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首页 最新大学英语四级考试全真模拟试题五和答案

最新大学英语四级考试全真模拟试题五和答案.doc

最新大学英语四级考试全真模拟试题五和答案

sw1666666 2011-05-10 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《最新大学英语四级考试全真模拟试题五和答案doc》,可适用于考试题库领域,主题内容包含最新大学英语四级考试全真模拟试题五和答案最新大学英语四级考试全真模拟试题五和答案“Growingpopulationswillworsenprobl符等。

最新大学英语四级考试全真模拟试题五和答案最新大学英语四级考试全真模拟试题五和答案“Growingpopulationswillworsenproblemswithwater,”saysPeterHGleick,anenvironmentalscientistatthePacificInstituteforstudiesinDevelopment,Environment,andSecurity,aresearchorganizationinCaliforniaHefearsthatbytheyear,asmanyasonethirdoftheworld’sprojectedbillionpeoplewillsufferfromwatershortagesWhereWaterGoesOnlypercentofallwateronEarthisfreshwater,watersuitablefordrinkingandgrowingfood,saysSandraPostel,directoroftheGlobalWaterPolicyProjectinAmherst,MassTwothirdsofthisfreshwaterislockedinglaciersandicecapsInfact,onlyatinypercentageoffreshwaterispartofthewatercycle,inwhichwaterevaporatesandrisesintotheatmosphere,thencondensesandfallsbacktoEarthasprecipitation(rainorsnow)Someprecipitationrunsofflandtolakesandoceans,andsomebecomesgroundwater,waterthatseepsintotheearthMuchofthisrenewablefreshwaterendsupinremoteplacesliketheAmazonriverbasininBrazil,wherefewpeopleliveInfact,theworld’spopulationhasaccesstoonly,cubickilometersoffreshwaterabouttheamountofwaterinLakeSuperiorAndpeopleusehalfofthisamountalready“Ifwaterdemandcontinuestoclimbrapidly,”saysPostel,“therewillbesevereshortagesanddamagetotheaquaticenvironment”ClosetoHomeWaterwoesmayseemremotetopeoplelivinginrichcountriesliketheUnitedStatesButAmericanscouldfaceseriouswatershortages,tooespeciallyinareasthatrelyongroundwaterGroundwateraccumulatesinaquifers,layersofsandandgravelthatliebetweensoilandbedrock(Foreveryliterofsurfacewater,morethanlitersarehiddenunderground)AlthoughtheUnitedStateshaslargeaquifers,farmers,ranchers,andcitiesaretappingmanyofthemforwaterfasterthannaturecanreplenishitInnorthwestTexas,forexample,overpumpinghasshrunkgroundwatersuppliesbypercent,accordingtoPostelAmericansmayfaceevenmoreurgentproblemsfrompollutionDrinkingwaterintheUnitedStatesisgenerallysafeandmeetshighstandardsNevertheless,oneinfiveAmericanseverydayunknowinglydrinkstapwatercontaminatedwithbacteriaandchemicalwastes,accordingtotheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyInMilwaukee,,peoplefellillinafterdrinkingtapwatertaintedwithcryptosporidium,amicrobethatcausesfever,diarrheaandvomitingTheSourceWheresocontaminantscomefromIndevelopingcountries,peopledumprawsewageintothesamestreamsandriversfromwhichtheydrawwaterfordrinkingandcookingaboutmillionpeopleayeargetsickfromwaterbornediseasesIndevelopedcountries,manufacturersuse,chemicalcompoundstomakeawiderangeofproductsToxicchemicalspollutewaterwhenreleaseduntreatedintoriversandlakes(Certaincompounds,suchaspolychlorinatedbiphenyls,orPCBs,havebeenbannedintheUnitedStates)ButalmosteveryonecontributestowaterpollutionPeopleoftenpourhouseholdcleaners,carantifreeze,andpaintthinnersdownthedrainAllofthesecontainhazardouschemicalsScientistsstudyingwaterintheSanFranciscoBayreportedinthatpercentofthepollutantscouldbetracedtohouseholdwasteFarmershavebeencriticizedforoverusingherbicidesandpesticides,chemicalsthatkillweedsandinsectsbutinsectsbutthatpolluteswateraswellFarmersalsousenitrates,nitrogenrichfertilizerthathelpsplantsgrowbutthatcanwreakhavocontheenvironmentNitratesaresweptawaybysurfacerunofftolakesandseasToomanynitrates“overenrich”thesebodiesofwater,encouragingthebuildupofalgae,ormicroscopicplantsthatliveonthesurfaceofthewaterAlgaedeprivethewaterofoxygenthatfishneedtosurvive,attimeschokingofflifeinanentirebodyofwaterWhat’stheSolutionWaterexpertGleickadvocatesconservationandlocalsolutionstowaterrelatedproblemsgovernments,forinstance,wouldbebetteroffbuildingsmallscaledamsratherthanhugeanddisruptiveprojectsliketheonethatruinedtheAralSea“Morethanbillionpeopleworldwidedon’thaveaccesstobasiccleandrinkingwater,”saysGleick“Therehastobeastrongpushonthepartofeveryonegovernmentsandordinarypeopletomakesurewehavearesourcesofundamentaltolife”ThatthehugewaterprojectshavedivertedtheriverscausestheAralSeatoshrinkTheconstructionofmassivedamsandirrigationprojectsdoesmoregoodthanharmThechiefcausesofwatershortagearepopulationgrowthandwaterpollutionTheproblemsAmericansfaceconcerningwateraregroundwatershrinkageandtapwaterpollutionAccordingtothepassageallwaterpollutantscomefromhouseholdwasteThepeoplelivingintheUnitedStateswillnotbefacedwithwatershortagesWaterexpertGleickhascomeupwiththebestsolutiontowaterrelatedproblems[Y][N][NG][Y][N][NG][Y][N][NG][Y][N][NG][Y][N][NG][Y][N][NG][Y][N][NG]AccordingtoPeterHGleick,bytheyear,asmanyasoftheworld’speoplewillsufferfromwatershortagesTwothirdsofthefreshwateronEarthislockedinIndevelopedcountries,beforetoxicchemicalsarereleasedintoriversandlakes,theyshouldbetreatedinordertoavoidPartIIIListeningComprehension(minutes)SectionADirections:Inthissection,youwillhearshortconversationsandlongconversationsAttheendofeachconversation,oneormorequestionswillbeaskedaboutwhatwassaidBoththeconversationandthequestionswillbespokenonlyonceAftereachquestiontherewillbeapauseDuringthepause,youmustreadthefourchoicesmarked[A],[B],[C]and[D],anddecidewhichisthebestanswerThenmarkthecorrespondingletteronAnswerSheetwithasinglelinethroughthecentre[A]Waitforthesaletostart[B]Getfurtherinformationaboutthesale[C]CalltheTVstationtobesureiftheadistrue[D]Buyanewsuit[A]Hedoesn’tthinkthatJohnisill[B]HethinksthatperhapsJohnisnotinverygoodhealth[C]HeisawarethatJohnisill[D]Hedoesn’tthinkthatJohnhasaverygoodknowledgeofphysics[A]Beforesix[B]Atsix[C]Aftersix[D]Afterseven[A]Itisbigger[B]Itisofaprettiercolor[C]Ithasalargeryard[D]Itisbrighter[A]AustralianandAmerican[B]Guestandhost[C]Husbandandwife[D]Professorandstudent[A][B][C][D][A]Heprefersstayingathomebecausethebusistoolate[B]Heprefersstayingathomebecausehedoesn’tliketotravel[C]Hepreferstakingabusbecausetheplanemakeshimnervous[D]Hepreferstravelingwiththewoman[A]Hethinkssheshouldvisithercousin[B]Hercousindoesn’tvisitveryoften[C]Hercousinisfeelingalotbettertoday[D]Hedoesn’tthinkhercousinhasbeenathometodayQuestionstoarebasedontheconversationyouhavejustheard[A]Twodifferenttypesofbonesinthehumanbody[B]Howboneshelpthebodymove[C]Howbonescontinuouslyrepairthemselves[D]Thechemicalcompositionofhumanbones[A]Theydefendtheboneagainstviruses[B]Theypreventoxygenfromenteringthebone[C]Theybreakdownbonetissue[D]Theyconnectthebonetomuscletissue[A]Theyhavedifficultyidentifyingthesecells[B]Theyaren’tsurehowthesecellswork[C]They’velearnedhowtoreproducethesecells[D]They’vefoundsimilarcellsinotherspecies[A]Tolearnhowtopreventabonedisease[B]Tounderstanddifferencesbetweenbonetissueandothertissue[C]Tofindouthowspecializedbonecellshaveevolved[D]TocreateartificialbonetissueQuestionstoarebasedontheconversationyouhavejustheard[A]Anewfuelforbuses[B]Thecausesofairpollution[C]Awaytoimprovefuelefficiencyinbuses[D]Careersinenvironmentalengineering[A]Hercarisbeingrepaired[B]Shewantstohelpreducepollution[C]Parkingisdifficultinthecity[D]Thecostoffuelhasincreased[A]Afuelthatburnscleanly[B]Anoiladditivethathelpscoolengines[C]Amaterialfromwhichfiltersaremade[D]AninsulatingmaterialsprayedonenginepartsSectionBDirections:Inthissection,youwillhearshortpassagesAttheendofeachpassage,youwillhearsomequestionsBoththepassageandthequestionswillbespokenonlyonceAfteryouhearaquestion,youmustchoosethebestanswerfromthefourchoicesmarked[A],[B],[C]and[D]ThenmarkthecorrespondingletteronAnswersheetwithasinglelinethroughthecentrePassageOneQuestionstoarebasedonthepassageyouhavejustheard[A]Fromthreetofivemonths[B]Threemonths[C]Fivemonths[D]Fourmonths[A]Watchtraffic[B]Obeycommands[C]Crossstreetssafely[D]Guardthedoor[A]Threeweeks[B]Twoweeks[C]Fourweeks[D]FiveweeksPassageTwoQuestionstoarebasedonthepassageyouhavejustheard[A]Twotofourtimes[B]Fourtosixtimes[C]Fourtoeighttimes[D]Sixtotentimes[A]SleepingpillsmadepeoplegointoREMsleepquickly[B]Peoplehadmoredreamsaftertheytooksleepingpills[C]Peoplebecameangryeasilybecausetheydidn’ttakesleepingpills[D]SleepingpillspreventedpeoplefromgoingintoREMsleep[A]Peopledreamsoastosleepbetter[B]PeopledreaminordernottogointoREMsleep[C]Becausetheymayrunintodifficultproblemsintheirdreams[D]BecauseintheirdreamstheymayfindtheanswerstotheirproblemsPassageThreeQuestionstoarebasedonthepassageyouhavejustheard[A]Asalesrepresentative[B]Astoremanager[C]Acommitteechairperson[D]Aclasspresident[A]Todeterminewhowillgraduatethisyear[B]Todiscusstheseatingarrangement[C]Tochoosethechairpersonoftheceremonies[D]Tobeginplanningthegraduationceremonies[A]Theirnames,phonenumbersandjobpreference[B]Thenamesandaddressesoftheirguests[C]Thenamesofthecommitteetheyworkedonlastyear[D]Theirdormitoryname,addressandphonenumber[A]Inanhour[B]Nextweek[C]Inonemonth[D]NextyearSectionCDirections:Inthissection,youwillhearapassagethreetimesWhenthepassageisreadforthefirsttime,youshouldlistencarefullyforitsgeneralideaWhenthepassageisreadforthesecondtime,youarerequiredtofillintheblanksnumberedfromtowiththeexactwordsyouhavejustheardForblanksnumberedfromtoyouarerequiredtofillinthemissinginformationFortheseblanks,youcaneitherusetheexactwordsyouhavejustheardorwritedownthemainpointsinyouownwordsFinally,whenthepassageisreadforthethirdtime,youshouldcheckwhatyouhavewrittenIntheEnglish()system,studentstakethreeveryimportantexaminationsThefirstistheelevenplus,whichis()attheageofelevenoralittlepastAtonetimethe()or()shownontheelevenpluswouldhave()ifachildstayedinschoolNow,however,allchildrencontinuein()schools,andtheelevenplusdetermineswhichcoursesofstudythechildwillfollowAttheageoffifteenorsixteen,thestudentsare()fortheOrdinary()oftheGeneralCertificateofEducation()Oncestudentshavepassedthisexam,theyareallowedtospecialize,sothattwothirdsormoreoftheircourseswillbeinphysics,chemistry,classicallanguages,orwhatevertheywishtostudyatgreaterlength()Evenattheuniversities,studentsstudyonlyintheirconcentratedarea,andveryfewstudentseverventureoutsidethatsubjectagain()PartⅣReadingComprehension(ReadinginDepth)(minutes)SectionADirections:Inthissection,thereisapassagewithtenblanksYouarerequiredtoselectonewordforeachblankfromalistofchoicesgiveninawordbankfollowingthepassageReadthepassagethroughcarefullybeforemakingyourchoicesEachchoiceinthebankisidentifiedbyaletterPleasemarkthecorrespondingletterforeachitemonAnswerSheetwithasinglelinethroughthecentreYoumaynotuseanyofthewordsinthebankmorethanonceQuestionstoarebasedonthefollowingpassageShoppinghabitsintheUnitedStateshavechangedgreatlyinthelastquarterofthethcenturyinthesmostAmericantownsandcitieshadaMainStreetMainStreetwasalwaystheheartofatownThisstreetwaslinedonthebothsideswithmanybusinessesHere,shopperswalkedintostorestolookatallsortsofmerchandise:clothing,furniture,hardware,groceriesInaddition,someshopsofferedThereshopsincludeddrugstores,restaurants,shoerepairstores,andbarberorhairdressingshopsButinthes,achangebegantoplaceToomanyautomobileshadcrowdedintoMainStreetwhiletoofewparkingplacesweretoshoppersBecausethestreetswerecrowded,merchantsbegantolookwithinterestattheopenspacesoutsidethecitylimitsOpenspaceiswhattheircardrivingcustomersneededAndopenspaceiswhattheygotwhenthefirstshoppingcentrewasbuiltShoppingcenters,orrathermalls,asacollectionofsmallnewstoresawayfromcrowdedcitycentersbyhundredsoffreeparkingspace,customersweredrawnawayfromareastooutlyingmallsAndthegrowingofshoppingcentersledinturntothebuildingofbiggerandbetterstockedstoresBythelates,manyshoppingmallshadalmostdevelopedintosmallcitiesthemselvesInadditiontoprovidingtheofthestopshopping,mallsweretransformedintolandscapedparks,withbenches,fountains,andoutdoorentertainment[A]designed[F]convenience[K]cosmetics[B]take[G]services[L]started[C]Early[H]fame[M]downtown[D]Attracted[I]various[N]available[E]though[J]popularity[O]cheapnessSectionBDirections:TherearepassagesinthissectionEachpassageisfollowedbysomequestionsorunfinishedstatementsForeachofthemtherearefourchoicesmarked[A],[B],[C]and[D]YoushoulddecideonthebestchoiceandmarkthecorrespondingletteronAnswerSheetwithasinglelinethroughthecentrePassageOneQuestionstoarebasedonthefollowingpassageCultureisoneofthemostchallengingelementsoftheinternationalmarketplaceThissystemoflearnedbehaviorpatternscharacteristicofthemembersofagivensocietyisconstantlyshapedbyasetofdynamicvariables:language,religion,valuesandattitudes,mannersandcustoms,aesthetics,technology,education,andsocialinstitutionsTocopewiththissystem,aninternationalmanagerneedsbothfactualandinterpretiveknowledgeofcultureTosomeextent,thefactualknowledgecanbelearneditsinterpretationcomesonlythroughexperienceThemostcomplicatedproblemsindealingwiththeculturalenvironmentstemfromthefactthatonecannotlearncultureonehastoliveitTwoschoolsofthoughtexistinthebusinessworldonhowtodealwithculturaldiversityOneisthatbusinessisbusinesstheworldaround,followingthemodelofPepsiandMcDonald’sInsomecases,globalizationisafactoflifehowever,culturaldifferencesarestillfarfromconvergingTheotherschoolproposesthatcompaniesmusttailorbusinessapproachestoindividualculturesSettinguppoliciesandproceduresineachcountryhasbeencomparedtoanorgantransplantthecriticalquestioncentersaroundacceptanceorrejectionThemajorchallengetotheinternationalmanageristomakesurethatrejectionisnotaresultofculturalmyopiaorevenblindnessFortuneexaminedtheinternationalperformanceofadozenlargecompaniesthatearnpercentormoreoftheirrevenueoverseasTheinternationallysuccessfulcompaniesallshareanimportantquality:patienceTheyhavenotrushedintosituationsbutratherbuilttheiroperationscarefullybyfollowingthemostbasicbusinessprinciplesTheseprinciplesaretoknowyouradversary,knowyouraudience,andknowyourcustomerAccordingtothepassage,whichofthefollowingistrue[A]Allinternationalmanagerscanlearnculture[B]Businessdiversityisnotnecessary[C]Viewsdifferonhowtotreatcultureinbusinessworld[D]MostpeopledonotknowforeignculturewellAccordingtotheauthor,themodelofPepsi[A]isinlinewiththetheoriesoftheschooladvocatingthebusinessisbusinesstheworldaround[B]isdifferentfromthemodelofMcDonald’s[C]showsthereverseofglobalization[D]hasconvergedculturaldifferencesThetwoschoolsofthought[A]bothproposethatcompaniesshouldtailorbusinessapproachestoindividualcultures[B]bothadvocatethatdifferentpoliciesbesetupindifferentcountries[C]admittheexistenceofculturaldiversityinbusinessworld[D]BothAandBThisarticleissupposedtobemostusefulforthose[A]whoareinterestedinresearchingthetopicofculturaldiversity[B]whohaveconnectionstomorethanonetypeofculture[C]whowanttotravelabroad[D]whowanttorunbusinessonInternationalScaleAccordingtoFortune,successfulinternationalcompanies[A]earnpercentormoreoftheirrevenueoverseas[B]allhavethequalityofpatience[C]willfollowtheoverseaslocalcultures[D]adoptthepolicyofinternationalizationPassageTwoQuestionstoarebasedonthefollowingpassageTherearepeopleinItalywhocan’tstandsoccerNotallCanadianslovehockeyAsimilarsituationexistsinAmerica,wheretherearethoseindividualsyoumaybeoneofthemwhoyawnorevenfrownwhensomebodymentionsbaseballBaseballtothemmeansboringhourswatchinggrownmeninfunnytightoitsstandingaroundinafieldstaringawaywhileverylittleofanythinghappensTheytellyouit’sagamebettersuitedtothethcentury,slow,quiet,andgentlemanlyThesearethesamepeopleyoumaybeoneofthemwholovefootballbecausethere’sthesportthatglorifies“thehit”Bycontrast,baseballseemsabstract,cool,silent,stillOnTVthegameisfracturedintoadozenperspectives,replays,closeupsThegeometryofthegame,however,isessentialtounderstandingitYouwillcontemplatethegamefromonepointasapainterdoeshissubjectyoumay,ofcourse,projectyourselfintothegameItisinthisprojectionthatthegameaffordssomuchspaceandtimeforinvolvementTheTVwon’tdoitforyouTake,forexample,thethirdbasemanYousitbehindthethirdbasedugoutandyouwatchhimwatchinghomeplateHislegsareapart,kneesflexedHisarmshanglooseHedoesalotofthisTheskepticstillcannotthinkofanyothersportssostill,sopassiveButwatchwhathappenseverytimethepitcherthrows:thethirdbasemangoesuponhistoes,flexeshisarmsorbringtheglovetoapointinfrontofhim,takesasteprightorleft,backwardorforward,perhapsheglancesacrossthefieldtocheckhisfirstbaseman’spositionSupposethepitchisaball“Nothinghappened,”yousay“Icouldhavehadmyeyesclosed”TheskepticandtheinnocentmustplaythegameAndthisinvolvementinthestandsisnomoreintellectualthanlisteningtomusicisWatchthethirdbasemanSmooththedirtinfrontofyouwithonefootsmooththepocketinyourglovewatchtheeyesofthebatter,thespeedofthebat,thesoundofhorsehideonwoodIffootballisasymphonyofmovementandtheatre,baseballischambermusic,aspaciousinterlockingofnotes,choresandresponsesThepassageismainlyconcernedwith[A]thedifferenttastesofpeopleforsports[B]thedifferentcharacteristicsofsports[C]theattractiono

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