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首页 [新科学人].NewScientist,2010.02.20

[新科学人].NewScientist,2010.02.20.pdf

[新科学人].NewScientist,2010.02.20

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2011-05-05 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[新科学人].NewScientist,2010.02.20pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

CONTENTSNEWSEDITORIALComingcleanonbeinggreenUPFRONTThefirstsouthernAfricangenomes,AntiageingskincreamworksaswellasdrugSPECIALINVESTIGATIONAreyouhandingyourcashtounseenpollutersINSIGHTMothersmurderconvictionhighlightspsychiatricdebateTHISWEEKHowordinarymattergetsmostofitsmass,ThefourletterwordgeneticcodeINBRIEFInjuredbrainsescapematerialworld,Atomicfountainstestrelativity,DoelephantsrunTECHNOLOGYCashonyourcellphone,Theultimatesoundproofing,WhylooksmatteronlineOPINIONCERNontrialThepossibilitythattheLargeHadronCollidercouldcreateanEartheatingblackholemaystillendupincourtWhatwoulddecidesuchacase,asksEricEJohnsonOneminutewithAtulGawande,aworld­classsurgeonwithasimplewaytosavelivesLETTERSGreatjokes,IsTVtalkingtoaliensInterviewwithJaneGoodall(seeright)FEATURESStoneAgecode(seeright)BugcityInsectarchitectsareshowingushowtobuildtheecocitiesofthefutureSmokesignalCarbondioxideisnottheonlyclimatealteringpollutantandweignoretheothersatourperilSecondsightCuttingedgetherapiesmayfindtheirfirstapplicationstacklingthewesternworld'sleadingcauseofblindnessREGULARSENIGMABOOKSARTSCouldrobotseverreallyunderstandnovelsJonAdamsistryingtofindoutReviewsDishingthedirtoncleancoalHowHenriettabecameimmortalFEEDBACKAsinterestingas",turnipsTHELASTWORDBreedingforbrainsTHEINSIDERTheglamourandhardgraftofaresearchprojectbasedabroadJOBSCAREERSUSAAUSTRALIAWymanStreet,Tower,VidoriaAvenue,Waltham,MAChatswood,NSWTelTelFaxFaxMissionStreet,thFloor,SanFrancisco,CAEditorialmediaenquiriesTelTelFaxJilIheseltonnewscientistcomUKEnquiriesLaconHouse,Tel()Theobald'sRoad,enquiriesnewscientistcomLondon,WClXBNSDisplayAdvenisingTel()TelFax()joe,mccabenewscientistcomGreenspendingDoyourideasofcompanies'ecocredentialsmatchuptorealityRecruitmentAdvenisingTOSUBSCRIBETelTelnssalesnewscientistcomsubscribenewscientistcomPermissionsforreuseAnannualsubscriptionintheUSATelis$includingdelivery,MarketingAnannualsubscriptioninCanadaTelisCAN$includingdelivery,marketingnewscientist,comCanadiansubscriptionsdistributedbyRCSInternational,BeldenForafulllis!ofwho'swhoatCt,Livonia,MnewScientistgotoNewsstandnewscientistcomlpeopleDistributedbyCurtisCirculationCompany,RiverRoad,NewMilford,NJTelVolumeNoCOVERSTORYStoneAgecodeWhenwefoundtheearliestartwemissedsomethingmuchmoremeaningfulJaneGoodallFiftyyearswiththechimpsofGombeComingnextweekEarth'sninelivesIt'snottoolatetoheaIourailingplanetPLUSThegreatpheromonemythSyndicationNewYork,NYl,TribuneMediaServicesPeriodicalspostagepaidatInternationalNewYork,NYandothermailingTeloffices,Postmaster:SendaddressemaillatsihelplatsicomchangestoNewScientist©ReedBusinessPOBox,Chesterfield,MOInformationLtd,England,,USARegisteredatthePostOfficeNewScientistISSNNoasanewspaperandprintedinUSAispublishedweeklyexceptforthebyFryCommunicationsInc,lastweekinDecemberbyReedMechanicsburg,PABusinessInformationLtd,England,ReedBusinessInformation,co(ReedBusinessSchnellPublishingCo,Inc"ParkAvenueSouth,thFloor,InformationFebruaryINewScientistTheUK'snumberfinancialspreadbettingproviderwaytoprofitfromfluctuatingprices•WorldleadersinfinancialspreadbettingforyearsFindaUyouneedtogetstartedatigindexcoukorcaUSpreadbettingcanresultinlossesthatexceedyourinitialdeposit·InvestmentTrendsreportt'faxlawcanbechangedormaydifferdependingonyourpersonalcircumstancesEDITORIALTimeforanothergreenrevolutionAfogofunreliableinformationandconfusionishamperingeffortstoweighupecocredibilityALITTLEinformationisadangerousthingAlotofinformation,ifit'sinaccurateorconfusing,evenmoresoThisisaproblemforanyonetryingtospendorinvestinanenvironmentallysustainablewayInvestorsarebarragedwithindexespurportingtodescribecompanies'ecocredentials,someofdubiousqualityGreenlabelsonconsumerproductsareubiquitous,buttheirclaimsarehardtoverifyTheconfusionisevidentfromNewScientist'sanalysisofwhetherpublicperceptionsofcompanies'greencredentialsreflectreality(seepage)Itshowsthatmanycompaniesconsidered"green"havedonelittletoearnthatreputation,whileothersdonotgetsufficientcreditfortheireffortstoreducetheirenvironmentalimpactObtainingbetterinformationiscrucial,becausedecisionsbyconsumersandbiginvestorswillhelppropelustowardsagreeneconomyAtpresent,itistooeasytomakeunverifiedclaimsTakedisclosureofgreenhousegasemissions,forexampleTherearevoluntaryschemessuchastheCarbonDisclosureProject,butlittlescrutinyofthefigurescompaniessubmit,whichmeansinvestorsmaybemisledMeasurementscanbedifficulttointerpret,too,likethoseforwateruseInthiscase,contextiscrucial:alitrefromrainsoakedIrelandisnotthesameasalitredrawnfromtheArizonadesertTheinvolvementoforganisationsthatspecialiseinthornymeasurementissues,suchastheUSNationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnology,willbekeySimilarproblemsbedevil"green"labelsattachedtoindividualproductsHere,thecomputerequipmentratingsystemdevelopedbytheGreenElectronicsCouncilshowsthewayforwardItscriteriacomefromtheIEEE,theworld'sleadingprofeSSionalassociationfortechnology"Betterinformationiscrucial,becausedecisionsbyconsumerswillpropelustowardsagreeneconomy"Otherschemes,suchasthe"sustainabilityindex"plannedbyUSretailgiantWalmart,arebroaderDevisingrigorousstandardsforalargenumberofdifferenttypesofproductwillbetough,placingahugeburdenontheacademicledconsortiumthatisdoingtheunderlyingscientificworkOurinvestigationalsorevealsthatmanycompanieschoosenottodisclosedataSomewillwanttokeepitthatwayThisiswhyweneedlegalrequirementsforfulldisclosureofenvironmentalinformation,withtheclearmessagethatthepolluterwilleventuallyberequiredtopayThenmarketforceswilldrivecompaniestocleanuptheiractsLet'shopewecanrisetothischallengeBeforewecanhaveagreeneconomyweneedagreeninformationeconomyandit'sthequalityoftheinformation,aswellasitsquantity,thatwillcount•What'shotonNewScientistcomThescarybusinessoftinkeringwithlifeTHEcodeoflifeembodiedinDNAhasbeenartificiallyextended,potentiallyincreasingbythenumberofdifferentbuildingblocksthatcanbeincorporatedintoproteinsBytinkeringwiththecell'snaturalmachinery,JasonChin'steamhasfoundawayofmakingproteinswithentirelynewproperties,openingupafutureofexoticdesignerorganisms(seepage)Thisisafundamentaladvancethatcouldleadtonewdrugs,materialsandenergysourcesButtamperingwithlife'soperatingsystemwillinevitablyraisesafetyconcernsandit'struethatwehavenowayofpredictingthefalloutofthisworkSynthetiCbiologistsneedtoconfrontopenlyandhonestlypublicfearsthattheyare"playingGod"Ifsuchdeeplyfeltconcernsgounanswered,thehugepotentialofthisbreakthroughcouldcometonaught•MoviesonthebrainFILMMAKERShaveunwittinglystumbledacrossapsychologicaltrickthatgrabsourattentionbetter(seepage)GiventhegargantuancostofblockbusterslikeAvatar,itwouldn'tbesurprisingifHollywood'snextstepistousebrainscannerstogetinsidetheheadsofmoviegoersIt'simpossibletotranslatebrainactivityinto"Oscarbuzz",though,sothepotentialof"neurocinematics"isunprovenButwithsomanyhumdrumfilmsbeingmade,wewelcomeanytechnologythatwillboosttheaudienceengagementfactor•DTECHNOLOGYOfftheshelfcamerahackedtograbhighspeedvideoScientistsfilmingheartcellsputcomponentsfromahomeprojectorintoanormaldigitalcamera,enablingthegadgettotakeframepersecondvideoandhighresolutionstillsatthesametime,Ithasthepotentialtoboostconsumergadgetsaswellaslabworkhistory,KenyaisrelocatinganimalstoAmboseliNationalPark,devastatedlastyearbydrought,inanattempttostoplionsandhyenasfromhuntingandeatinglocalcattleTECHNOLOGYUSpowergriddownedinsimulatedattackZOOLOGGERTheJekyllandHydetadpoleJustwhenyouthoughtitwassafetogobackinthe"temporaryrainwaterpond,adeadlypredatorytadpoleislurkingThelarvaeofthespadefoottoadcantransformfrommildomnivorestovoraciouscannibalsadensebeam:it'slikestandinginsideaparticleaccelerator,Withinsecondyou'dreceiveafatalradiationdoseBIOMEDICINEThekeytoDregeneratingbodiesThewaycellsinthebodysenseandrespondtowhattouchesthemishelpingbiologistsengineertissueandorgansfromstemcellsasourvideoshowsENVIRONMENTNoah'sarkforthestcenturyIt'sthelargesttranslocationprojectinAfrica'sInamockassaultdesignedtohighlightneglectedareasofdefencepolicy,officialsinWashingtonDCwillreacttofakedataandnewsreportsofhackerstargetingcellphoneandpowernetworksSPACESpeedoflighttravelisakillerIfweeverbuiIdaspacecraftabletotravelclosetothespeedoflight,thepassengerswouldallbekilledbyradiation,Athighspeed,hydrogeninspaceissquashedintoForbreakingnews,videoandonlinedebate,visitnewscientistcomFebruaryNewScientistUPFRONTCutpriceDNAtestsSALE!DNAtestshalfprice!ButbewaretheoffercouldstymieanychancesofgettinglifeinsuranceAustralianfirmNib,whichsellsbothhealthandlifeinsurance,isofferingofitscustomershalfpricegenetictesting,viatheCalifornianfirmNavigenics"That'sasavingofUS$fromtheretailpriceofUS$,"readsalettersenttocustomersinJanuaryThosetakinguptheofferwillbegivenaccesstocounsellorstohelpthemmakesenseoftheresultsNibchiefexecutiveMarkFitzgibbonsaystheresultsmayhelpcustomerstakestepstoimprovetheirhealthThemovehasreignitedlong­heldfearsthatinsurersmightuse"Lifeinsurersmustbegivengenetictestresults,whichtheycanusetodecidewhethertocoveraperson"genetictestingtodiscriminatebetweencustomersLawprofessorMargaretOtlowskioftheUniversityofTasmaniapointsoutthatwhileAustralianlawNewScientistFebruaryprohibitstherefusalofhealthinsurancebasedongenetictestresults,applicantsmustgivepotentiallifeinsurerssuchresults,whichtheycanusewhendecidingwhotocoverandtosetpremiumsNibremindsitscustomersofthisinafootnotetoitsletter,butOtlowskifearssomecustomersmaynotreadthisWhethersomuchweightshouldbeascribedtogenetictestresultsisalsodoubtfulLastyear,researchersfoundanalysesofthehealthrisksassociatedwithgeneticmutationsvariedbetweenfirms,includingNavigenicsProtectionplanslammedCONSERVATIONISTSareatwaroveraBritishplantocreateamarineprotectionzonearoundalargechunkofsurvivingempireintheIndianOceanThezone,whichistwicethesizeofBritain,wouldcovermuchoftheChagosarchipelago,oneofthemostunspoiledcoralreefsystemsintheworldThisweektheworld'sforemostconservationsciencebody,theInternationalUnionforConservationofNature(IUCN),wasinfermentafterannouncingsupportfortheplaninhometoamajorUSmilitarybaseandisnotcoveredbytheproposedzoneInthes,theUKexpelledChagossianstomakewayforthebaseLastThursday,theIUCN,ignoringprotestsfromMauritius,formallybackedtheBritishplan,callingfor"fullprotection"ofthereserveButinemailsseenbyNewScientist,severalmembersoftheIUCN'sethicsgrouppartofitsCommissiononEnvironmentalLaw,havecondemnedthemoveOnesaidthatIUCNsupportfortheplan"violatesIUCN'sownspiteofwarningsfromitsownlawyerscommitmentstowardssustainability"thattheschemewasunethicalThearchipelagoisclaimedbyMauritius,andtheUKhaspromisedtohandtheislandsoverwhenithasnofurtheruseforthemMeanwhilethelargestisland,DiegoGarcia,isFogleavestreesRECEDINGcoastalfogsmaythreatenthenextgenerationofCalifornia'smightyredwoodsAnewanalysisofcloudcoveroverCaliforniarevealsthatfogsarepercentlessfrequenttodaythanyearsago"Thelargetreesinterceptthefog,andmuchofitdripsontothesoil,wateringyoungredwoods,"saysToddDawsonattheUniversityofCalifornia,BerkeleySofar,thematuretrees,atleast,appeartobecoping,butDawsonwarnsthatsaplingsmaysoonsufferbecausetheplanwould"invalidatetherightofthechagosislanderstoreturn"totheislandswithinthezoneTheemailaddsthatforIUCNtobacktheirpermanentexclusionfromtheseislandsis"unethical"Heishesitanttoblameglobalwarming,butnotesthatwarmerseasoffCaliforniaoverthepasthalfcenturyhavedecreasedtemperaturecontrastswithoverlyingwarmcoastalair,reducingcondensationHewarnsthatthefoggyclimatecouldmovenorthtostateslikeOregonandWashington"Iftheclimatechangesfasterthantheredwoodscanmigrate,wemightneedtoplantthemourselvestosavethem,"hesays(ProceedingsoftheNationalAcademyofSciences,:Opnas)WrinkleproofISTHEcosmeticsindustryabouttogetamuchneededfaceliftForthefirsttime,askincreamhasbeencomparedwiththegoldstandardantiageingdrug­andseemstobeasgoodatreducingwrinklesTheresultfromateamledbyJosephKaczvinskyatthefirmProcterGamble,whichmakesthecreamcouldputpressureoncosmeticscompaniestobackup"�=aIReducingthoselinestheirclaimswithproofFordailynewsstories,visitwwwNewScientistcomnewsTheproductisactuallythreeskincreamsknownasOlayProX,designedtoaltertheexpressionofgenesinvolvedinskinageingWomenusingthisforweekswereaslikelytoseetheirwrinklesreducedaswomenontretinoin,adrugforreducingskinageingThejudgeswereunawareofwhohadusedwhichproduct(BritishJournalofDermatology,:jgx)"I'mhopingthatthepublicwillfallforharddataandbasetheirdecisionsonthat,"saysRichardWeller,adermatologistattheUniversityofEdinburgh,UK,whowasnotinvolvedinthestudySElltoexpandFRANKDRAKE,thefounderoftheSearchforExtraterrestrialIntelligence(SETI),wantstotakethesearchforaliensfurther:aboutbillionkilometresaway,infactAtthispointinspace,electromagneticsignalsfromplanetsorbitingdistantstarswouldbefocusedbythegravitationallensingeffectofoursun,makingthem,intheory,moreeasilydetectedDrakewantstosendspacecraftthereinabidtooverhearaliencommunications,whichwouldbetoofaintfortelescopesonEarthtodetectIt'sneitheranewororiginalidea,butithasnevertakenoffbecauseofthedistancesinvolvedWithexistingpropulsiontechnologies,spacecraftwouldtakehundredsofyearstomakethevoyage,whichisabouttimesthedistancefromEarthtothesunGravitationallensescouldalsobeusedtotransmitsignals,amplifyingthemsotheycouldtravelfurtherandpotentiallyreachdistantcivilisationsIt'salsopossible,Drakesays,thatintelligentcivilisationshavebuiltanintergalacticinternetusingsuchtechniquesandarejust"waitingforustologon"DrakespokelastweekattheTEDconferenceinLongBeach,CaliforniaOwnup,hitbackINAflurryofrecentinterviews,thescientistattheheartofthe"climategate"affairhasbrokenaweeksilencePhilJones,formerdirectoroftheUniversityofEastAnglia'sClimaticResearchUnitintheUK,hasspokenaboutthecontroversythatfollowedpublicationofemailsstolenfromtheCRUHeadmittedtothejournalNaturethathisfailuretokeeprecordsofthelocationsofweatherstationsusedinamajorstudywas"notacceptable"Ineffect,JonesconcededthatclimatescepticDougKeenanhadbeenrightinsomeofhiscriticismsofthepaper,whichruledoutlocalurbaninfluencesasasignificantfactoringlobalwarmingJonessaidhemaysubmitacorrectiontoNature,but"Jonesadmitshisfailuretokeeprecordsofweatherstations'locationswas'notacceptable'"nonethelesshitbackatbloggersandothercriticsfor"hijackingthepeerreviewprocessIftheywanttocriticise,theyshouldwritetheirownpapers,"hesaidTutufliesflagforAfricangenomesTHEgenomeclubjustclaimeditsfirstclergyman,intheshapeofArchbishopDesmondTutuTutuandaKhoisanmanfromtheKalahariarethefirstsouthernAfricanstohavetheirgenomessequencedandpublishedInNovemberB,aHanChinesemanandaNigerianmanbecamethefirstnonwhitestohavetheirgenomessequencedEachofthesouthernAfricangenomesisasourceoffurtheruntappedgeneticdiversityInterestingly,theirgenomesareassimilartoEuropeans'astheyaretotheothersequencedAfricangenomesbothfromYorubasThegenomeofTutu,aBantu,yieldedover,newvariantsAnevengreaternumbercamefromtheunnamedKhoisanalmost,ThisisprobablybecauseKhoisanswereamongtheearliesthumanpopulationstoformandtheyhavenotinterbredmuchwithothergroups,saysprojectleaderStephanSchuster,agenomicistatPennsylvaniaStateUniversityinUniversityPark(Nature,:OBlnature)Schuster'steamsaysomeoftheKhoisan'smutationsmaybedowntothegroup'slargelyhuntergathererlifestyleMeanwhile,variantslurkinginbothnewgenomesmayhelpexplainwhysomesouthernAfricansrespondpoorlytoexistinganti­retroviraldrugsthattreatHIVlfso,thiscouldhelpdesignmoreeffectiveantiretrovirals,saysSchusterSECONDSHiggsgetsmassThesearchfortheHiggsbosongotaboostlastweekTheDOandCDFexperimentsatFermilab'sTevatroncolliderinBatavia,Illinois,publishedthreepapersinPhysicalReviewLettersshowingthatthe"Godparticle"musthaveamassbetweenandgigaelectronvoltsSpacepanoramaTheInternationalSpaceStationhashad

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[新科学人].NewScientist,2010.02.20

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