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首页 考研英语语法全突破

考研英语语法全突破.doc

考研英语语法全突破

咖啡豆
2011-05-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《考研英语语法全突破doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

考研英语语法全突破一、时态、语态需要掌握的要点:以下几类动词一般不能用于进行时同样不用于完成进行时:()表示感知的动词:hear,feel,notice,recognize,see,taste,smell()表示意愿、情感的动词:desire,dislike,forgive,hate,like,love,prefer,refuse,want,wish,fear,love,hate()表示思考、看法的动词:believe,doubt,expect,forget,hope,feel,mean,know,agree,realize,mind,recall,recollect,remember,trust,suppose()表示所有、占有的动词:belongto,owe,own,possess,hold(容纳)()其他动词:cost,appear,concern,contain,consist,deserve,matter,seem。如:I’dsaywheneveryouaregoingaftersomethingthatisbelongingtoyou,anyonewhoisdeprivingyouoftherighttohaveitiscriminal (年考研题belong表示归属不用于进行式)Hewasseeingsomebodycreepingintothehousethroughtheopenwindowlastnight(年考研题see表示结果不用于进行式) 不用willshall表达将来时的形式:()begoingto表示现在的打算和意图 ()arrive,come,drive,go,leave,retire,return,setoff,start,takeoff等表示移位的动词的进行体表示按计划肯定要发生的将来动作 ()beto(do)表示安排、计划、决定、命令或注定要发生的事如:Greatereffortstoincreaseagriculturalproductionmustbemadeiffoodshortageistobeavoided()beaboutto(do)表示将要(做)如:Marlinisayoungmanofindependentthinkingwhoisnotabouttopaycomplimentstohispoliticalleaders()beonthepointvergeof(doing)表示“马上就要”一般不与表示将来的时间状语连用 ()be,begin,come,depart,getoff,go,leave,return,start的一般现在时表示按日历或时刻表要发生的将来动作或事件如:Ifyouwantyourfilmtobeproperlyprocessed,you’llhavetowaitandpickituponFriday,whichisthedayaftertomorrow(画线部分一般不用willbe) ()在时间、条件、让步从句中一般现在时代替将来时但要注意区别从句的类型如:Idon’tknowwherehewillgotomorrow我不知道他明天去哪儿。(宾语从句)I’lltellhimwhenyouwillringagain我告诉他你什么时候再来电话。(宾语从句)比较:I’lltellhimwhenyouringagain你再打电话时我告诉他。(状语从句)()在makesure,makecertain,see(toit)后的that从句中谓语动词用一般现在时代替将来时如:Seetoitthatyouincludeinthepaperwhateverquestionstheydidn’tknowtheanswertolasttime(include不能用willinclude或其他形式) 完成时是时态测试的重点注意与完成时连用的句型和时间状语: ()bybetweenuptotill过去时间、since、bythetimewhen表示过去发生情况的从句主句用过去完成时。如:WehadjusthadourbreakfastwhenanoldmancametothedoorBetweenandatleastmotionpicturesinwhichartificialbeingswereportrayedhadbeenproduced(表示年时已发生的情况) ()by将来时间、bythetimewhen谓语动词是一般现在时的从句主句用将来完成时。如:BythetimeyouarriveinLondon,wewillhavestayedinEuropefortwoweeksIhopeherhealthwillhaveimprovedgreatlybythetimewecomebacknextyear()bynow、since过去时间、induringforoverthepastlastfew(或具体数字)yearsdaysmonths主句用现在完成时,但在itis具体时间sincebefore这一句型中主句更多的时候不用完成时。如:ThechangesthathowetakenplaceplaceinairtravelduringthelastsixtyyearswouldhaveseemedcompletelyimpossibletoeventhemostbrilliantscientistsattheturnofthethcenturyItisfouryearssinceJohnleftschool()在Itisthe序数词形容词最高级that的定语从句中谓语动词常用现在完成时。如:      Itisn’tthefirsttimethatIhavefoundmyselfinanembarrassingsituation()在nosooner…than…,hardlyscarcely…whenbefore…句型中主句常用过去完成时。()其他与完成时连用的时间状语:allthiswhile,allthisyear,forsometime,sofar,already,before,just,long,yet等。 完成进行时指动作在完成时的基础上还要继续下去。如:      Thecompanyhasbeenpromisingariseinsalaryforages,butnothinghashappenedTheschoolboardlistenedquietlyasJohnreadthedemandthathisfollowershadbeendemonstratingfor时态、语态答题思路:()先根据选项的区别点确定考题要点为时态然后回到题句中寻找给出的或暗示的时间状语缩小选择范围进而选出正确答案()根据谓语动词与句子主语或非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系确定句子是主动语态还是被动语态。二、不定式 不定式做主语()做形式主语的代词:不定式做主语,通常用it充当形式主语,把做主语的不定式短语后置。如:IttookmeonlyfiveminutestofinishthejobTobefrank,itisagreatrelieftohavethetaskfulfilledinsoshortatime()引导逻辑主语的介词:不定式的逻辑主语一般由介词for引导,但下列表示人的性格行为特征的形容词做表语时,不定式的逻辑主语则由of引导:absurd,bold,brave,courageous,careful,careless,clever,wise,foolish,silly,stupid,good,nice,kind,thoughtful,considerate,greedy,generous,honest,modest,polite,rude,cruel,selfish,lazy,wicked,wrong。如:ExpertssaywalkingisoneofthebestwaysforapersontostayhealthyIt’scleverofyoutohaveinventedsuchadevice()不定式做主语补足语:掌握常用不定式做主语补足语的句型。注意不定式表示的动作发生的时间并采用相应形式。如:             said              reported              thoughtbe                        todosth              believedknownsupposedByronissaidtohavelivedonvinegarandpotatoesThebankisreportedinthelocalnewspapertohavebeenrobbedinbroaddaylightyesterday 不定式做宾语()必须接不定式做宾语的动词:掌握要求接不定式做宾语的动词:agree,afford,aim,arrange,appear,ask,attempt,choose,claim,decide,desire,determine,expect,fail,guarantee,hope,endeavor,intend,long,mean,manage,offer,ought,plan,pledge,pretend,prepare,promise,proceed,prove,resolve,refuse,request,swear,tend,try,venture,wait,wish。如:Eventhoughthechildrenpretendedtobeasleep,thenurseswerenotdeceivedwhentheycameintotheroom注意:)有的动词要求特殊疑问词不定式做宾语,这类动词有:consider,discover,explain,forget,guess,know,learn,observe,remember,see,tell,understand,wonder如:Whilestillayoungboy,Bizetknewhowtoplaythepianowellandashegrewolder,hewroteoperas,themostfamousofwhichisCarmen)如果该特殊疑问词在不定式中做介词宾语,介词往往置于该特殊疑问词的前面。如:TheprofessorcanhardlyfindsufficientgroundsonwhichtobasehisargumentinfavorofthenewtheoryWithoutfacts,wecannotformworthwhileopinionforweneedtohavefactualknowledgeuponwhichtobaseourthinking()可以用不定式做宾语补足语(复合宾语)的动词:下列动词可以用不定式做宾语补足语(复合宾语):advise,allow,ask,beg,cause,command,compel,enable,determine,encourage,expect,feel,find,force,hate,have,hear,help,inform,invite,let,like,make,mean,need,notice,notify,oblige,order,permit,persuade,remind,request,require,see,send,teach,tell,tempt,trouble,urge,want,warn,watch,wish。注意:画线动词后面的不定式不带to。如:Becauseoftherecentaccidents,ourparentsforbidmybrotherandmetoswimintheriverunlesssomeoneagreestowatchoverus 不定式做定语()被修饰的名词前有序数词、形容词最高级或next,last,only,nota,the,very等限定词时该名词用不定式做定语。如:thefirstwomantosetfootonthemoon第一个登上月球的女性()如果其动词要求不定式做宾语相应的名词一般用不定式做定语。如:tendencytodo→tendtodo,decisiontodo→decidetodoThisbookisanattempttohelpyouuseEnglishandrecognizehowitisused ()如果其形容词形式要求接不定式做补语相应的名词一般用不定式做定语。如:ambitiontodo“干……的雄心”→beambitioustodo“有雄心干……”curiositytodo “对……的好奇心”→becurioustodo“对……好奇”abilitytodo“做……的能力”→abletodo“有能力做……”AccordingtoDarwin,randomchangesthatenhanceaspecies’abilitytosurvivearenaturallyselectedandpassedontosucceedinggeneration ()表示方式、原因、时间、机会、权利等名词用不定式做定语这些名词包括:way,method,reason,time,place,chance,occasion,opportunity,evidence,power,right,movement,drive(运动)effort等。如:IworkedsolateintheofficelastnightthatIhardlyhadtimetocatchthelastbusWeappreciateyoureffortstobringaboutacomprehensivesolutiontotheexistingproblem()不定代词something,nothing,little,much,alot习惯上用不定式做定语。如:Thoughwehavemadegreatprogress,thereisstillmuchtobeimproved 不定式做状语不定式做状语主要表示目的、程度、结果、方式。()inorderto(do),soasto(do)结构引导目的状语soasto不能置于句首。如:Tosucceedinascientificresearchproject,oneneedstobepesistentIadvisethemtowithdrawsoasnottogetinvolved()so…asto,such…asto,enough…to,too…to结构做程度状语。如:Thesolutionworksonlyforcoupleswhoareselfemployed,don’thavesmallchildrenandgetalongwellenoughtospendmostoftheirtimetogetherThevocabularyandgrammaticaldifferencesbetweenBritishandAmericanEnglisharesotrivialandfewashardlytobenoticed()不定式做结果状语只能出现在句子的末尾表示不愉快的结果有时用only加强语气。常见的不定式动词有find,hear,see,betold,form,give,make,produce等。如:Greatlyagitated,Irushedtotheapartmentandtriedthedoor,onlytofinditlocked()notnevertoo…to,too…notto,butonlytoo…to,tooreadyeageraptinclinedto表示肯定意义。如:Iamonlytoopleasedtohearfromyoufurther能再听到你的消息我太高兴了。三、动名词 必须接动名词做宾语的动词牢记下列要求接动名词做宾语的动词:acknowledge,advocate,anticipate,appreciate,advise,avoid,admit,confess,consider,defend,delay,deny,dislike,enjoy,escape,excuse,fancy,favor,finish,forgive,imagine,include,involve,justify,keepmind,miss,mention,pardon,practice,postpone,permit,report,resent,resume,recallrecollectrisk,resist,suggest,tolerate。如:Althoughateenager,FredcouldresistbeingtoldwhattodoandwhatnottodoIappreciatehavingbeengiventheopportunitytostudyabroadtwoyearsago 动名词做介词短语考生尤其要识别下列短语中的to是介词不是不定式符号:objectto,resortto,reactto,contributeto,lookforwardto,beaccustomedto,becommittedto,beexposedto,besubjectedto,bedevotedto,bededicatedto,beopposedto,bereconciledto,becontraryto,be(get)usedto,comecloseto,getdownto,giveoneselfupto,prefer…to,seeto,setto,taketo,inadditionto,withregardto,withaviewto,onthewayto。如:TherewasnosignthatMrJospin,whokeepsafirmcontrolonthepartydespitehavingresignedfromleadershipofit,wouldintervenepersonallyOurmoderncivilizationmustnotbethoughtofashavingbeencreatedinashortperiodoftimeNowhereinnatureisaluminumfoundfree,owingtoitsalwaysbeingcombinedwithotherelements,mostcommonlywithoxygenAsthechildrenbecomefinanciallyindependentofthefamily,theemphasisonfamilyfinancialsecuritywillshiftfromprotectiontosavingfortheretirementyearsEveryonewithhalfaneyeontheunemploymentfiguresknewthattheassertionabouteconomicrecoverybeingjustaroundthecornerwasuntrue四、分词分词起形容词和副词的作用在句中做定语或状语。在概念上考生应清楚:●现在分词表示主动表示动作在进行。●过去分词表示被动表示动作结束了的状态或结果。 分词做定语弄清现在分词与过去分词的区别分词短语做定语相当于省略了的定语从句考生应掌握:()现在分词与被修饰词之间具有主动意义。如:It’seasytoblamethedeclineofconversationonthepaceofmodernlifeandonthevaguechangestakingplaceinoureverincreasingworld(相当于thechangeswhichtakeplace)TherewasaveryinterestingremarkinabookbyanEnglishmanthatIreadrecentlygivingwhathethoughtwasareasonforthisAmericancharacteristic(相当于whichgave)Howmanyofusattending,say,ameetingthatisirrelevanttouswouldbeinterestedinthediscussion(相当于Howmanyofuswhowillattend)()过去分词与被修饰词之间具有被动意义。如:Goodnewswassometimesreleasedprematurely,withtheBritishrecaptureoftheportannouncedhalfadaybeforethedefendersactuallysurrendered (相当于…recaptureoftheportwhichhadbeenannounced…)Justasthevalueofatelephonenetworkincreaseswitheachnewphoneaddedtothesystem,sodoesthevalueofacomputersystemincreasewitheachprogramthatturnsout (相当于…eachnewphonewhichisaddedto…)Theauthorgaveadetaileddescriptionbasedonhispersonalobservationofnature (相当于…descriptionwhichwasbasedon…)()下列不及物动词也以过去分词形式做定语或表语但不具有被动意义:deceased,departed,elapsed,faded,fallen,gone,grownup,retired,returned,risen,set,vanished,muchtravelled,newlyarrived,recentlycome。如:anescapedprisoner一个逃犯aretiredworker一位退休工人afadedcurtain一个褪了色的窗帘anewlyarrivedstudent一个新来的学生分词做状语注意区分分词的一般式与完成式 ()表示时间多置于句首注意如果分词表示的动作的时间先于谓语动词要用完成式。如:Havingcompletedonetask,westartedonanotherone   (complete先于start之前发生) ()表示原因置于句首句尾均可根据情况有时要用完成式有时用一般式。如:Hewasn’taskedtotakeonthechairmanshipofthesociety,beingconsideredinsufficientlypopularwithallmembersThereseemedlittlehopethattheexplorer,havingbeendesertedinthetropicalforest,wouldfindhiswaythroughit()表示伴随、方式置于句尾用分词的一般式。如:HelenborrowedmydictionarytheotherdaysayingthatshewouldreturnitsoonAnnawasreadingapieceofsciencefiction,completelylost totheoutsideworld()表示结果置于句尾用分词的一般式。如:Thecityfounditselfinacrisissituationlastsummerwhentheairconditioningondozensofthenewbusesbrokedown,themunusable()表示补充说明(同位)置于句尾用分词的一般式。如:Thearticleopensandcloseswithdescriptionsoftwonewsreports,eachmakingonemajorpointincontrastwiththeotherFordtrieddividingthelabor,eachworkerassignedaseparatetask 分词的独立主格结构分词的逻辑主语一般为句子的主语否则分词短语要有自己的逻辑主语称为分词独立主格结构。分词独立主格结构只是句子的一个部分但在翻译时经常译成独立的句子考生要注意英汉两种语言在结构上的区别。如:Allflightshavingbeencanceledbecauseofthesnowstorm,wedecidedtotakethetrainDarknesssettingin,theyoungcouplelingeredonmerrymaking 分词做表语和补语尤应注意由使役动词变来的分词的形式()现在分词表示主语或宾语的特征多以事物做(逻辑)主语。如:HisvictoryinthefinalwasnomoreconvincingthanIhadexpected()过去分词表示主语或宾语所处的状态或对某事的心理反应和感受多以人做(逻辑)主语。如:ThesestudentsarequickatlearningWe’llhavethemtrainedinnewmethodsPeoplecannotbutfeelpuzzledFortheysimplycannotunderstandhowhecouldhavemadesuchastupidmistake五、非谓语动词的其他考点      接不定式或动名词做宾语都可以但在意思上有区别的动词的用法meantodo想要(做某事)                          proposetodo打算(做某事)meandoing意味(做某事)                          proposedoing建议(做某事)forgettodo忘记(要做的事)                      remembertodo记得(要做某事)forgetdoing忘记(已做的事)                     rememberdoing记得(已做过的事)goontodo继而(做另一件事)                   stoptodo停下来去做另一件事goondoing继续(做原来的事)                  stopdoing停止正在做的事regrettodo(对将要做的事)遗憾               regretdoing(对已做过的事)后悔如:MrJankinregrettedhavingblamedhissecretaryforthemistake,forhelaterdiscovereditwashisownfaultTheboyisconstantlybeingtoldnottoscratchthepaintoffthewall,buthegoesondoingitallthesame 不定式的习惯用法句型:cannothelpbutdo                  cannotbutdocannotchoosebutdo               candonothingbutdohavenochoicealternativebuttodo上述句型的意思接近即“不得不做”、“不禁做”、“不由自主地做”、“不能不做”、“只能做”。其共同的特点是都有一个否定词和but。如:NobodycanhelpbutbefascinatedbytheworldintowhichheistakenbythesciencefictionWhenIconsiderhowtalentedheisasapainter,Icannothelpbutbelievethatthepublicwillappreciatehisgift 动名词的习惯用法句型:bebusyactivedoingsth                      havedifficultytroubleproblemdoingsthIt’snogoodusepicnicdoingsth           haveagoodgreatwonderfultimedoingsthspendwastetimedoingsth                    Thereisnopointsenseharmusedoingsthcannothelpdoingsth                                  ThereisnodoingsthIknowitisn’timportantbutIcan’thelpthinkingaboutitAlicewashavingtroublecontrollingthechildrenbecausethereweresomanyofthemThereisnousecryingoverspiltmilk therebe非谓语动词的用法()做宾语时取决于谓语动词的持续要求。如:Thestudentsexpectedtheretobemorereviewingclassesbeforethefinalexams(expect要求接不定式做宾语)()做目的状语或程度状语时用fortheretobe做其他状语用therebeing。如:Fortheretobesuccessfulcommunication,theremustbeattentivenessandinvolvementinthediscussionitselfbyallpresent(fortheretobe…在句中做目的状语)Itisn’tcoldenoughfortheretobeafrosttonight,soIcanleaveJim’scaroutquitesafely(fortheretobe…在句中做程度状语)Therebeingnofurtherquestions,we’llstopheretoday(therebeing…做原因状语)()引导主语用fortheretobe。如:Itisunusualfortheretobenolatecomerstoday()做除for外的介词宾语用therebeing。如:Hewouldalwaysignorethefactoftherebeingsuchacontradictioninhisinnerthought六、虚拟语气 主从句谓语动词的时态()掌握主从句谓语动词的规范搭配: 主句从句与现在事实相反would情态动词过去式dowere(不分人称)did与过去事实相反would情态动词过去式havedonehaddone与将来事实相反would情态动词过去式doshoulddo如:Ifthedoctorhadbeenavailable,thechildcouldnothavediedThereisarealpossibilitythattheseanimalscouldbefrightened,shouldtherebeasuddenloudnoise()区分主从句表示的不同时间概念:主从句谓语动词所指时间不同这叫做错综时间条件句动词形式应根据实际情况来调整。如:Haditnotbeenforthetimelyinvestmentfromthegeneralpublic,ourcompanywouldnotbesothrivingasitis(主句与现在事实相反从句与过去事实相反)HadPaulreceivedsixmorevotesinthelastelection,hewouldbeourchairmannow(主句与现在事实相反从句与过去事实相反)()识别事实和假设混合句:Yourmathinstructorwouldhavebeenhappytogiveyouamakeupexaminationhadyougoneandexplainedthatyourparentswereillatthetime(句子前半部分为假设情况而“父母病了”是事实) Iwouldhavegonetovisithiminthehospitalhaditbeenatallpossible,butIwasfullyoccupiedthewholeoflastweek(前半部分为假设后半部分是事实) 名词性从句的虚拟形式名词性从句是指宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。从句的谓语动词需用(should)动词原形表示虚拟。考生应熟悉:()下列动词做谓语时that宾语从句中的动词用虚拟形式:desire,advise,recommend,command,direct,order,ask,demand,request,require,insist,maintain,move,propose,prefer,urge,vote。如:InthepastmengenerallypreferredthattheirwivesworkinthehomeImovethathebedischargedforhisseriousmistake()下列形容词和分词做表语或补语时that主语从句中动词用虚拟形式:advisable,desirable,insistent,preferable,urgent,appropriate,compulsory,crucial,essential,imperative,important,necessary,obligatory,possible,probable,proper,vital,advised,arranged,commanded,demanded,desired,ordered,proposed,recommended,requested,required,suggested。如:TheboarddeemiturgentthatthesefilesshouldbeprintedrightawayItisessentialthatallthesefiguresbecheckedtwice()下列名词接同位语从句或表语从句时从句中动词用虚拟形式:insistence,preference,recommendation,suggestion,proposal,motion,desire,requirement,request,order,necessity,importance,regulation,rule,resolution,understanding。如:JohnWagner’smostenduringcontributiontothestudyofAfroAmericanpoetryishisinsistencethatitbeanalyzedinareligious,aswellasworldly,frameofreferenceTheykeeptellingusitisofutmostimportancethatourrepresentativebesenttotheconferenceonschedule含蓄虚拟条件句的谓语动词形式含蓄虚拟语气是指假设条件不通过if从句表达而是暗含在其他结构中。考生应熟悉:()连词but,butthat,or,orelse副词otherwise,unfortunately等表示转折假设。如:AsafetyanalysiswouldhaveidentifiedthetargetasapotentialdangerUnfortunately,itwasneverdoneVictorobviouslydoesn’tknowwhat’shappenedotherwisehewouldn’thavemadesuchastupidremark()介词短语暗含假设条件常用的有:without,butfor,undermorefavorableconditions等。如:ButfortheEnglishexaminationIwouldhavegonetotheconcertlastSunday()intendedmeanthopedwishedplanned或waswere不定式完成式或hadintendedmeantplannedhopedwished不定式一般式暗示虚拟语气。如:Iintendedtohavecalledonyou,butIwasbusyatthattime()情态动词完成式暗示虚拟语气。如:Ishouldhavecalledtomakeanairlinereservation,butIdidn’t 常用虚拟形式的句型()从句中动词用过去式或过去完成式表示虚拟的句型:wouldrather      wouldassoon       asthough             suppose…hadrather            wouldsooner        asif              supposing…Ifonly…              Itis(high)timethat…(从句中动词只用过去式)如:Hiswifewouldrathertheydidn’ttalkaboutthematteranymoreI’dratheryouwentbytrain,becauseIcan’tbeartheideaofyourbeinginanairplaneinsuchbadweatherIfIwereinamovie,thenitwouldbeabouttimethatIburiedmyheadinmyhandsforacryMyfatheralwaystalksasthoughhewereaddressingapublicmeeting()Ifitwerenotfor…(与现在事实相反) Ifithadnotbeenfor…(与过去事实相反)相当于butfor。如:Ifithadnotbeenforhishelp(=butforhishelp),wewouldnothavesucceeded()Ifonly…谓语动词视情况选用适当的形式。如:Ifonlythecommitteewouldapprovetheregulationsandputthemintoeffectassoonaspossible()lestforfearthatincase从句谓语用(should)动词原形。如:Themadmanwasputinthesoftpaddedcelllestheinjurehimself()whether…or…有时谓语用be的原形引导让步虚拟从句这种用法经常采用倒装结构。如:Churchasweusethewordreferstoallreligiousinstitutions,betheyChristian,Islamic,Buddhist,Jewish,andsoonThebusinessofeachday,beitsellinggoodsorshippingthem,wentquitesmoothly七、情态动词注意情态动词完成式的用法有两方面的含义: 表示已经发生的情况()musthave过去分词表示对已发生情况的肯定推测译为“(昨天)一定……”。如:MypainmusthavebeenapparentthemomentIwalkedintotheroom,forthefirstmanImetaskedsympathetically:“Areyoufeelingallright”()cantcouldn’thave过去分词表示对已发生情况的否定推测译为“(昨天)一定没……”。如:Marycouldn’thavereceivedmyletterotherwiseshewouldhaverepliedbeforenow()maymighthave过去分词表示对已发生的事情做不肯定、可能性很小的推测或事实上根本没发生译为“也许……”。如:AtFloridaPower’sCrystalRiverplant,apotentiallyseri

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