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crimson rain.pdf

crimson rain

threepiggrowup
2011-05-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《crimson rainpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

CrimsonRainWILLIAMTROWESevenCenturiesofViolenceinaChineseCountySTANFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSStanford,CaliforniaStanfordUniversityPressStanford,California©bytheBoardofTrusteesoftheLelandStanfordJuniorUniversityLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataRowe,WilliamTCrimsonrain:sevencenturiesofviolenceinaChinesecountyWilliamTRowepcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNI:(cloth:alkpaper)MachengShi(China)HistoryPoliticalviolence(China)MachengShiTitleDSMR'IdcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaTypesetatStanfordUniversityPressinlQMinionFrontispiece:DrumTower(Gulou),MachengCityPhotographbytheauthorInmemoryofDONALDCHRSTIANROWEContentsPreface•XlIntroductionPartITheSocialEcologyofViolenceKingsofLightBoomTimeTheHereticIntheTiger'sMouthExterminationPartIIDongshanRebellionHeavenlyKingdomAnInterludeofModernityTheCauldronImmaturityExterminationReduxConclusionviiiContentsAbbreviationsAppendixNotesSelectedBibliographySelectedGlossaryIndexMapandFiguresMapMachengCountyFiguresDrumTower(Gulou),MachengCityfrontispieceGrottooftheImmortalMaGu(MaGuxiandong)Prosperousmountainvillage,YanjiaheWard,centralMachengCountyRiceterraces,centralMachengCountyChengLineageTemple,WestTown,SongbuGenealogyoftheWuchengZenglineageStonewallFort(Shichengzhai)withbeacontorch,YanjiaheWard,centralMachengCountyAncestralportraitofYuChenglongStonewallFort(Shichengzhai),frontgateYuCheng,caSmashing"localbulliesandevilgentry"PeasantAssociationheadquarters,Chengmagang,northwesternMachengGeneralXiaDouyinFemaleCommunistguerrillasoftheDabieShan,,withbobbedhairPrefaceApproachingMachengfromthesouthwest,fromtheHubeiprovincialcapital,thevisitorfirstencountersabluearchoverthehighway,reading"WelcometoMachengCounty"Thequalityoftheroadimmediatelyimproves,andtheshopsoneithersidebegintoofferalargerrangeofamenitiesThepeopleseembetterdressedthanthoseintheareaspassedalongtheway,andtherearefewerfarmanimalsblockingtheroadSoononeseesanotherbluearch,announc­ingtheGoldenNeedleScienceandTechnologyZoneofHubeiProvinceThecountyseatislarge,sparklinglynew,andsqueakycleanItboastsathreestarhotelandoffersawidearrayoftouristpromotionliterature,inEnglishaswellasChineseItscitizenslook,forthemostpart,comfortablymiddleclassThesurroundingcountrysideaswellisdottedwithnewlyconstructedbrickfarmhouses,motorcyclesparkedalongside,andrevealsafertileandproduc­tive(thoughasyetlargelyunmechanized)agricultureTheimpressiononegetsoverallisofconsiderableprosperity,anactivistandattentivecountygovern­ment,andahighlyaggressivecommunityboosterismItisanevidentsuccessstoryofpostMaoChinaOnJune,,thesocalledOfficewassetupinthetownofBaiguo,insouthcentralMacheng,andchargedwitheradicatingthepracticeofFalungongsectarianismSubsequentlythisofficewasdeclaredamodelfortherestofthecountyItwasheadedbythesecretaryoftheBaiguoTownshipPoli­ticsandLawCommitteeAccordingtoFalungongsources,thepersecutionoftheirmembershipinBaiguowasespecially"bestial"and"insane"Practitionerswereorderedtorenouncetheirteachersinviolentepithetsandweresubjectedto"brainwashingclasses"Intheunusuallyhotsummerof,theywerelockedinanunlitfurnaceofaroomforoverdays,formuchofwhichtimetheyweredeniedsleepThefollowingspring,foursectmemberswerepubliclytorturedtodeathintheBaiguotownsquareTheywereorderedtoxiiPrefacetakeofftheirshoesandwerebeatenonthefacewiththese(someofthefemalesworehighheels)untiltheywereunrecognizableTwoofthevictimsweretiedbehindmotorcyclesanddraggedaroundthesquareathighspeed,untiltheywereflayedaliveOnesectmemberreportedlywalkedallthewaytoBeijingtoreportthisincidentbutwasarrested,senthome,andexecutedFinally,inApril,afemalesectmemberfromFengjiashanVillage(mostofthesect'smembersinMachengCountyarerural,andmanyareunemployed)wasbeatenthroughoutthedayintheBaiguotownsquareandthen,justbeforesunset,wasdousedwithgasolineandsetafireTownshippolicedetainedallwitnessesuntiltheysupportedthepoliceclaimthatthiswasacaseofselfimmolation(Clear­wisdomnet,July,July,andJuly)Thereisnonecessaryreason,Ihastentostress,whyoneshouldacceptasfac­tualtheseallegationsfromtheFalungong'ssensationalistandhighlydevelopedpropagandamachineWhatissignificant,though,isthatthesect'sproselytizersclearlyexpectthenationalandinternationalaudiencesfortheirWebsitetoacceptthatthiskindofbehavior,whichtheythemselvesadmitisextremeforthecurrentChineseregime,ispotentiallycrediblewhensetinthecontextofMachengCountyItisthisstarkcontrastbetween,ontheonehand,alocaleblessedwithgreatnaturalbeauty,economicprosperity(atleastinbettertimes,suchasthepresent),andanextremelypowerfulsenseoflocalprideand,ontheother,anationalreputationfordehumanizingviolencethathas,formuchofthecounty'shistory,beenwellearnedthatliesattheheartofthisbookWhenIbeganmyacademiccareer,intheearlyS,itwascleartomethatthegreatemphasisofWesternhistoriographyofChinawasonthecountry­sideItwasassumedthatChinahadenjoyedlittleinthewayofasignificantindigenousurbantraditionbeforethattraditionwasintroducedbytheWestTheoverridingproblemsconfrontedbyscholarsweretoexplainthefailureofChina's"modernization"andtoexplainthevictoryofitsCommunistPartyinthecivilwar,andbothoftheseproblemsseemedtodemanddetailedandex­tensiveanalysisofruralconditionsandagrarianhistoryInsuchanintellectualenvironment,itseemedtome,themostoriginalandproductivethingthatanaspiringscholarmightdowouldbetoinvestigate,ascloselyaspossible,thehistoryofalargeChinesecity,andthatiswhatIdidOverthesubsequentthreedecades,though,thesituationappearstohavebeenreversedInthecontextofglobalization,China'scommerciallyfueledeconomicboom,andthetriumphof"culturalstudies"inacademia(bothintheWestand,increasingly,inChinaaswell),historianshavecometofocustheirenergiesevermoreheavilyonChi­neseurbanhistory,particularlytheculturalhistoryoflargemetropolitancen­tersintheearlytwentiethcentury,aperiodforwhich,itisimplicitlyassumed,themodelsforpostMaochangesandculturalchoicescanbestbeexploredWiththeimportantexceptionofmacroanalysesofcomparativepoliticaleconPrefacexiiiomy,ruralhistoryseems,forthemostpart,tohavefallenoutoffavorAccord­ingly,asadedicatedcontrarian,Ifeelthedesiretoturnmyowneffortstothelocalhistoryofadecidedlyrural,evenperipheral,areaofChinaThis,then,ismypersonalxiafangLikethesentdownyouthsofapreviousgeneration,IhavedependedonmanypeopleformysurvivalalongthewayTheseincludeaboveallmycol­leagueintheHistoryDepartmentatJohnsHopkinsUniversity,TobieMeyer­Fong,whoreadtheentiremanuscriptcloselyandcorrectedmanyerrorsIthankalsomyotherHopkinsfriendsRichardKagan,DavidNirenberg,KelleeTsai,EvaGonzalez,andYuanyuanZengMypresentandformergraduatestu­dentsDiWang,GrantAlger,ZhaoGang,MaZhao,PengJuanjuan,SaeyoungPark,andAmyFenghaveallprovidedveryhelpfuladviceandremainedonthelookoutforsourcesthatotherwisemighthaveescapedmeOtherswhohavegraciouslycommentedonportionsofmyworkincludeTimothyBrook,Luc­ienBianco,PhilipKuhn,MaryBRankin,KeithSchoppa,PeterCPerdue,Pe­terBol,RobertAntony,MaryElizabethBerry,JosephEsherick,PaulPickowicz,AlfredLin,ElizabethSin,BarendterHaar,WangFansen,ErnestYoung,FrankDikotter,andmylongtimefriendandeditorMurielBellOdoricWou,JinJiang,BarbaraVolkmar,Ch'enYungfa,andXiaorongHanhavenotonlycommentedbutalsosharedwithmeimpressionsgainedintheprocessoftheirownstud­iesoftheMachengareaAnearlierversionofportionsofchaptersandhasbeenpublishedasFromMingtoCh'ingAlongtheGreatDivide(Taibei:InstituteofModernHistory,AcademiaSinica,)IamgratefulforpermissiontoreusethatmaterialhereIamdeeplyindebtedtothefacultyoftheInstituteofModernChineseHis­toryatCentralChinaNormalUniversity,Wuhan,mostespeciallyProfessorsMaMin,ZhangKaiyuan,FuHaiyan,LiuJiafeng,ZhuYing,andGaoZhuonan,andtoseveraloftheirgraduatestudents,includingTianTengProfessorFengTianyuofWuhanUniversityhasalsobeenveryhelpful,ashavethestaffsoftheHubeiProvincialArchives,theHubeiProvincialLibrary,andtheHubeiProvincialGazetteerOfficeInMachengImustdeeplythankDeputyMayorFanYizhong,DirectorZhongShiwuoftheMachengCountyGazetteerOffice,thestaffsoftheMachengCountyArchivesandtheMachengCountyMuseum,andmostespeciallytheextraordinarilylearnedlocalhistorianMsLiMinForindispensableassistanceduringmyvisitstoruralareasofMachengCountyIamgratefultothetownshipadministratorsofYanjiaheandChengmagang,andabovealltothewonderfullywelcomingZengfamilyofZengjiawanVillageAsalways,tomyownfamilyJill,Josh,andSaraIowemostCrimsonRainIntroductionNMAYF,followingthebreakdownoftheUnitedFrontbetweentheChineseCommunistPartyanditsformerrevolutionaryallies,theChi­neseNationalists,localpeopleinMachengCounty,intheGreatDividemoun­tainrange(DabieShan)separatingtheYangziValleyfromtheNorthChinaPlain,reportedaremarkablenaturalevent:asuddendrenchingshowerofcrimsonrain(hongyu)!Startledastheymayhavebeen,countyresidentswereatnolosstocomprehendwhatthismeantTheirhomedistrictwasatthatmomenttheepicenterofabloodbath(xuexi),anorgyofmassviolencetak­ingaterribletollonlocalcombatantsandnoncombatantsalikeAndthiswasbynomeansthefirsttimethishadhappenedDeeplyetchedinthecollectiveconsciousnessandlocalidentityofMachengpeoplewasthememoryofrecur­rentbloodlettingsofsimilarferocityintimesofdisorderthroughoutthepast,andofcountlessactsofroutinebrutalityintimesofpeaceTheirhome,theyunderstood,wassimplyaviolentplaceAsweshallsee,Macheng'sproclivityforviolencewaswellappreciatedbylateimperialandRepublicanofficialsandliteratiNorhasitentirelyescapedWesternobserversForexample,inaninfluentialessaytitled"TheEcol­ogyofChineseCommunistSuccess'theAmericanpoliticalscientistRoyHof­heinz,Jr,soughttodeterminewhycertainareasofChinahadprovedmorefertilegroundthanothersforCommunistRevolutioninthedecadesleadinguptotheParty'sultimatevictoryinHiscareful,computeraidedanalysisconcludedthat,inmostinstances,therereallywasnoobservablecorrelationbetweensocialecologyandreceptivenesstoCommunistappealsrather,therevolutionsimplysucceededbestinlocalitieswherethePartyhadhappenedmosteffectivelytoestablishitsownorganizationalpresenceButHoflIeinzdidfindafewexceptions"hotbedcounties'hecalledthemwherethe"rapidspreadandprolongedsuccessoftheCommunistmovement"defiedtheoverallIntroductionpattern,andinwhich,hecouldonlyspeculate,deeplyingrained"backgroundsocialfactors"musthaveyieldedanunusualconducivenesstoviolentrevo­lutionHofheinzidentifiedbuteightofChina'smorethan,countiesas"hotbeds,"twoofwhichwereMachenganditsneighboringcounty,Huang'an,whichuntilhadbeenpartofMachengitselfThisbookinquires:WhyMachengPhrasingthequestionmostnarrowly,Iask:HowdifferentdoestheChineseRevolutionlookwhenweplaceitsmostimportantcruciblesthesocalledsovietbaseareasinaverymuchlongerhistoriographicperspectiveMoregenerally,however,Iwanttoknowwhycer­tainareasofChinaappearextraordinarilypronetoviolence,overtimeframessolongastotranscendtheexperienceofverysignificantcultural,economic,social,andpoliticalchangeWhy,insuchplaces,doestheoptionofviolentmeansofresolvingproblemsappearsuchahabituatedchoiceBasedontheexperienceofasinglesmallplaceoveraverylongperiodoftimethesevencenturiesfromtheexpulsionoftheMongolsintheStotheinvasionoftheJapaneseinthisbookhopestocontributetoabroaderexplorationofthephenomenonofviolenceinChineseruralsocietyIwillsuggestthatcollec­tivememory,historicalconsciousness,andotherroutinizedculturalpracticesplayedcriticalrolesinthisprocessViolenceasaconceptualcategoryhasoccupiedwritersinanumberofWesternintellectualtraditions,includingthoseofcriticalpoliticalthought,function­alistsocialscience,andsocioculturalhistoryinthemannerofAnnales,andcollectivelythisbodyofreflectioncanhelpusthinkaboutviolenceinMa­chengItremindsusfirstofallthatviolentbehaviormaybenormalorsystemicratherthanaberrantWhilethenotionofviolenceasirrationalorimmoralrunsdeepincontemporaryWesternculture,thisisnotthecaseinmanyothers,andnotinmostsocietiesofpasttimesTheprevailingnotionofjustwhatcon­stitutesviolence,andofthelegitimacyofsuchaction,isinfactrelativetothesociohistoricalcontextMoreover,evenwithineachcontextthereareusuallycompetingconceptionsofviolenceanditslegitimacy,includingalegalpoliticalonedefinedbythestateascrime(althoughstatesthemselves,aswellasprivatepersonsorgroups,routinelyengageinviolentacts),aswellasoneormoredif­ferentunderstandingsoperatinginpopularmoralitySocieties,states,andcul­turessetupconventionsornormstoorganize,routinize,orevenritualizethepracticeofviolencewithintheirbounds,inthehopeofcontainingorchannel­ingitInthefaceoftheseconventionsornorms,thecommissionofaviolentactcanconstituteadeliberatecontestationoflegitimacyoracommentaryonnormsanddiscoursesdominantwithinthesocietyViolence,inotherwords,hasanexpressiveaspectitisavehicleofcommunicationViolenceisalsoaper­formance,implyingnotmerelythepresenceofanagentandavictimbutalsoIntroductionthatofoneormanywitnessesItmaybeundertakenforexplicitlytheatricalpurposesforinstance,thedisplayofseveredheadsas"symbolsoftransgres­sion"Butevenmorepedestrianactsofviolenceoftencountontheirvisibility,andon"theprobabilitythatallinvolvedarelikelytodraw,attheveryleast,somebasiccommonunderstandingfromtheactsandimagesconcerned"How,then,arewetointerpretthemeaningsofviolencewithinthespecific,historicaloperationofChinesecultureWemustbeginfirstofallwiththerec­ognitionthatinthepracticaldaytodayexperienceofitspeoplethroughouthistory,Chinahasbeenasviolentasmostotherhumansocieties,andperhapsmoreviolentthanmanyNotmerelytheevidenceofthisbookbutalsomostofwhatweknowofChina'shistoryandsocietyeloquentlyconfirmsthisfactAtthesametime,asinallsocieties,Chinadevisedculturalmethodsofdomesti­catingorcontainingthispracticeofviolenceor,perhapsmoreappropriately,ofprovidingpeoplewithmeansforcopingwiththeeverydayrealityofviolenceintheirlivesIndeed,itseemssafetosaythatinitsliterate(notmerelyliterati)culturemostespeciallyinthatbundleofculturalitemsthatwerefertoinshorthandas"Confucianism"Chinawasconsiderablymoreenergeticthanmanyotherculturaltraditionsincondemningviolentbehaviorandestablish­ingpeaceful,harmoniouscoexistenceamonghumanbeingsasamoralnormPriortothetwentiethcentury,atleast,thetextualtraditionissoconsistentinitsbiastowardharmony,peace,anddecorumthatithasledanynumberofhistoriansmyselfpointedlyincludedintodepictingaspectsofChinesehis­toryasmoretranquilthanprobablywaswarrantedWemustcontinuallybemindfulofthefactthatthisentiretextualtraditionwasinlargepartacopingmechanism,andthatthenormativevisionwasnotadescriptionoffactThisdeepculturaltraditionhasbeenemphasizedbytheanthropologistSte­venHarrell,inagallantefforttosummarizethemeaningsofviolenceinChi­nesehistoryandsocietyHarrellarguesthat,bycomparisontoothercultures,Chineseculturecondemnsandabhorsviolencetoanunusualdegree:it"playsdownthegloryofmilitaryexploits,awardsitshighestprestigetoliteraryratherthanmartialfigures,andseeksharmonyoverallothervalues"Inchildhoodso­cialization,Harrellnotes,Chinesechildrenareroutinelypunishedforengaginginfightsevenwhentheyarethevictimsratherthantheaggressors,onthepre­sumptionthattheyhavenotbeensufficientlyresoluteinavoidingconflictalto­gethersMyownroughandreadysurveyofthelexicalitemsmostoftenusedintheChineselanguagetorefertowhatwemightcallviolencewordssuchasbaa,meng,han,heng,xiong,ii,lie,and,insomeusages,kuang(mad)andluan(chaotic),aswellascountlesscombinationsofthesewithvariousshadesofmeaningsuggestssomesupportforHarrell'sviewTheseterms,intheirmostcommonusages,seemunambiguouslycondemnatory"Violent"isusedinref­erencetosevereandirrationalforcesofnature(baofeng,kuangxue),wildandIntroductionsavageanimals(baohu,baoquan,hanma),subhuman,barbariccultures(man­heng),andpersonalactionsandtemperamentsdecriedasperverse,unruly,ormalevolentTheseadjectivesarecontemptuouslyappliedtosocialtypeswhodefyconsensusnorms:tothievesandbandits(hanni,baokou),intractablelow­lifes(baotu),undisciplinedslavesorservants(hanpu,hanbi),womenwhoresisttheirassignedgenderroles(kuangnii,hanfu,hanqi),andthatmostdespisedofallsocialgroups,governmentclerksandrunners(baoli,hanli)AtleastasearlyasthethirdcenturyBCEclassicaltextXunzi,thelanguageofviolencewasinvokedtodescribetyrannicalrulersandtheirregimes(baoguo,baojun,bao­ZhU)Andyettherewasalso,fromveryearlytimes,awayofreadingthislanguageagainstthegrain,inusagesthatwerefarfromunsympatheticValiant,fear­less,andardentlyrighteousmenmightbereferredtoashanyongormengyong,asmengshiorlieshiKuang,whichinconventionalusagemeant"mad"inthesenseofarabiddog(kuangquan),alsocametorefertopoets,painters,andphilosophersofanadmirablyboldorig

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