words'areoftenmadeupofmorethanonewordthey'remultiwordlexicalunits,tobetechnicalOften,'new'wordsaremerelynewsensesofanexistingwordAnewwordmustearnitsplaceinthedictionarybyshowingthatpeopleareusingitlotsofpeople,inlotsofplacesThisisgreatforprovingthatthenewwordisasolidcitizenoftheEnglishlanguage"Whenwedefineneologismsornewwords,twoaspectsshouldbeconsideredThefirstaspectiswhatnewwordsareThesecondaspectiswhentheyappearandenterintothedictionaryThecriterionoftimeconcerningthebirthanduseofnewwordsisveryimportant,withinthegivenperiodoftimethenewlycoinedwordsandwordsaddingnewmeaningsarecallednewwordsBeyondtheperiodtheywillbecomeexistingwords,notnewwordsFromtheabovementionedaspectsthedefinitionofnewwordsmaybedescribedasfollowsNeologismsarenewlycoinedwordsorwordsthataregivennewmeaningstofitnewsituationsandnewneedsbecauseofthesocial,economic,political,cultural,especiallyscientificandtechnicalchangesinthegivenperiodinhumansocietyConsideringthatweliveandworkinthefirstyearsofthestcentury,thetimeabouttheappearanceanduseofnewwordsshouldberestrictedamongfortyyearsfromthesixtiestothelateninetieslastcentury,especiallywithintwentyyearsfromtheeightiestothelateninetieslastcenturyThisisthecriteriontodistinguishneologismsornewwordsfromexistingwordsInshort,neologismsarenewwordsandexpressionsusedinthegivenperiodTherearetwomainsourcesofnewwordsintheEnglishvocabularyThefirstsourceistherapiddevelopmentofmodernscienceandtechnologyModernscienceandtechnologybringabouttheadditionofnewwordswithoutnumbersTheyarethemostimportantsourceofnewwordsComputingisanewlydevelopingandwidelyusedareainourmodernsocietyEverydaypeopleincludingadultsandchildrenusecomputerstolearnandknowalotofhappeningsintheworldSoagreatnumberofnewwordsconcerningcomputersappearconstantlyinModernEnglishAfewnewwordsaregivenbelowThenewwordnetizenistheblendofnetandcitizen,whichappearedinItmeans'anactiveparticipantintheonlinecommunityoftheinternet'Thenewwordcybercitizenmeans'netizen'ItappearedalsoinThenewwordextranetwascoinedinItdenotes'anetwork(asofacompany)similartoanintranetthatalsoallowsaccessbycertainothers(ascustomersorsuppliers)'ThewordintranetisalsoanewwordcreatedinItmeans'anetworkoperatingliketheworldwidewebbuthavingaccessrestrictedtoalimitedgroupofauthorizedusers(asemployersofacompany)'Thesecondsourceofnewwordsispolitical,economic,andsocialchangesPolitical,economic,andsocialchangesareanotherimportantsourceofnewwordsTheirinfluenceontheEnglishvocabularyisasgreatasthatofscienceandtechnologySoweshouldn'tneglecttheimportanceofthissourceThenewwordecommerceappearedinItrefersto'commerceconductedviatheinternet'Thenewexpressionsdigitalversatiledisc()anddigitalvideodisc()arederivedfromthenewwordDVD(),meaning'ahighcapacityopticaldiskformatanopticalusingsuchaformatandcontainingespeciallyavideorecording(asamovie)orcomputerdata'ThenewwordSARSisanabbreviationofsevereacuterespiratorysyndromethatappearedinItisalsoknownasatypicalpneumoniausedinChinain)Thenewworduploadusedasaverbappearedin)Thenewwordwebcamappearedin)Thenewwordwebcastwascoinedin)Thenewexpressionreadonlymemory(ROM)appearedin)Thenewexpressionsearchengineappearedin)Thenewwordspamwascreatedin)Thenewexpressionspacewalkappearedin)Thenewexpressionmadcowdiseaseappearedin)ThenewwordAIDS(acquiredimmunodeficiencysyndrome)appearedin)ThenewwordSARS(severeacuterespiratorysyndrome)appearedin)ThenewwordSIDS(suddeninfantdeathsyndrome)appearedin)Thenewwordeurowascoinedin)Thenewexpressionnuclearwinterappearedin)Thenewexpressionpeacesymbolappearedin)Thenewwordspokespeopleappearedin)Thenewexpressionwomen'sstudiesappearedin)ThenewwordBschoolwascoinedin)Thenewwordhomeschoolwascoinedin)Thenewwordelectronicawascoinedin)Thenewwordkungfuwascreatedin)Thenewwordebookappearedin)Thenewwordecommerceappearedin)ThenewwordATM(automatictellermachine)appearedin)ThenewwordDVD(digitalversatiledisc)appearedin)ThenewexpressionlightpollutionappearedinBeforethegraduationofhighschoolintheUnitedStates,everystudentshouldtakeatest,calledtheScholasticAssessmentTestTheshortformisSATTheSATisafourhourtestwithaperfectscoreof,ThetopscoreisonboththeverbalandmathsectionsThenewexpressionwholelanguageappearedin)hypermedia大型传媒装置)faxmodem传真调制解调器)telemarketing电话销售)telemedicine远距离医学)informationsuperhighway信息高速公路)ATM自动出纳机)digitalcamera数码相机)disco迪斯科)Eurocurrency欧洲货币)Eurodollar欧洲美元)homepage网页)bullettrain高速客车高速列车)cellphone()手机)videophone()可视电话)picturephone()可视电话)sportsmedicine体育医学运动医学)slimnastics减肥操健美操)powerwalk负重疾步行走)kungfu功夫拳术)gameball庆功球决定胜负的关键球)autocross汽车竞技运动会越野赛车)aerobics气健术增氧健身法)CAI计箅机辅助教学)sexism性别歧视性别偏见)Bschool商业管理学院)electronicpublishing电子〈电脑)出Obsoletewordsarecalledarchaisms,whicharenotusednowexceptforspecialpurposesObsoletewordsmaybestillusedatthepresenttimeTheEnglishproverbManyalittlemakesamickleisagoodexampleforillustratingthispointHeremickle,anobsoleteword,means'largeamount'TheproverbisstillincommonuseFromthesociolinguisticpointofviewweknowthatvocabularynotonlychanges,butalsochangesquicklyChangesinpronunciationandgrammararemuchslower,butchangesinvocabularyaremuchfasterWhenpeoplehavemetwithnewobjectsandnewideas,theyhaveneedofnewwordstoexpressthemInthecourseofthedevelopmentoflanguageoldwordsdieout,newwordsisaddedandexistingwordschangetheirmeaningsItisobviousthatthegradualchangeofmeaninginwordsisauniversalfeatureofhumanlanguageSensedevelopmentofEnglishwordscanbedividedintofourgroupsaccordingtotherangeoftheirusageandthealtitudetowardstheirusesChangeinthedenotativecomponentofthelexicalmeaningmayresultintheextensionofmeaningandthenarrowingofmeaningChangeintheconnotativecomponentmaybringabouttheelevationofmeaningandthedegradationofmeaningTheextensionofmeaning,orwideningofmeaning,referstotheextensionoftherangeofthelexicalmeaningExtensionofmeaningisoneofthemostcommonfeaturesinthehistoryofEnglishwordsTheexampleofwideningisthewordrubbish,whichintheEarlyModernEnglishperiodmeant'rubble,'butwhichsoondevelopedthewidermeaningofawastething,anythingworthlessThereisonemoreexampleThewordcatalystisnotonlyatechnicaltermusedinchemistrymeaning'asubstancewhich,withoutitselfchanging,causeschemicalactivitytoquicken,'butalsoacommonword,whenusedfiguratively,egTheworkers'demandforhigherwageswasacatalystinadifficultstateofaffairs,andledtoimportantsocialchangesAnexampleofnarrowingofmeaningistheverbtostarveThewordoriginallymeantsimply'todie'InMiddleEnglishitwasspecializedtomean'todieofcold,'butinthesixteenthcenturyitmeant'todieofhunger'WordsoftenrisefromahumblebeginningtoapositionsofgreaterimportancebecauseofsocialchangesElevationofmeaningisalsoaspecialkindofnarrowingofmeaningThewordsuccesshaschangeditsmeaningfrom'result'to'goodresult'ThewordcomradeisderivedfromSpanishfor'roommate,'butnowitmeans'fellowmemberofapoliticalparty,etc'WordswithacommendatorymeaningmaybecomeoneswithaderogatorysenseThewordwenchoncemeant'ayoungwoman,orgirl,especiallyinthecountry,'nowitmeans'alewdwoman,prostitute'Theworddiseaseoncemeant'discomfort,'nowitreferstoanillnessAmetaphor,likeasimile,alsomakesacomparisonbetweentwounlikeelements,butunlikeasimile,thiscomparisonisimpliedratherthanstatedForexample,theworldisastageHere,astageisametaphor"Heandhisbrotherareaslikeastwopeas"isacomparisonbetweentwounlikeelements,thatis,humanbeingsandpeasSoaslikeastwopeasisasimileThesimilemaybeexpressedbytheuseoftheconnectingwordslike,as,asas,sometimesbytheuseofthan,asif,orasthoughInametaphortheconnectingwordsarenotused,egImperialismisapapertigerHerepapertigerisametaphorTherearethreemajorgroupsofmetaphorsaccordingtofunctionandcharacterTheyare:)anthropomorphicmetaphors,suchas:thehandofaclock)animalmetaphors,suchas:ablacksheep)synaestheticmetaphors,suchasagoldenopportunitySomenounsandtheiradjectivesorverbscanbeusedasmetaphorsTakeafewsentencesforexampleAlthoughhe'slesstalented,hewonbysheerdoggedpersistenceHeredoggedisanadjective,meaning'determinednotgivingupeasily'Onthewhole,thestudentsseemedseriousandhardworking,buttheyconfinedthemselvestoparrotingtextbooksHereparrotisaverb,meaning'torepeatwithoutthinkingorunderstandingMetonymyisanimportantfactorintheshiftofmeaningthatinvolvessubstitutionofthenameofonethingforthatofanothercloselyassociatedwithit)Shakespeare)arms)head)pride)kettle)silver)cup)beautySynecdocheisafigureofspeechthatinvolvesthesubstitutionofthepartforthewholeorthewholeforthepartSynecdochemaybeclassifiedintotwokindsaccordingtomeaning:)thepartforthewhole:WearenolongershortofhandsHerehandmeans'worker,helper')thewholeforthepartThedoctorcuthimopenandtookouttheappendixandstitchedhimupagainHerehimreferstoapartofhisbodyEuphemismisthesubstitutionofawordofmorepleasantconnotationforoneofunpleasantconnotationInshort,aneuphemismisafalsewordsubstitutedforthetruewordinordertosoftentheshockofrealityEuphemismisoftenusedinspeakingofthingsthatarepainfulanddistressingtothinkaboutDeathisoneofthesethingsandtheEnglishlanguageisfullofeuphemismliketopassaway(forformaluse)todecease(forlegaluse)tokickthebucket(aslang)togowest(datedslang)AneconomiccrisisisanothersubjectforeuphemismTheprewarwordslumpwassoonreplacedbytheworddepression,thentheworddepressionwasreplacedbythewordrecessionNowthewordrecessionisreplacedbytheworddownturnNowadayspeopleoftensaydowntowninsteadofsaying'economiccrisis'MiddletermsinEnglishbelongtoaspecifickindofameliorativeandpejorativedevelopmentsMiddletermsarewordswhichareneutralinmeaningandtakeonfavorableorunfavorablesignificanceaccordingtotheirdifferentcontentsThewordfortune,forinstance,isamiddleterm,becauseitmaybeeithergoodorbad,buttheadjectivefortunatewasapositivevalueTakeonesentenceforexample,He'sfortunateenoughtoenjoygoodhealthChangesoflexicalmeaningcanbeillustratedbyadiachronicdevelopmentofwordsAlthoughobjects,conceptions,ideas,etcchangeinthecourseoftime,thenameisretained,themeaningchangesbecausetheobjectwhichitdescribeshaschangedThewordcar,forinstance,isagoodexampleThewordcarwasborrowedthroughtheAngloFrenchwordcarreanddirectlyfromtheLatinwordcarrain,pluralofcarrus,meaning'twowheeledvehicleforcarryingfoods'Thewordcarwasfirstappliedtotheautomobilein,thatistosay,itmeans'ausuallyfourwheeledautomotivevehicledesignedforpassengertransportation')Sothisisanexampleofwideningofmeaning)Therefore,thewordmatterisanexampleofwideningofmeaning)Sothewordhospitalbelongstoanexampleofnarrowingofmeaning)Thisisanexampleofnarrowingofmeaning)Thereforewemaysaythatthewordfondisanexampleofelevationofmeaning)Nomistak

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