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Risk assessment for contaminated sites in Europe.pdf

Risk assessment for contaminate…

上传者: fly2291 2011-05-09 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Risk assessment for contaminated sites in Europepdf》,可适用于工程科技领域,主题内容包含RiskAssessmentforContaminatedSitesinEuropeCARACASConcertedActiononRiskAsse符等。

RiskAssessmentforContaminatedSitesinEuropeCARACASConcertedActiononRiskAssessmentforContaminatedSitesintheEuropeanUnion–ThisConcertedActionprogrammewasfundedbytheEuropeanCommissionundertheEnvironmentandClimateProgramme,andcoordinatedbytheGermanUmweltbundesamtContributorstotheprogrammearelistedbelowProjectCoordination:DrVolkerFRANZIUS,DiplIng•HaraldKASAMASAustria:MagNoraAUER,DiplIng•MartinSCHAMANN•DrAndreasPLOIBNERBelgium:MrEddyVANDYCK,Ir•ChristaCORNELIKSDenmark:MrsIreneEDELGAARD•DrBjornKaareJENSEN•DrJohnJENSENFinland:MrAriSEPPÄNEN•DrTimoASSMUTH•ProfDrTerttuVARTIAINENFrance:MrBrunoSAUVALLE•MsDeniseESCULPAVIT•DrDominiqueDARMENDRAIL•DrPatrickCHARBONNIER•MsNathalieGONTHIEZGermany:MrAndreasBIEBER•DrHansJoachimSTIETZEL•DrKarinFREIERGreece:DrAristotelisISAAKIDIS•FotiniBOURA•DrAlexandrosLIAKOPOULOSIreland:DrBrianLEECH•DrTedNEALON•MrGerryCARTY•DrMatthewCROWEItaly:MrGiovanniBRUNELLI•DrFrancescaQUERCIA•ProfLucianoMORSELLITheNetherlands:DrCAJDENNEMAN•DrFrankASWARTJES•DrJoopJVEGTERNorway:MrHaraldSOLBERG•DrEilenArctanderVIKPortugal:MrsAnaLIMA•DrCelesteJORGE•ProfDrEduardoAnselmoFERREIRADASILVASpain:DrJoséLÓPEZdeVELASCO•DrArantzazuURZELAI•MrJuanGRIMAOLMEDASweden:MsFredrikaNORMAN•DrLennartDOCK•ProfDrDagBROMANSwitzerland:DrChristopherWENGER•MrMichaelJAGGY•DrKristinBECKERVANSLOOTENUnitedKingdom:ProfJudithDENNER•DrValerieFORSTER•ProfDrColinFERGUSON•MrsSueHERBERTEditorialBoardforthisbookProfColinFerguson(Chairman)•DrDominiqueDarmendrail•DrKarinFreier•DrBjornKaareJensen•DrJohnJensen,DiplIng•HaraldKasamas•DrArantzazuUrzelai•DrJoopVegterRiskAssessmentforContaminatedSitesinEuropeVolumeScientificBasisAreportpreparedaspartoftheConcertedActiononRiskAssessmentforContaminatedSitesintheEuropeanUnion(CARACAS)ThisprogrammewasfundedbytheEuropeanCommissionundertheEnvironmentandClimateProgramme,andcoordinatedbytheGermanUmweltbundesamtLQMPressNottinghamLQMPress,adivisionofLandQualityManagementLtd,LQMPressPOBoxNottinghamNGFBUKTel(national)xxxxxxxTel(international)xxxxxxxEmailfororders:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxAllRightsReservedNopartofthisbookmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,exceptunderthetermsoftheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActorunderthetermsofalicenceissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgencyLtd,TottenhamCourtRoad,LondonWPHE,UK,withoutthepermissioninwritingofthepublisherFirstprintedISBNO………BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryItisrecommendedthatreferencetothisbookbemadeinthefollowingway:Ferguson,C,Darmendrail,D,Freier,K,Jensen,BK,Jensen,J,Kasamas,H,Urzelai,AandVegter,J(editors)RiskAssessmentforContaminatedSitesinEuropeVolumeScientificBasisLQMPress,NottinghamTypesetfromauthors’discsbyBywaterTypesettingPrintedandboundbyThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaperresponsiblymanufacturedfromsustainableforestation,forwhichatleasttwotreesareplantedforeachoneusedforpaperproductionvContentsForewordGeneralintroductionBackgroundtothisbookOutlineofchaptercontentsFundamentalconceptsofriskassessmentIntroductionTheoriginofriskassessmentTheconceptofriskVarioustypesofriskassessmentCurrentpracticeAframeworkforcontaminatedlandriskassessmentCurrentuseofriskassessmentPrioritysettingandderivationofremediationgoalsGenericcriteriaversussitespecificriskassessmentGeneralmethodologicalaspectsRiskassessmentandthemanagementofuncertaintiesTheperceptionofriskRiskassessmentandriskmanagementConcludingremarksReceptors:humanhealthIntroductionCriteriaforselectingprioritysubstancesCriteriaforselectingappropriatetoxicologicalandepidemiologicalstudiesInterpretationoftoxicitydataUseofanimalstudiesCarcinogenicsubstancesApplicationofresultsBioavailabilityRoutesofentryExposuretochemicalmixturesExposurefrommultiplesourcesSummaryandconclusionsReceptors:ecosystemhealthIntroductionEcologicalscreeningandguidelinevaluesGeneralapproachviDerivationofsoilscreeningvaluesEcotoxicologicaltestsystemsforestablishinggenericSSVsBiologicalassaysIntroductionBioassaysusingmicroorganismsBioassayswithplantsBioassayswithsoilfaunaPotentialapproachesforfutureapplicationConcludingremarksSiteandsourcecharacterisationIntroductionCurrentpracticeDataneedsforriskassessmentStrategiesfordatacollectionMethodologiesfordatacollectionDataqualityanduncertaintiesConcludingremarksPathways:transportandfateofcontaminantsIntroductionTransportandfateingroundwaterSolutetransportDispersionSolubilisationSorptiondesorptionComplexationPrecipitationBiologicalprocessesTransportfromsoiltosurfacewatersTransportandfateinairTransportviadustTransportviavapourTransportviaplantuptakeMetalsOrganiccontaminantsTransportviadirectcontactDirectingestionofsoilIngestionofsoilattachedtovegetablesDermalexposureSummaryandconclusionsContaminanthydrogeologyExposureviainhalationandingestionModelsIntroductionCurrentpracticePrioritysettingmodelsContentsviiTransportfromsoilmodelsGroundwatermodelsHumanexposuremodelsReceptorgroupsExposurescenariosResultsoftheexposureassessmentToxicologicalmodelsEcotoxicologicalmodelsUncertaintiesandprobabilisticapproachesSummaryandconclusionsScreeningandguidelinevaluesIntroductionDifferentrolesofscreeningguidelinevalues(a)Valuesappliedinthepreventionofnewsoilcontamination(b)ValuesappliedinthemanagementofalreadycontaminatedsitesCurrentpracticeApproachesintheuseofscreeningguidelinevaluesDifferencesbetweencountriesPolicyissuesConcludingremarksBettermethodsforriskassessmentScientificandresearchneedsThenatureofcontaminatedlandFitnessforuseRiskcomparisonOtherneedsIndexviiiForewordThepollutionofsoilandgroundwatercausedbyabandonedwastedisposalsitesandcontaminatedindustrialareasisacomplexenvironmentalprobleminallindustrialisedcountriesWithintheEuropeanUnion,severalMemberStateshavedevelopedorarecurrentlydevelopingframeworksandproceduresforassessingandmanagingtherisksposedbycontaminatedsitesInordertocoordinateandconcentratetheseeffortsandtosupportscientificcooperationbetweenEuropeancountries,CARACAS,theConcertedActiononRiskAssessmentforContaminatedSites,wasinitiatedCARACAS,whichstartedinFebruary,isfundedbytheECEnvironmentandClimateRDProgrammeinordertotackletheproblemofcontaminatedlandItwasinitiatedbytheGermanFederalMinistryfortheEnvironmentandcoordinatedbytheFederalEnvironmentalAgencyItbringstogetherthecombinedknowledgeofacademicsandgovernmentexpertsfromEuropeancountriesTheCARACASworkfocusesonthecoordinationofcurrentresearchinitiativesoncontaminatedlandriskassessmentinEurope,andonthedefinitionofscientificprioritiesforfutureRDprogrammesinordertoimprovethescientificbasisforassessingrisksfromcontaminatedsitesDuringthecourseofCARACASafruitfulcooperationbetweenscientists,representativesoftheparticipatingcountriesandtheEuropeanCommission,andvariousnationalandinternationalinitiativeshasbeendevelopedThisbookisoneofthemajoroutputsfromthisscientificpartnershipItsummarisestheconclusionsandrecommendationsdrawnbyCARACASscientistsforvariousresearchareasrelatedtoriskassessmentofcontaminatedlandItisauniquereferenceforthepracticalstateoftheartonriskassessmentinEurope,andexplainsperceivedresearchneedsinthecontextofcurrentapproachesforcontaminatedlandriskassessmentinEuropeancountriesAcknowledgementsThescientificguidanceoftheeditorialboardandtheCARACASworkinggroupsisgratefullyacknowledgedSpecialthanksareduetoProfColinFergusonandDrJoopVegterforthefinaleditingandtoHaraldKasamasforcoordinatingthevariouscontributionstothispublicationDrJürgenBüsingEnvironmentandClimateProgrammeEuropeanCommissionDGXIIDBrusselsDrIngVolkerFranziusProjectCoordinatorFederalEnvironmentalAgencyBerlinChapterGeneralintroductionBackgroundtothisbookPastandpresenthumanactivitiesthatintroducecontaminantsintosoilandgroundwaterhaveresultedinsome,sitesacrossEuropewithsuspectedcontaminationSomeofthesesitesmayendangerwaterresources,ecosystemsandorhumanhealthUncertaintiesaboutthenatureandsignificanceofchemicalcontaminationcanbeamajorstumblingblockhinderingsustainabledevelopmentincitiesandruralareas,andincreasingpressuresongreenfieldsitesBettermethodsarethereforeneededforassessingthelikelyimpactsonhumansandtheenvironment,toconfirmthatsitesarefitfortheircurrentorintendeduses,andtoguidetheremedialactionsneededtoensurefitnessforuse,theconservationofwaterresourcesandareducedburdenofaftercareforfuturegenerationsCARACAS,theConcertedActiononRiskAssessmentforContaminatedSitesintheEuropeanUnion,wasestablishedinFebruaryaspartoftheECEnvironmentandClimateRTDProgrammetotackletheproblemofcontaminatedlandItbringstogetherthecombinedknowledgeofacademics,governmentrepresentativesandotherexpertsfromallEUMemberStatesplusNorwayandSwitzerlandTheCARACASNetworkhasalsoestablishedandmaintainedlinkswithotherinternationalinitiativesrelatedtocontaminatedland,including:ƒNICOLE,theindustryledNetworkforIndustriallyContaminatedLandinEurope,whichwasalsoestablishedundertheECEnvironmentandClimateProgrammeƒTheEuropeanTopicCentreonSoil(ETCS)whichwasestablishedbytheEuropeanEnvironmentAgencyinƒRACE,theRiskAbatementCentreforCentralandEasternEuropeƒISOTechnicalCommittee(SC:SoilQuality,SoilandSiteAssessment)RiskassessmentforcontaminatedsitesinEuropeƒTheAdHocInternationalWorkingGrouponContaminatedLandƒTheNATOCCMSPilotStudyprogrammeTogetherwithNICOLE,CARACAShasidentifiedandpublishedabrieflistofresearchneedsforcontaminatedlandassessmentandremediationThisbookhasbeenpreparedbyCARACASparticipantstoreviewthescientificbasisandexplaintheperceivedresearchneedsinthecontextofcurrentapproachesforcontaminatedlandriskassessmentinEuropeancountriesItisnotamanualforriskassessmentThisvolumefocusesonscientificaspectsofriskassessmentandonresearchneedsThepolicyframeworksinwhichriskassessmentandriskmanagementarecarriedoutintheparticipatingcountriesaredescribedinVolume,whichisscheduledforpublicationlaterinBasedonanalysisofthecurrentsituation,priorityresearchneedshavebeenidentifiedandclassifiedintotwomaincategories:thenatureofcontaminatedland,whichdealswiththecharacterisationofsoilpollution,includingitsimpactonwaterresourcesandotherpartsoftheenvironmentandtherelationshipbetweensoilcontaminationandfitnessforuse,whichdealswiththeconditionsforsustainablelanduseinurbanandruralareasOutlineofchaptercontentsThesubjectofriskassessmentisintroducedinChapter‘Fundamentalconceptsofriskassessment’Afterabriefdiscussionaboutriskandriskassessment,itprovidesaframeworkfortherestofthebookwherethevariousscientificaspectsofriskassessmentaredealtwithinmoredetailChapteralsoidentifiesanumberofresearchneedsatageneralmethodologicallevel,especiallyconcerningintegrationofthevariouscomponentsofriskassessmentTheseresearchgapsdonotimplythatusingriskassessmentinitspresentstateisnotworthwhileOnthecontrary,riskassessmenthasalreadyprovedtobeaveryusefultoolincontaminatedlandmanagementsolongasusersareawareofitslimitationsRiskassessmentismostlydiscussedintermsofsources,pathwaysandreceptorsSoilcontaminationisahazard,whichmaybeasourceofriskiftoxicsubstancesreachreceptorsbyvariouspathwaysThesource–pathway–receptorconceptinriskassessmentisusedasanorganisingprincipleforthisbookGeneralintroductionChaptersandconsiderthescienceneededtocharacterisetheadverseeffectsonreceptorsHumantoxicology(Chapter)andecotoxicology(Chapter)arereviewedwithspecialreferencetotheiruseincontaminatedlandriskassessmentManyofthehumantoxicologydatausedincontaminatedlandriskassessmentwerederivedfromanimalexperimentsperformedfordifferentpurposes,suchasestablishingacceptabledailyintakesofadditivesandenvironmentalcontaminantsinfoodToxicologicaldatabasedonexposuretosoilcontaminationaregenerallylackingInordertouseavailableinformationonhumantoxicityitisusuallyassumedthatadverseeffectsofexposuretosoilcontaminantsarecomparabletothoseresultingfromexposuretothesamesubstancesinfoodChapterthereforediscussesthebioavailabilityofcontaminantsrelativetothestudyorstudiesonwhichthetoxicitycriteriawerebasedThisisrecognisedasoneofthemostimportantproblemsintheassessmentofhumanhealthrisksfromexposuretocontaminatedlandChapterreviewscurrentandpromisingfutureapproachesinecologicalriskassessmentThesuggestivetitle‘Ecosystemhealth’insteadofthemoretraditional‘ecotoxicologicalriskassessment’isusedtoencouragetheintegrationofecotoxicologywithecosystemtheoryUntilnowtheecotoxicologicalapproachhasbeenalmostentirelybasedonlaboratorytoxicityexperimentsThereisatpresentnoecosystemtheorythatcanserveasaframeworkforinterpretationoflaboratorydataAlthoughhumanhealthriskassessmentisalsolargelybasedonlaboratoryexperimentswithanimals,thereisaframeworkforinterpretationinmedicine,sociologyandpsychologywhichislackingintheecologicalapproachComparedwithhumanhealthriskassessment,ecologicalriskassessmentisarelativelynewfieldofinterestWhereasthestateoftheartinhumanhealthriskassessmentcanbefairlyreadilybasedonasynthesisofscientificreviews,thisismuchmoredifficultforecologicalriskassessmentinthecontextofcontaminatedlandMoreover,humanhealthrisksonlyconcernonespecies,whereasecologicalriskhastoaddressthehealthofecosystemswithamultitudeofspecies,populationsandcommunitiesItwasthereforedecidedtoincludeinChapterafairlydetailedreviewoftheprimaryliteratureFurtherdevelopmentofbioassaystosupplementchemicalanalysis,andthevalidationofextrapolationsfromsinglespeciestoxicitytestinginthelaboratorytorealworldsituationsinthefield,areidentifiedasimportantsubjectstobeaddressedinfutureresearchprogrammesCharacterisationofthesource,usuallycontaminatedsoilorgroundwater,isdiscussedinChapterThischapteraddressesissuessuchasinvestigationplanning,sampling,chemicalanalysisandqualitycontrol,RiskassessmentforcontaminatedsitesinEuropeandcomparesthevariousapproachesusedintheparticipatingcountriesSiteinvestigationsshouldprovidethenecessaryandsufficientdataforexposureanalysisandriskassessment,andmustalsoquantifytheuncertaintiesassociatedwithsitecharacterisationThelinkingofsiteinvestigationtoexposureanalysisandtheevaluationofuncertaintiesneedsfurtherdevelopmentinmostcountries,andwouldbenefitfrominterdisciplinaryresearchTheexposurepathwaysbywhichsoilcontaminationmayleadtoadverseeffectsareaddressedinChapter,onthetransportandfateofcontaminantsIntheassessmentofecosystemhealthriskthedistinctionbetweenexposureandeffectassessmentisnotalwaysmadeIssuesconcerningexposureof,orin,ecosystemsareaddressedinChapterThefocusinChapterisontheprinciplesneededtounderstandthedispersionandattenuationofpollutantsingroundwaterInviewofthegeneralEuropeanpolicyofprotectinggroundwaterresourcesasimpliedbytheEUGroundwaterDirective,thisisalsoimportantforpreventingsoilpollutionMuchlessisknownaboutthetransportandfateofcontaminationintheunsaturatedzoneofthesoilUnderstandingoftheseprocessesis,however,oftheutmostimportanceforcontaminatedlandriskassessmentChapterdiscussestheuseofmodelsincontaminatedlandriskassessmentModelsaremostlyusedtopredictexposureonthebasisofchemicalanalysesofsoilandgroundwaterByusingmathematicalformulaetoestimatethecontributionfromeachexposureroute,thedailyintakeofanindividual,ortheconcentrationatanenvironmentalreceptor,isestimatedTheseformulaearesubmodelsandallowadjustmentofparameterstothelocalconditionsatacontaminatedsiteAcomparisonwith,say,acceptabledailyintakemaythenbeusedasameasureofriskWhenrisksarepredictedfromchemicalanalysisofsoilandgroundwatersamplesthemodelscanbethoughtofasrunninginforwardmodeIflocalconditionsareusedtocalibratethemodelstheyareappliedinaproceduregenerallycalledsitespecificriskassessmentGenericriskassessmentcomparesconcentrationsofcontaminantswithgenericguidelinevaluesorscreeningvaluesThesetermsoftenmeanthesame:anormativevaluefortheconcentrationofacontaminantinsoilorgroundwaterthatisusedasayardstickforpreliminaryassessmentofpollutionInariskbasedapproachtheyaretypicallytheresultofmodelsusedinreversemodeThatis,foragivenrisklevel(orlevelforacceptabledailyintake),aconcentrationofthecontaminantinsoilorgroundwateriscomputedthatcorrespondswiththerisklevelModelsarepowerfultoolsforintegratingvariouselementsinriskassessmentsuchassitecharacterisation,fateandtransportofcontamiGeneralintroductionnants,exposureassessmentandriskestimationTheyare,however,abstractrepresentationsofcomplexsystemsandarebasedonnumerousassumptionsandapproximationsItisthereforeimportantthatmodelsandsubmodelsarevalidatedandtestedinrealworldsituations,eitheraspartofcontaminatedlandriskassessmentsorinresearchprojectsSoilscreeningandguidelinesvaluesarediscussedinChapterSomeofthesearetheresultsofcomputermodelsf

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