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首页 实用英语写作技巧(共35单元)

实用英语写作技巧(共35单元).doc

实用英语写作技巧(共35单元)

咖啡豆
2011-05-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《实用英语写作技巧(共35单元)doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

实用英语写作技巧(共单元)第一单元段落简介.段落段落是构成文章的一组句子。段落必须表达完整的意思:或描写事物(describesomething)或争论某事(argueaboutsomething)或对某事提出疑问(questionsomething)或要求什么(demandsomething)或给事物下定义(definesomething)或驳斥某观点(rejectsomething)。.典型段落的构成一个典型的段落通常由三部分组成:()主题句(thetopicsentence)()说明或支持主题的推展句(supportingsentences)()结论句(theconcludingsentence)(有些段落没有该部分)。示范段落Weallknowthatcigarettesmokingisadangeroushabitbecauseitcauseshealthproblems.Doctorssayitcanbeadirectcauseofcancerofthelungsandthroatandcanalsocontributetocancerofotherorgans.Inadditionitcanbringaboutotherhealthproblemssuchasheartandlungdiseases.Itisclearlyidentifiedasoneofthechiefcausesofdeathinoursociety..示范段落分析这是一个典型的段落可概括提纲如下:主题句:Weallknowthatcigarettesmokingisadangeroushabitbecauseitcauseshealthproblems.推展句:.Doctorssayitcanbeadireccauseofcancerofthelungsandthroatandcanalsocontributetocancerofotherorgans..Itcanbringaboutotherhealthproblemssuchasheartandlungdiseases.结论句:Itisclearlyidentifiedasoneofthechiefcausesofdeathinoursociety.从以上提纲可见主题句提出了一个问题:Whatkindofhealthproblemsdoescigarettesmokingcause?随后的两个推展句回答了这个问题结论句总结了推展句并再一次强调主题句。ExerciseDirections:Readthefollowingparagraphsandfindoutthetopicsentencethesupportingdetailsandtheconcludingsentenceifthereisone. () Theneedforwildlifeprotectionisgreaternowthaneverbefore.Aboutathousandspeciesofanimalsareindangerofextinction,andtherateatwhichtheyarebeingdestroyedhasincreased.WithmammalsforinstancetherateofextinctionisnowaboutonespecieseveryyearfromA.D.totheratewasaboutonespecieseveryfiftyyears.Everywheremenaretryingosolvetheproblemofpreservingwildlifewhilecaringatthesametimefortheworld’sgrowingpopulation.TopicSentence:Details:..ConcludingSentence: () TheAmericansandtheBritishnotonlyspeakthesamelanguagebutalsosharealargenumberofsocialcustoms.ForexampleinbothAmericaandEnglandpeopleshakehandswhentheymeeteachotherforthefirsttime.AlsomostEnglishmenwillopenadoorforawomanoroffertheirseattoawomanandsowillmostAmericans.PromptnessisimportantbothinEnglandandinAmerica.Thatisifadinnerinvitationisforo’clockthedinnerguesteitherarrivesclosetothattimeorcallsuptoexplainhisdelay.TopicSentence:Details:. ..ConcludingSentence: () Birdsusemanydifferentmaterialstobuildnests.Somebirdsusebitsofgrass.ThetailorbirdofAfricaandIndiausesgrasstosewleavestogether.Otherbirdsfindtwigsandpebblesuseful.TopicSentence:Details:...ConcludingSentence:第二单元主题句简介 .主题句作者的首要任务是让读者知道所写段落要谈的是什么这就是每段的主题句的作用。因此主题句应该阐明段落的主要思想所有支持主题句的细节和描述都与这一主要思想有关。.主题句的形式主题句通常有以下三种形式:)肯定句(AffirmativeSentence)Example:Theneedforwildlifeprotectionisgreaternowthaneverbefore.)反诘句(RhetoricalSentence)Example:Howdoyouthinkpeoplewillsolvetheproblemofwildlifeprotection?)不完整句(Fragments)Example:Andtheworkingman?初学者最好使用肯定句作为主题句。.主题句的位置主题句出现的位置有以下四种情况:)段首(Atthebeginning)主题句经常居于段首以便读者浏览主题句就可掌握文章的概要。这个位置适用于写提供信息或解释观点的段落。)段末(Attheend)用推理方法展开段落时主题句往往位于句末。)段中(Inthemiddle)有时为了使段落多样化主题句也可以居于段中。)隐含(Implied)有时候尤其在写叙述性或描写性段落时当所有的细节都围绕着一个显而易见的主题时可以不用主题句。ExerciseDirections:Readthefollowingparagraphsandidentifythetopicsentence.Ifitisimpliedsummarizeityourself. () Butnomatterwhatitiscalledallpolyesterhascertaingoodpoints.Itdoesnotwrinkleeasily.Itdriesquicklyafteritiswashed.Itholdsitsshape.Itisstrongandkeepsitscolorswell.TopicSentence:Position: () Blackisthecolourofmourning.Redsymbolizesdangerviolenceorbloodshed.Ifyouareafraidyouareyellow.NoneofthesesayingsistrueoutsidetheEnglishspeakingworld.InChinaandKoreawhiteisthecolorofmourning.InRussiaredstandsforbeautyandlife.InItalyandGermanyyouareyellowwithangernotwithfear.TopicSentence:Position: () Ourchiefsourceoffreshwaterisrainfallthatcollectsinlakesriversandreservoirs.Recentlyhoweverwehavediscoveredanewsourceaquiferswhicharerockformationscontainingwater.Evenunderdesertsvastaquifersmaybewaitingtobetapped.CompaniesdrillingforoilintheMiddleEasthavesometimesstruckaquiferswhichprovideunexpectedwatersuppliesforaridregions.TopicSentence:Position: () Supposeyou’replayingagame.Youmakeasillymistakeandlose.Doyoubecomeangry?Orcanyoulaughatyourselfandhopetodobetternexttime?Supposeyouareataspecialdinner.Youaccidentallyspillsomefood.Whykeepworryingabouthowclumsyyoulook?Whynotlaughitoffandenjoyyourselfanyway?Ifyoucanit’sgoodsignyou'vereallygrownup.TopicSentence:Position: () Youngmensometimesbringedelweissbackfortheirgirlfriends.Thegirlsthinkoftheflowersasaproofoftruelove.Mountainclimbersguidesandhunterspickedelweisstoo.Theywearitontheirhats.Tothemitisasignofcourageanddaring.TopicSentence:Position:第三单元如何写好主题句 .关于写主题句的建议)要写合乎语法的句子Example:TwocausesoftheAmericanCivilWar.这个句子是个不完整的句子不合乎语法因此不能用作主题句。Example:ThereweretwocausesthatledtotheAmericanCivilWar.重写后的句子合乎语法是个较好的主题句。)要使用限写词限定主题为了正确表达观点好的主题句经常使用关键词或词组即限制词(controllers)限制这一观点。Example:Airtravelismoreconvenientthantrainforatleastthreereasons.从上例主题句我们得知作者将要写“airtravel”(topic)他将要把“train”(aspect)和“airtravel”作比较并且陈述“reasons”。由此可见作者在“aspect”(方面)和“reason”(原因)两方面限制他的主题。)要注意主题的可写性所定的主题不能太笼统也不能太具体。Example:InHemingway'sstory“Soldier’sHome”KrebstellshismotherthathewantsnopartofGod'sKingdom.这个句子太具体以至于无东西可写无法展开段落。Example:InHemingway'sstory“Soldier’sHome”Krebisalonelycynicalveteran.这个句子可作为主题句因为可以围绕“lonelycynical”展开段落。Example:Letmetellyousomethingaboutoverpopulation.这个句子太笼统作为一个段落的主题太大难于驾驭。Example:Whyhastheworldpopulationbeenincreasingsorapidlyinthelastdecades?这个句子是个较好的主题句作者用“thereasonsforoverpopulationinthelastdecades”从“原因”(cause)和“时间”(time)两方面限制了主题能在一个段落内论述。ExerciseDirections:Identifytheareaswhichlimitthetopicsentences...SoccerhasbecomeincreasinglypopularintheU.S.inthelasttenyears.Topic:Limitations:..Pollutionhascausedthreemajorproblemsinthelastdecades.Topic:Limitations:..Therearetwokindsofmemory:shorttermandlongterm.Topic:Limitations:..Womenareplayinganincreasinglyimportantpartinsocietytoday.Topic:Limitations:..Womenarepaidlessforequalworkthanmeninsomecompanies.Topic:Limitations:ExerciseDirections:Writetwotopicsentencesforeachofthetopicslimitingthetopicindifferentways...Topic:thestudyofEnglishTopicSentence:TopicSentence:..Topic:collegestudentstodayTopicSentence:TopicSentence:..Topic:womeninChinaTopicSentence:TopicSentence:..Topic:crimeTopicSentence:TopicSentence: ExerciseDirections:Readthefollowingparagraphsandsupplythemissingtopicsentence. () Iceland’sflagforinstancestandsforfeaturesoftheland.RedforthefireofIceland’svolcanoes.Whiteisforice.Blueisforthemountains.OnIndia’sflagthebluewheelstandsforpeaceandprogress.Thewhitestripebehinditisfortruth.TheblackstripeontheflagofMalawistandsfortheNegropeopleofthatAfricanland.Theredstriperepresentsthebloodtheyshedtofreethemselvesfromforeignrule. () Theonemostpeoplearefamiliarwithisthe“deskdictionary”sometimesreferedtoasgeneralpurposedictionary.Anotherkindisthepronouncingdictionarywhichisconcernedwithaword'spronunciationmorethanwithitsmeaning.Athirdtypeisthebilingualdictionarywhichliststhewordsinonelanguageandattemptstogiveequivalentmeaninginanotherlanguage.Othertypesincludetechnicaldictionariesspecialpurposedictionariesandscholarlydictionaries.第四单元如何写推展句 .段落的推展在前几单元中我们谈到写段落的第一个步骤是写主题句。作者要对主题句在某些方面加以限制。第二个步骤将是写推展句。例如你要陈述你选择某院校的理由第一步写出主题句:TherearetwomainreasonswhyIhavedecidedtoattendBingstonUniversitynextyear.第二步以数个理由推展你的主题:示范段落①TherearetwomainreasonswhyIhavedecidedtoattendBingstonUniversitynextyear.②Firstofallthereisthequestionofmoney:Bingstonv'stuitionisreasonableandIdon’tevenhavetopayitallatonce.③Thisisveryimportantsincemyfatherisnotarichman.④WithBingston's“deferredpaymentplan”myfatherwillbeabletopaymytuitionwithouttoomuchdifficulty.⑤ThesecondresaonisthefineeducationwhichIfeedwillreceivethereinagriculturemychosenfield.⑥ItisawellknownfactthatBingstonhiresonlythefinestprofessorsinitsAgricultureDepartment.⑦Moreovertheuniversityreqiresallagriculturalstudentstogetpracticalexperiencebyworkingonfarmsintheareawhiletheyarestillgoingtoschool..示范段落分析细节:twomainreasons:理由financialconsideration②a.reasonabletuition③b.deferredpaymentplan④理由qualityofeducation⑤a.fineteachers③b.practicalexperience⑦在两个主要理由之下作者用更小的细节支持它们。由此可见段落的推展依赖于支持主题句的细节(details)。推展段落的方法很多。通常每个段落以一种方法为“支配方法”(thedominantmethod)必要时可运用其它一种或数种方法作为“辅助方法”(thesupportingmethod)。上面的示范段落使用因果法(causeandeffect)作为支配方法分类法(divisionandclassification)作为辅助方法。作者还运用了“重要性排列顺序”(theorderofimportance)作为安排细节、组织段落的手段。我们将在以下各单元逐个讨论这些方法。ExerciseDirections:Readthefollowingparagraphsandfindoutwhatdetailstheauthorsusetosupporttheirtopicsentences. () Warmwaterfreezesmorequicklythancold.SirFrancisBaconstatedthatalmostfourhundredyearsago.Butfewpeoplebelievedhimtill.InthatyearCanadianscientistGeorgeKellprovedtheEnglishscholarright.Dr.Kellfilledanopenpailwithcoldwater.Hefilledanotherwithwarmwater.Heexposedbothtothesamelowtemperature.Thewarmwaterfrozefirst.TopicSentence:Details:.. () Thereisarelationshipbetweenyourbloodtypeandyournationality.AmongEuropeansandpeopleofEuropeanancestryaboutpercenthavetypeAwhilepercenthavetypeO.TherarestistypeB.Otherraceshavedifferentpercentages.ForexamplesomeAmericanIndiangroupshavenearlypercenttypeO.TopicSentence:Details:.. () AlthoughthousandsofpeoplehavebeenkilledbysuddeneruptionsvolcanoesalsobenefitmanTintungstengoldandothermetalshavebeenbroughtclosertotheearth’ssurface.Chemicalsintheashhaveenrichedfarmland.Whensolidlavaisagoodbuildingmaterial.AndinItalysteamfromactivevolcanoessuppliesheatandpowertosurroundingareas.TopicSentence:Details:.... () TheWomen’sMovementhashadseveraleffectsontheEnglishlanguage.IthascreatedMsatitleforwomencomparabletothetitleMr.formen.ThecreatorofthenewtitleobjectedtothetitleMissandMrs.oncegiventowomenbecausethesetitlesviolatedawoman'sprivacybyindicatinghermaritalstatus.TheuseofMs.nowpermitswomentoenjoythesameprivacythatmenhaveenjoyedwiththeuseofMr.SecondtheMovementhaschangedtheendingofmanycompoundwordsfrommantoperson.Forinstancetheword“chairman”hasbeenreplacedinmanyorganizationwiththeword“chairperson”andtheword“salesman”hasbecomesalesperson.Feministsinsistthatthesubstitutionofpersonformanmakesthepositionmoresuitableformembersofeithersex.ThirdtheMovementisresponsiblefornewterms.Oneexampleismalechauvinistpigatermappliedtoamanwhorefusestorecognizetheequalityofwomen.Anotherexampleisfemalechauvinistsowaphraseusedtodescribeafemalewhobelievesthatsheissuperiortomales.ThemostprofoundeffecttheMovementhashadonthelanguageisonthethirdpersonsingularpronoun.ThirtyyearsagomostEnglishinstructorsforcedtheirstudentstosehehimandhisforthethirdpersonsingularwhenthesexofthepersonwasnotknown.Thusstudentsweretaughttosay“Everyonehashisbooks”.TodaymanyEnglishteacherspermitstudentstofollowthefeministleadandusethemasculineandfemininepronounstogether.Thereforeconstructionssuchashisorherbooksarecommon.AlthoughtheWomen'sMovementmaynothaveyetachievedallofitsgoalsithasmadeamarkontheEnglishlanguage.TopicSentence:Details:....第五单元如何写结论句 .结论句第一单元曾提到段落由三个部分组成最后一部分就是结论句(theconcludingsentence)。结论句通常与主题句一样包含有段落的中心思想然而所用措辞与主题句不同。在示范段落主题句是:Weallknowthatcigarettesmokingisadangeroushabitbecauseitcauseshealthproblems.结论句是:Itisclearlyidentifiedasoneofthechiefcausesofdeathinoursociety..关于写结论句的建议)把握主题句的关键词例如在关于“cigarettesmoking”的示范段落中中心思想是“thehealthproblemscausedbycigarettesmoking关键词是“healthproblems”。)总结细节回答主题句中隐含的问题。在上述示范段落中隐含的问题是“Whatarethehealthproblemscausedbycigarettesmoking?”结论句作出的回答是Itisidentifiedasoneofthechiefcauseofdeathinoursociety.)用不同的措辞表达同一中心思想。在上述段落中主题句的关键词是“healthproblems”而在结论句中关键词是“causesofdeath”。示范段落Ourneighborhoodhasbeengreatlychanged.WhenIlastvisitedthereabouthalfthehomeshadbeentorndowntomakewayforasuperhighway.Theremainingbuildingswereplasteredwithbillboardsandsurroundedbytrafficsignsandlitter.Nowthewholeneighborhoodhasbecomedirtynoisyandfullofcars..示范段落分析主题句:Ourneighborhoodhasbeenchanged.主题句关键词:changed主题句隐含的问题:“Howhastheneighborhoodchanged?细节:.asuperhighwaybuiltnoisyandfullofcars.fullofbillboardstrafficsignsandlitterdirty结论句:Nowthewholeneighborhoodhasbecomedirtynoisyandfullofcars.结论句关键词:dirtynoisyandfullofcars结论句总结了细节并回答了主题句提出的问题。ExerciseDirections:Readthefollowingparagraph.Findoutthetopicsentenceandtheconcludingsentenceandrearrangethedetailssothattheparagraphwillmakesense.①Inlessthanthreeyearsthefarmhadgonetopieces.②Allthewindowshadbeenbrokenoutofthebigtwostoryfarmhouse.③Inthefrontofthehousethegrasswasaboutthreefeettallandthebarnyardwasfullofweedsinsteadofpigssquealingtobefed.④Therewerenomorecowstomilkorhorsestoride.⑤Mygrandmother'sfarmhasalotofenjoyablememoriesformebutaftershediedIlefthometojointhearmyandwhenIreturnedIwasdisappointedatthechangesthathadtakenplace.⑥Paintwaspeelingoffthehouseandtheporchroofwassagging.⑦Livelyastheplacehadbeenbeforemygrandmotherdieditseemedtohavediedwithhernow.⑧Thisfarmhadoncebeenlivelywiththenoiseofatractorplowingthelandandadogbarkingwheneversomeonecameuptothehouse.TopicSentence:SupportingDetails:ConcludingSentence:ExerciseDirections:Readthefollowingparagraphsandunderlinethetopicsentenceofeach.Thenwriteyourownconcludingsentencetocompleteeachparagraph. () Pollutionhascausedthreemajorproblemsinthelastdecades.Firstwiththedevelopmentofindustrymoreandmorefactorieshavebeenbuiltandhavesentoutsmokeandpoisonousgases.Thustheairispolluted.Theincreasingnumberofcarsaddstotheairpollution.Secondfarmersusechemicalfertilizerstoincreaseproductionandinsecticidetokillinsects.Whenrainflowswiththesepoisonouschemicalstoriverswaterispolluted.Athirdformofpollutionnoiseisbecomingmoreandmoreserious.Veryloudnoisescanmakepeoplesickandevendrivethemmad. () Therearethreeimportantfindingsfromstudiesconcernedwithnotetaking.Firstnotetakingdoesnotinterferewithlisteningandcomprehensioninfactithelpsyoulisten.Secondstudentswhostudytheirlecturenotesrememberoneandahalftimesmoreaftersixweeksthanstudentswhodonotreview.Thirdstudentswhotakenonotesordonotstudytheirnotesforgetapproximatelypercentofthelecturebytheendoftwoweeks.Fromthesefindingswecanconcludethatstudentswhotakeenoughnotesandthenstudythem

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