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首页 东北神话:现代中国的民族主义(英文).[英]拉纳·米特.pdf

东北神话:现代中国的民族主义(英文).[英]拉纳·米特.pdf

东北神话:现代中国的民族主义(英文).[英]拉纳·米特.pdf

上传者: zoutc296 2011-05-10 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《东北神话:现代中国的民族主义(英文).[英]拉纳·米特pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含TheManchurianMythTheManchurianMythNationalism,Resistance,andCollaborationi符等。

TheManchurianMythTheManchurianMythNationalism,Resistance,andCollaborationinModernChinaRanaMitterUNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIAPRESSBerkeleyLosAngelesLondonUniversityofCaliforniaPressBerkeleyandLosAngeles,CaliforniaUniversityofCaliforniaPress,LtdLondon,EnglandbytheRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataMitter,Rana,–TheManchurianmyth:nationalism,resistance,andcollaborationinmodernChinaRanaMitterpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN–(alkpaper)Manchuria(China)History–NationalismChinaManchuriaITitleDSM'dc–CIPManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaThepaperusedinthispublicationmeetstheminimumrequirementsofANSINISOZ(R)(PermanenceofPaper)FormyparentsPuisilss’enallèrentsurlaroutetouslesquatreLaLoreleylesimploraitetsesyeuxbrillaientcommesdesastresChevalierslaissezmoimontersurcerochersihautPourvoirencoremonbeauchâteauPourmemirerencoredanslefleuvePuisj’iraiaucouventdesviergesetdesveuvesGuillaumeApollinaire,LaLoreleyContentsacknowledgmentsixnoteonthetextxiIntroduction:CrisisorCatalystReformandReaction:NortheastChinaunderZhangXueliang,–StayingOn:CooptationoftheNortheasternProvincialElites,–ShrapnelandSocialSpending:LocalEliteCollaborationinManchukuo,–SellingSalvation:TheCampaignsoftheNortheastNationalSalvationSociety,–KnowYourEnemy:TheCreationofaDiscourseofNationalistResistance,–viiFrontlineChoices:TheResistanceFighters,Nationalism,andLocality,–Epilogue:ManchuriainMemoryandMythabbreviationsnotesglossarybibliographyindexviiiCONTENTSAcknowledgmentsThisbookbeganasadoctoraldissertationattheUniversityofCambridge,underthesupervisionofHansvandeVenOverthecourseoftheproject,hepatientlyreadmultipledrafts,providingmeticulousandconstructiveadviceateverystageAnymeritthatthisbookhasisduelargelytohisinvaluableadviceateverystageIrevisedthemanuscriptduringmyperiodasjuniorlecturerattheInstituteforChineseStudiesattheUniversityofOxfordMygratitudegoestoseveralcolleagues,inparticularGlenDudbridgeandFrankPieke,whomadetheinstitutesuchaproductiveandenjoyableworkingenvironmentformeIcompletedthefinaldraftduringmyfirstmonthsaslecturerinhistoryattheUniversityofWarwick,wherethecompanyofnewcolleagueshasbeenapleasureandacatalysttocompletingthisprojectIamprofoundlygratefultoanumberofindividualswhoreadallorpartofthetextinvariousversionsandmadeimportantsuggestions,savingmefromnumerouserrors:SimonHarrison,WilliamKirby,StephenLarge,RichardPhillips,andArthurWaldronBillJennerandanotheroutsidereader,aswellasareaderfortheeditorialcommitteeoftheUniversityofCaliforniaPress,madeperceptivecommentsasthemanuscriptneareditsfinalstageSheilaLevine,CindyFulton,BonitaHurd,andLauraDriussioftheUniversityofCaliforniaPresswereendlesslyhelpfultoafirsttimeauthorduringthepublishingprocessNickAllenAnthonyCooganChenQianpingSimonKuperSidandAnuradhaMaitraJaideb,Subhadra,Bobby,andSujataMukherjeeNishimuraShigeoLaurisaSchuttChloeStarrKristenUpchurchWangJuandixWuYuwenwereallimmenselysupportiveatcrucialpointsduringthewritingofthisbookThedoctoralworkatCambridgewithwhichthisprojectbeganwassupportedbyaBritishAcademyMajorStudentshipAKennedyScholarshipprovidedthefundsforastimulatingacademicyearatHarvard,aswellasasummerspentworkingattheHooverInstitutionatStanfordAtthepostdoctoralstage,furtherfundingwasprovidedbytheBritishAcademy–EconomicandSocialResearchCouncilChineseAcademyofSocialSciencesExchangeProgramme,theHayterFundoftheUniversityofOxford,andtheJuniorResearchFellows’FundofWolfsonCollege,OxfordIammostgratefultoallthosebodiesfortheirassistanceIgreatlyappreciatedthehelpIreceivedfromlibrariansandarchivistsatavarietyofinstitutions:theUniversityLibraryandFacultyofOrientalStudiesLibrary,CambridgetheBodleianLibraryandInstituteforChineseStudiesLibrary,OxfordtheHarvard–YenchingLibrarytheHooverInstitutionLibrary,StanfordtheLiaoningProvincialArchivesandProvincialLibrary,ShenyangtheNationalLibraryofChina,BeijingtheSecondArchives,NanjingandtheAcademiaHistoria,TaipeiFinally,thisbookwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithouttheloveandsupportofmyparents,Pamina,andKatharinexACKNOWLEDGMENTSNoteontheTextIhaveusedpinyinandHepburnromanizationsforChineseandJapanesetermsrespectivelyTheonlyexceptionsarecertainChinesenamesthatarebetterknowninEnglishinotherromanizations:thus,ChiangKaishek(ratherthanJiangJieshi),KMT(GMDorGuomindang),Kwantung(Guandong),andSunYatsen(SunZhongshan)However,ratherthan“Peiping,”IhavereferredtothecityofBeiping,thenamegiventoBeijingbytheNationalistgovernmentbetweenandAlistofabbreviationsusedinthenotesisprovidedatthestartofthenotesxichapterIntroductionCrisisorCatalystInMay,ATSteele,anAmericanjournalistcommissionedbytheNewYorkTimes,cametotheendofawet,muddy,andoftendangerousjourneyHehadspentoveraweektrekkingacrosstheillmaintainedbackroadsofManchukuo,thepuppetstateestablishedbytheJapanesearmyinNortheastChinainSteelehadenteredtheJapaneseoccupiedregionillegally,butheconsideredtherisktobeworthwhileinhisenthusiasmtochasedownabigstory:afacetofacemeetingwiththerenownedManchurianChineseresistanceleaderMaZhanshanInthemonthsafterthefirstJapaneseattack,MahadcometopublicattentionthroughaseriesofheroictelegramshehadsentdescribinghiscampaignofresistancetotheJapaneseinnorthernHeilongjiangprovinceThesetelegramswerepublishedinthenationalChinesepressbutreachedasfarastheLeagueofNationsAssemblyinGenevaWhentheLeaguesentaCommissionofEnquiryintoexplorethetruthofthesituationinManchuria,theymadeameetingwithMaZhanshanoneoftheirchiefrequests(althoughthemeetingneveractuallytookplace)SoSteele’snoseforascooptoldhimthatfindingMaZhanshanwouldallowhimtowriteastorythatcouldhaveanimpactontheworld’sunderstandingoftherapidlyunfoldingclashbetweenChinaandJapanTheoutlineofthatclashiswellknowneventoday:onSeptember,theJapaneseKwantungArmylaunchedaninvasionofManchuria,thenortheasternprovincesofChinaTheseeventssoonbecameknowntotheworldasthe“ManchurianIncident”Soonafterward,theysetupastatetherethattheycalled“Manchukuo,”independentinnamebutinINTRODUCTIONfactrunbytheinvadersThecrisisimmediatelycausedastormofnationalistprotestintherestofChina,aswellasgivingrisetoapopularresistancemovementinManchuriaitself(onedominatedbytheCommunistParty)thatwasstimulatedbytheJapanesearmy’suseofterrortacticstocontroltheregionOrrather,thisisthemythTheaccountoftheoccupationofManchuriasummarizedaboveisbynomeansfabricateditcontainsimportantelementsoftruthRather,callingita“myth”meansthatthewidelyacceptedversionofeventsisaconstructednarrativethathasbeenmanipulatedtoreflectaparticularpoliticalagendaTheconstructionofsuchmythsisnowcommonlyacceptedasintegraltotheprocessofnationbuilding,andindeedthebuildingofcommunitiesingeneralHowever,acloserexaminationofhowandwhythemythofManchurianChineseresistancetotheJapaneseoccupationwasdevelopedshedsnewlightonwiderquestionsintwentiethcenturyChinesehistoryThisbookhastwomainaimsThefirstistoexaminetherealityoftheoccupationduringtheperiodwhentheJapanesecreatedstateofManchukuowasestablishedandstabilized(–)Amongthequestionstobeansweredarethefollowing:WhocollaboratedwiththeJapanese,whoresistedthem,andwhyWhatwereconditionslikeintheoccupiedzoneduringtheperiodwhentheJapanesewereestablishingtheirruleWhathappenedtothenortheastern(Manchurian)ChinesewhofledtheinvadersandwentintoexileThesecondaimistodemonstratetheimportanceoftheeventsoftheearlysintheformationofmodernChinesenationalismThisstudysuggeststhattheoccupationpresentedChinawithacrisisdifferentfrompreviousinstancesofforeignintervention,asitdemandedforthefirsttimeaclearchoicebetweenacquiescenceandresistancetoafullscaleoccupationCrucially,thisstudyaimstoputchoicesbytheManchurianChinesethemselvesatthecenteroftheemergentnationalismthatarosefromthecrisisNortheasternnationalistswhofledManchuriatriedtopressurethegovernmentinNanjingintosendingtroopstoretaketheirhomeland,andtheychosetoexertthispressurebyportrayingthecrisisasanissueofnationalconcernforallChineseUsingthetechniquesandassumptionsofmodernnationalistideology,theseactivistscreatedthepowerfulandeffectiveimageofaresistancetotheJapanesethathadrisenupspontaneouslyinManchuriaThisimagehasnotbeenerasedfromthecollectiveChinesememoryeventodayTheManchuriannationalistactivistsmadetheirownindividualcontributiontothediscourseofChinesenationalism:theysuppliedapositiveelementthathadpreviouslybeenlackingUntiltheearlys,ChiINTRODUCTIONnesenationalistactivismhadbeenbasedonprimarilynegativeimages:thehumiliationofChinaattheVersaillesConferenceof,theshootingdownofChineseworkersandstudentsintheMayThirtiethIncidentof,thesupposedsterilityoftraditionalChineseculturethatwasattheheartoftheMayFourthMovementTheManchurianpropagandistsprovidedanewandpopularlyresonantimageofresistanceheroesinManchuriawhohadstooduptotheJapanese,allowingnationalismtobeexpressedinanewanddifferentwayfromonwardandencouragingthereplacementof“imperialism”ingeneralwithJapaninparticularasitschieftargetThisnewconsciousnessdidnotpermeateeverywhereatthesamelevel(forinstance,itwasalwaysamoreurbanthanruralphenomenon),anditseffectivenesswaxedandwanedovertheperiodleadinguptotheoutbreakoftheSinoJapaneseWarinButitdidprovideanewnarrativeandlanguageofresistancethathelpedtosustainphenomenasuchastheNationalSalvationMovementofthemids,andthenationalistfictionofwriterssuchasXiaoJunThesuccessfulpervasionoftheresistanceimageinthepopularChineseimaginationhintsatwhyitsmythicalelementshaveremainedundisturbedforsolongThisbookisnotintendedtobeacomprehensivehistoryofManchukuo,evenforthetoperiod,norisitastudyofthediplomatichistoryoftheManchuriancrisisItfocusesontheactionsofthreesectionsofnortheasternChinesesocietyduringthoseyears:collaboratorswiththeJapanese,nationalistexilesfromtheoccupationwhopromotedresistance,andresistancefightersonthegroundintheoccupiedzoneIndoingso,itdrawsonthemanyexcellentstudiesofaspectsofthisperiodthatexistalready,aswellasattemptingtotacklesomeoftheanalyticalproblemsthathavedoggedthistopicBroadlyspeaking,Westernliteraturehasconcentratedonthecrisisasanexerciseinpolicymaking,eitherbytheChinese,theJapanese,ortheLeagueofNationsForagrassrootsviewoftheoccupationanditsconsequences,onemustturntotheChineseandJapaneseliteratureYetthistooisproblematicFortheChineseonbothsidesoftheTaiwanStrait,andparticularlyinthePeople’sRepublic,deviationsfromthestandardaccountwithwhichthischapterbeganhavebeenfewinnumber,althoughithasbecomepossibleinrecentyearstoobtainprimarysourcesthatenableonetoquestionthatviewInJapan,tocitethewordsofGavanMcCormack,“theManchukuoexperienceremainstodaydriftingunassimilatedandunabsorbed,largelystillnotunderstood,justbeneaththesurfaceofthecontemporaryJapanesestate”ThedebatesofpostwarINTRODUCTIONJapanesehistoriography,whichfeedintomuchlargerquestionsofwarguiltandleftrightdivisionsthatstillscarJapanesesociety,makethetopicofJapan’simperialpastdifficultforthatcountrytodealwithThisstudycannotclaimtosolvetheseproblems,butitaimstocontributetoamorenuancedandlesspoliticallychargedanalysisofthemeaningofManchukuoTheManchurianCrisisThisbookdealswiththefirstphaseoftheManchuriancrisis,fromtheoccupationofsouthernManchuriaintothesigningoftheTangguTruceinThiswastheperiodduringwhichthegroupstouchedbythecrisismadetheirmostimportantdecisionsaboutwhatwastohappentotheNortheasttheyincludedtheChinesegovernment,theJapanesearmyandgovernment,theLeagueofNationsandthewesternpowers,and,asthisstudystresses,theChineseinhabitantsoftheregionthemselvesAsthisstudyisthematicratherthanchronologicalinitstreatment,ashortnarrativesummaryoftheeventsofthecrisisduringthisperiodisprovidedhereShortlyafter:PMonSeptember,abombexplodedonarailwaylineoutsidethecityofShenyang(oftenreferredtoinWesternreportsofthetimebyitsoldManchunameofMukden),theregionalcapitalofnortheasternChinaTheJapaneseKwantungArmygarrison,directedbytwojuniorofficers,IshiwaraKanjiandItagakiSeishiro,claimedthatChinesesoldiershadsetofftheexplosion,intendingtowreckaJapanesetrainthatwasdueonthatsectionofthelineThearmythenusedthiseventasapretexttolaunchafullscaleoccupationofmuchofsouthernManchuriaInfact,theManchurianIncidenthadbeenengineeredbyIshiwara,Itagaki,andthemenundertheircommandTheoccupation,whichwascarriedoutinamatterofdays,tookthegovernmentinTokyoundertheliberalprimeministerWakatsukiReijirobysurpriseTheWakatsukicabinetsoonfell,atleastinpartbecauseofinternaldisputesoverwhatpolicytheadministrationshouldadopttowardtheManchuriancoupItssuccessorgovernmentsinTokyo,regardlessofthemisgivingsofindividualpoliticianstowardtheirarmy’sactionsinNortheastChina,feltobligedtodefendtheoccupationagainstallcriticsEmboldened,theKwantungArmypushedintonorthernManchuriainNovember,andbyFebruaryhadatleastnominalcontroloverthewholeregionInMarchofthatyear,theoccuINTRODUCTIONpiersformallyproclaimedaseparatestateintheregion,namedManchukuo(inChineseManzhouguo,inJapaneseManshukoku)Meanwhile,theheadoftheNationalistgovernmentinNanjing,ChiangKaishek,hadtomakeaswiftdecisionabouthisstrategicprioritiesJudgingthatitwasnotpossibletoreversetheoccupationusingforce,ChiangorderedZhangXueliang,theregionalmilitaristwhohadheldswayovertheNortheast,tofollowapolicyof“nonresistance”totheJapaneseInstead,theChinesegovernmentwouldtaketheircasetotheLeagueofNations,whichtheyhopedwouldruleagainstJapanandprovideinternationalpressureforthewithdrawalofJapanesetroopsfromManchuriaChinaandJapanpresentedtheircasestotheLeagueAssemblyinGenevafromlatetomid:Chinaprotestedthatitsnationalsovereigntyhadbeenviolatedbyaforeignaggressor,whereasJapanclaimedthatitwasassistinganewlyindependentstateinManchuriathatwishedtothrowoffthetyrannyofcorruptChineseruleTheJapaneseoccupationwaswidelyseenasthefirstrealtestfortheLeagueofNations,setupintheaftermathofWorldWarIHowever,theorganizationwashobbledbyvariousfactors:theUnitedStateshadneverenteredtheLeague,andBritainandFrance,themainpowerswithinit,werenotkeentodeployforce,particularlyinEastAsia,iftheycouldavoiditBritainwantedtokeepongoodtermswithJapan,whichwasstillnominallyanalliedpower,althoughtheBritishpolicyofsimultaneousfriendlinesswithChiangKaishekcausedanultimatelyunsustainablestrainonBritishpolicyInanycase,inlate,asnotedbyDavidDutton,“JapanwaswidelyseentohaveastrongcaseagainstChina,”andSirJohnSimon,theBritishforeignsecretary,informedtheCabinetthatJapanhadtherighttosendtroopsintoChinaHenryStimson,theUSsecretaryofstate,madedispleasednoisesaboutJapan’saction,butRepublicanforeignpolicyintheshaddependedheavilyonkeepingJapanfriendly,inparticularnotunderminingtheliberalJapaneseforeignministerShideharaKijuroandtheAmericanswerekeentomaintainthatdiplomaticbalanceintheearlysInFebruary,theLeagueofNationssentaCommissionofEnquiryunderLordLyttontoChina,includingManchuria,tojudgethesituationIntheopinionofmanyChinesecircles,thecommission’spresenceofferedachancetolobbyforChina’scase,whichwasaidedbythefactthattheJapanesecontrolledManchukuoauthoritiesremainedpetulantthroughouttheperiodoftheCommissioners’visitThecommissionwassplitinitsfinalreport,withLyttonwishingstronglytocondemntheJapanese,andClaudel,theFrenchrepresentative,urgingrecognitionofManchukuothecompromisethatresultedpleasedINTRODUCTIONnobodyWhileitrequiredthewithdrawalofJapanesetroops,italsocondemnedZhangXueliang’sregimeandallowedtheJapanesegeneroustreatyrightsSirJohnSimonwasabletoportraythereportasstressingfaultsonbothside,whichearnedhimthesobriquet“ManofManchukuo”andinfuriatedbothChinaandJapanJapaneventuallywithdrewfromtheLeagueonFebruary,butthiswascoldcomforttopoliticalcirclesinChina,whichwerenowconvincedofthehollownessoftheinternationalstructuresthathadbeensetupwithsuchfanfareoverthelastdecadeandahalfIthardlymatteredTheeventsofhadmadeitquiteclearthatthewritoftheJapanesearmywastheonlyonethatraninManchuria,andthearmyanditssupportersclaimedthatManchukuohadcomeintobeingasaculminationofthedesireofthepeopleoftheNortheast(Chinese,Japanese,Koreans,Manchus,andMongolsalike)forindependencefromChinesewarlordruleInfact,itishighlyunlikelythe“state”wouldeverhavebeenformedhaditnotbeenfortheManchurianIncident,andthroughoutManchukuo’sfourteenyearhistoryitwastheJapanesewhoremainedinoverallcontrolYet(aschapsandwillshow),theKwantungArmymanagedtoobtainwidespreadcollaborationfromthelocalsinitsnewpossession,largelybypersuadinglocalelitesthatcooperationwouldenableordinarylifetocarryonasusualJapaneseruleinManchukuobecamemuchharsher,particularlyafterthepromotionofmassmigrationtothe“state”afterandthe

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