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首页 The Cambridge Companion to Wordsworth

The Cambridge Companion to Wordsworth.pdf

The Cambridge Companion to Word…

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2011-04-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《The Cambridge Companion to Wordsworthpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,STEPHENGILLIntroductionAfterstrugglinginhismiddleyearstowinmorethanacoteriereadership,WilliamWordsworthlivedtosavoursuccessHediedfullofhonoursin,PoetLaureatetoQueenVictoria,amanrecognized,inJohnKeble’swords,as‘raiseduptobeachiefminister,notonlyofnoblestpoesy,butofhighandsacredtruth’OverthenextfiftyyearshisstatusasanEnglishclassicwasconfirmedininnumerableprintingsofhisworks,anthologies,andeventuallyscholarlystudiesBy,however,itseemedthathistimewasoverAtaneventtomarkthecentenaryofWordsworth’sdeath,LionelTrilling,oneoftheforemostAmericancriticsofhisgeneration,summedupwhathetooktobethecurrentperceptionofthepoet:‘Wordsworthisnotattractiveandnotanintellectualpossibility’AlthoughTrilling’slecturewentontodemonstratethatthiswasnothisownview,hisdecisiveandmemorableformulationsoundedright,asifKeble’swordsontheplaqueinGrasmereChurchwerebeinggiventheirsadbutinevitableaddendumButsuchhasnotbeenthejudgementofhistorySincethemutedcelebrationsin,shiftsinintellectualconcernshavebroughttheRomanticsintonewfocusandhaverediscoveredWordsworthasafully‘intellectuallypossible’figureWesternculture’spreoccupationwithidentityandtheselfthelinguisticturnofmuchcurrenttheorytheinterestinpowerandpoliticsandnationhoodthereturntohistoryenvironmentalissues–allofthesedominantfeaturesoftheculturallandscapeofthelasthalfcenturyhavebeenmappedacrosstheterrainofWordsworth’spoetryandproseThattoday’s‘Wordsworth’(thenameconstitutingtheobjectofstudyinitstotality–poetry,prose,biography,historicalcontext,criticalhistory)issubstantiallydifferentfromthatofispartlyduetothelaboursofeditorsAsKeithHanley’schapterinthiscollectionspellsout,multivolumeeditionsofWordsworth’spoetryandprose,aswellaseditionsofhislettersandofColeridge’sandofothermembersoftheircircle,haveenormouslyenlargedourfactualknowledgeAsfarasWordsworththepoetisconcernedwecansaymore:editorialinterventionshavereconfigured‘Wordsworth’CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,stephengillStudentsnowroutinelyrefertopoemswhichWordsworthdidnotpublishThePreludeinthirteenbookscompletedin,wasnotbroughttolightuntilseventysixyearsafterhisdeathSincethenothertextshaveemergedthroughscholarlyactivity,suchasSalisburyPlain,TheRuinedCottage,ThePedlar,ThePrelude,TheRecluseAndthisisnotacaseofeditorsbeaveringawayattriviaNoonewoulddoubtthatthePreludeisWordsworth’sfinestpoemrecentcriticismhastreatedtheothersmentionedascentraltoWordsworth’sachievementSostronglyhavethesetextsemerged,infact,poemsWordsworthdidnotpublish,thatJackStillinger,himselfanexperiencededitor,haswarnedagainsttheeffacementofthepoeticcanonWordsworthdidchoosetoauthorize(fordetailsseeHanley)Butwhatisactuallyhappeningisnoteffacement–LyricalBalladsandPoems,inTwoVolumes,forexample,aretoopowerfultoacceptrelegation–butratherarealignmentoftextsinrelationtooneanotherasreadersencounteranenlargedpoeticcorpus,withalltheuncertaintiesinherentinthenewapprehensionthatsuchanencountermustinvolveSomethingofthesamesenseofcontinuitybracketedwithnewnessmuststrikeuswhenweconsider‘Wordsworth’morelargelyIwillconsiderthreeexamples,butmorecouldeasilybeadducedInitwasatlastrevealedpublicly(scholarlyinsidershadknownforsometime)thatWordsworthhadfatheredadaughteronaFrenchRoyalistsympathizerwhenhewastwentytwoyearsoldTosomeitwasarelieftolearnthatWordsworthhadbeenlikeKeatsandShelleyandByron,amanwithfleshandbloodappetites,andnotjustasolitaryvisionarycommuningwithNatureandtheUniverse,whichisthefiguremostofthelateportraits,busts,andstatuesconveyedForothers,though,thenewshadamoreexcitingmeaningNowonecouldseewhyWordsworth’searlypoetryispeopledwithabandonedwomenanddestitutefiguresandhauntedguiltymenThehaunted,guiltyonewasthepoethimselfFurtherspeculationaboutWordsworth’srelationswithhissister,Dorothy,addedtothesensethatthepoetryupto,say,wastheproductofatormentedspiritThatWordsworthwasadrivenmaninthesisnotindispute,butmorerecentlyscholarsstrugglingtopenetratetheopacitiesofThePrelude’saccountofthoseyearshavefocusedonthepoet’spolitics,onhisallegiancesandbetrayalsastheycanbeinferred,andinsodoinghavewonderfullythickenedoursenseofwhatitmeanttobearadicalpoetinacountrygearingupforawarofsurvivalButasKennethJohnston’sTheHiddenWordsworth()persuasivelydemonstrates,itisnotthecasethatanewer,morefashionableangsthasjustsupplantedtheoldJohnstonremindsushowcomplextherelationwasinthesbetweentheprivateandthepublicandhiswork–asCambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,IntroductiondoesthatofDavidBromwichinDisownedbyMemory()–invitesstillfurtherinvestigationofWordsworthinthemostturbulentdecadeofhislifeOrconsidertheissueofNature’shealingpowerInThePreludeitisclaimedthat‘Nature’sself,byhumanloveAssisted’(x–)guidedWordsworthoutofthelabyrinthoferrorinwhichhewasbewilderedinthesandonemightsaythatinasensehiswholecreativeoutputisathankofferingFollowingupthequestionofquitehowNature’sselfsavedthepoetmustleadusintoMetaphysics,butitalsomustleadintoappreciationofwhatthepoetrydoeswithNatureintheformofrocksandstonesandtreesWordsworth’spoetryisaboutthe‘sensesublimeOfsomethingfarmoredeeplyinterfused’,butmuchofitisimmediatelyandovertlyaboutmountainsandlakes,aboutcloudsandweatherandgrowingthingsThisimmediatelyattractiveaspectofthepoetryeventuallybecametheprimaryidentifierof‘Wordsworth’–Wordsworththe‘Naturepoet’HisspiritbroodedoverthefoundationinGreatBritainoftheNationalTrust,chargedwiththepreservationoflandscapeofexceptionalbeauty,andinAmericaoverattemptsbyJohnMuir(–)topersuadehiscontemporariesthatthesurvivalofwildernesswasvitalforthenation’ssoulButitwasalsoinvokedbyanyonewantingtopersuadetowndwellerstopartwiththeirmoneyonadayoutinthecountry‘Oneimpulsefromavernalwood’(‘TheTablesTurned’)canbethetextforamonographonWordsworth’sreligion,butitcanalsobeusedtosellhikingbootsUntilrecentlyitseemedthatthisbifurcationcouldonlybecomemorepronouncedWordsworth’s‘sensesublime’wasincreasinglyalien,orsimplyunintelligible,toapostChristian,urbanizedreadershipWhathascometobecalled‘ecocriticism’,however,hasbegunonekindofrecuperationVictoriansfoundreassuranceintheir‘ProphetofNature’afewfanaticalWordsworthianstestifiedthattheycarriedaPoeticalWorksalongwiththeirBibleFewifanyreadersinthetwentyfirstcenturyaregoingtoreturntothatButitiswithasenseofurgencythatmuchcriticismisreconsideringWordsworth’swritingsaboutthenaturalworldandtheplaceofhumanbeingsinitColeridgethoughtitpartofthespecialpowerofWordsworth’spoetrythatitcouldnourishus‘byawakeningthemind’sattentionfromthelethargyofcustom,anddirectingittothelovelinessandthewondersoftheworldbeforeusaninexhaustibletreasure,butforwhich,inconsequenceofthefilmoffamiliarityandselfishsolicitudewehaveeyes,yetseenot,earsthathearnot,andheartsthatneitherfeelnorunderstand’AsRalphPite’sessayinthiscollectionablyshows,theecocriticismofourowntimereachesacrossthecenturiestoColeridgehereAfinalexample:WordsworthandtheNewWorldAfterWordsworth’sdeathAmericanadmirersraisedmoneyforamemorialinAmblesideChurchCambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,stephengillintheLakeDistrict,confirming,whatwasalreadyclearfromthestreamofvisitorstothepoet’shomeatRydalMount,thathisworkcontinuedtobeesteemedinAmericaQuitewhattheesteemamountedto,though,hasbeenthequestion,onewhosechallengewasnotadequatelymetbyroutinegesturestowardsEmersonandThoreauRecentwork,however–andthepioneeringstudiesofAlanGHilldeservetributehere–hasbeguntoconveysomesenseofthediversityofresponseWordsworthelicitedinthenewRepublic,andJoelPace’sessayinthiscollectionindicateshowmuchmorefascinatingevidenceiswaitingtobeinvestigatedButthereismoreworktobedone,asPaceimplies,notonlyonwhatWordsworthmeanttoAmericabutonwhatAmericameanttohimWhatIamtryingtosuggestintheseexamplesisthatcontemporaryWordsworthscholarshipisvibrantbecauseitisalivetoitscontinuitywiththatofthepastwhilstbeingfullyawareofhistoricaldistance,andinthisrespectithonours,infact,aprimaryforceinthecreativepowersofthepoethimselfWordsworthwasobsessedwithensuringthatnothingwaslostfromhispast:‘IlookintopasttimesasprophetslookIntofuturity’Memoryreaches,chainsbind,bondssustain,linkslink–thepoetryandmuchoftheprosecelebrateswhateverpreservesaffinities‘Betweenallstagesofthelifeofman’ButtheintensityofWordsworth’sgazeashehangs‘Incumbento’erthesurfaceofpasttime’(Prelude,iv,),isafunctionofhisequallyobsessiveawarenessthatmakingsenseofthepastcallsforalifetime’srevisiting,opentothepossibilityofandrecognizingthenecessityforreinterpretationAllofthespeciallycommissionedessaysinthisCompanionsharesomethingofthesameawarenessTheirtopic,too,isWordsworthpastandpresentNOTESThetributefromthededicationtoKeble’sOxfordlecturesonpoetry,DePoeticaViMedica:PraelectionesAcademicaeOxoniiHabitae(),wasinscribedontheplaquetoWordsworthinGrasmereChurch,whereheisburiedLionelTrilling,‘WordsworthandtheRabbis’,inTheOpposingSelf(London,),pBiographiaLiteraria,chapterxivAlanGHill,‘WordsworthandhisAmericanFriends’,BulletinofResearchintheHumanities,(),–MuchfreshlyresearchedinformationisalsocompressedintothefootnotesofHill’svolumesoftheWordsworthlettersPWiiCambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,NICOLATROTTWordsworth:theshapeofthepoeticcareerInsketchingWordsworth’slife,twoportraitsmightbedrawn,almostasmirrorimagesofoneanotherThefirstwouldpresentachildwhowasorphanedbytheageofthirteen,andtowhosefamilythefirstLordLonsdalerefusedtopaythesubstantialdebt(over£)thatwasowingtoWordsworthseniorathisdeathaboywhorebelledagainsthisguardians,slashedthroughafamilyportraitwithawhip,andfailed,firsttogainanythingmorethananunclassifiedBA(fromStJohn’sCollege,Cambridge,),andthentotakeordersorenteroneoftheprofessionsagraduatewhointravelledtorevolutionaryFrance,wherehewasconvertedtoitscauseandfatheredanillegitimatechilda‘vagabond’whoreturnedtoEnglandandseveralyearsofapparentlyaimlessroving,leading,in,tosomekindofnervousbreakdownayoung‘democrat’whokeptdubious,ifnotactuallydangerouscompany,andinwasthoughtworthyofsurveillancebyagovernmentspyarepublicanwholaidplansforaradicalmonthlycalledthePhilanthropist,andmayhavebeeninvolvedinaliberalLondonweeklyofthatname,whichranforfortytwoissues,–anauthorofoppositionalpoliticaltracts,theunpublishedLettertotheBishopofLlandaff(),writtenindefenceoftheregicideinFranceandrightsofmanathome,andTheConventionofCintra(),whichacceptedthatfightingimperialistFranceconstitutedajustwar,butwashighlycriticalofthedealbywhichaSpanishrevoltendedwithBritainallowingthedefeatedFrencharmytoevacuatePortugalwithoutlossa‘Semiatheist’whomColeridgepersuadedintoanunspecificformofUnitarianism,andwhoinstillhad‘noneedofaRedeemer’awouldbepopulistwhoarguedthatpoetrywasnottheexclusivepropertyofthemiddleandupperclasses,andattributedtohisownworkthepolemicalpurposeofshowingthat‘menwhodonotwearfinecloathscanfeeldeeply’(lettertoCharlesJamesFox,January)afinanciallyinsecurepoetwhountilhismidfortieslivedinrelativepoverty,adoptingaloftydefensivenessagainstanuncomprehending‘public’andthediffusenotorietyCambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,nicolatrottprovidedbyhostileTorycritics,amongwhomhewassynonymousatoncewithchildishnessandinsubordinationAndyetaquitedifferentsilhouettemightbedrawnThiswouldoutlineaWordsworthwhowasthesecondsonofawelltodolawagentofthewealthiestpeerinWestmorlandwho,asaboy,waseducatedatHawkshead,oneofthebestgrammarschoolsinthecountry,withastringofCambridgeentrantstoitsnamewho,asayoungman,mixedwiththeforemostradicalintellectualsofhisday,andformedaprofoundfriendshipwithColeridge,a‘seminal’mindoftheagewhowaslearnedinLatinandItalian,aswellasEnglishliterature,hadmanythousandsoflinesofpoetrybyheart,andcametopossessasubstantiallibrarywhosenthiseditionoftheLyricalBallads()totheleaderoftheWhigOpposition,wasrecognizedasafounderofthe‘LakeSchool’ofpoetry,and,onSouthey’sdeathin,rosetobePoetLaureatewhohadafriendinSirGeorgeBeaumont,aleadingpatronofthearts,and,asalandscaper,designedboththeBeaumonts’wintergardenatColeortoninLeicestershire(–)andhisowngroundsatRydalMount(wheretheWordsworthsmovedin)whowasaninfluentialarbiteroftasteinruralsceneryandwho,aswellasinsistingonrightsofway,campaignedfortheLakeDistricttobesparedthedespoliationsofrailborneindustryandtourismwhosignedupfortheGrasmereVolunteerswhentherewasthreatofFrenchinvasionin,andaddressedasequenceofsonnetstothethemeofnationalmoralandmartialrenewalwhoinacceptedagovernmentpostasDistributorofStampsforWestmorland(whichmadehimresponsibleforthetaxraisedonthestampedpaperusedinlegaltransactions)whobecameintimatewiththesecondLordLonsdale,andinelectioneeredtirelesslyonhisbehalfintheToryinterest,earningthenickname‘BombastesFurioso’(aswellaspublishingTwoAddressestotheFreeholdersofWestmorlandagainstagitationandpressfreedom)wholatterlyemergedasadefenderoftheChurchofEnglandandtheAnglicantraditionwholived,asStephenGillhasshown,tobestillmorecentraltotheVictorianthanhehadbeentotheNapoleonicagewhohadasbrothersaLondonlawyerandaMasterofTrinityCollege,Cambridge,wasaregularpresenceamongtheLondonliteraryandsociale´lites,and,atlonglast,inhissixties,foundhimselfworldfamousTheentirecareer,andwithitthepathfromanonymitytohouseholdname,ismomentarilyvisibleinGeorgeEliot’sMiddlemarch,publishedin–,twodecadesafterthepoet’sdeath,andsetjustpriortothefirstReformBillof:aschapteropens,MrBrookeisreminiscingabouthowheandWordsworthmissedeachotherascontemporariesatCambridge(c),butdinedtogether‘twentyyearsafterwardsatCartwright’s’,andinthecompanyofthechemistSirHumphryDavyFromtheradicalyearsofthesCambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,CambridgeCompanionsOnline©CambridgeUniversityPress,Theshapeofthepoeticcareertothenolessturbulentperiodofthelates,MrBrookehasremained,albeitconfusedly,ontheliberalsideofpoliticsWordsworth,(in)famously,didnotandthisbreakinthecareerhasmadehimapivotalandcontroversialrepresentativeofthosewhocameofageattheonsetoftheFrenchRevolution()Justlately,somepowerfulrevisionists(JeromeJMcGann,JamesKChandler,andMarjorieLevinson,amongothers)haveproducedreadingsoftheearlypoetryintermsofitshiddencluestotergiversation,orsilentevasionsof‘history’(themostnotorioustestcasebeing‘TinternAbbey’,whosetitleelaborately,almostteasingly,drawsattentiontoitscompositiononJuly,andsototheveryeveoftheBastilleDayanniversary)SuchreadingshavekeptWordsworthatthecentreof‘Romanticism’,howevermuchtheconceptmayhaveshifteditsgroundaroundandbeneathhimTheconsciousliberalinWordsworthdiedharderthanhassometimesbeensuggestedHewasunderstoodtobe‘stronglydisposedtoRepublicanism’and‘equality’in,andadvocated‘athoroughreforminParliamentandanewcourseofeducation’,in(lettertoDanielStuart,WLii)TheExcursion()drewtoanendwithaswingeingattackonchildlabour(BookVIII),andacallforasystemofnationaleducation(BookIX)ThePreludeallowedthe‘Bliss’ofwitnessingthe‘dawn’ofRevolutiontostandalongsideanapostrophetothe‘GeniusofBurke’,addedin(Prelxi,vii–)EveninWordsworthcouldbeheardpraisingtheSheffieldpoetEbenezerElliott,whoseCornLawRhymes()spokefortheimpoverishedlabouringclassesand,incidentally,wasbeingregardedbyHenryCrabbRobinsonasafellowtravellerinWhiggishpolitics(Diaryiii–,)Nevertheless,thelateToryismishardtooverestimateWordsworthwasdeadagainstCatholicEmancipation()andtheReformBillHislifelongsympathywiththepoorandappreciationofEbenezerElliotdidnot,aswemightexpect,extendtosupportfortheAntiCornLawLeague’schallengetotheprotectionistpolicyoftaxingimportedcorn,theeffectofwhichwastomaintaintheincomesoflandownersattheexpenseofartificiallyhighpricesforbreadNorwasWordsworthanybetterdisposedtowardstheutilitarianandlaissezfaireeconomicswhichsoughttofreetradeandsystematizewelfare:hishostilitytothePoorLawAmendmentAct,whichpromotedworkhousesoveroutdoorrelief,gaveavividpoliticalcolouringtopreferenceshefirstarticulatedinTheOldCumberlandBeggar,Asthislastexamplesuggests,thelateWordsworthfoundnewrelevanceandimpetusfortheradicallyinclinedpoetryofhisyouthWhentheSalisburyPlainpoemswrittenintheswerefinallyrevisedandpu

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