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The+Design+of+Everyday+Things.pdf

The+Design+of+Everyday+Things.p…

上传者: xiegeng0586_cn 2011-04-24 评分1 评论1 下载55 收藏10 阅读量172 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《The+Design+of+Everyday+Thingspdf》,可适用于IT书籍领域,主题内容包含UserInterfaceDesignandProgrammingCSLucRenambotrenambotuiceduTheDesignofEve符等。

UserInterfaceDesignandProgrammingCSLucRenambotrenambotuiceduTheDesignofEverydayThingsWeekHomeworkThepurposeofthisassignmentistogiveyouabitofpracticewiththematerialpresentedinthefirstweekoftheclassthedesignofeverydaythings*findavendingmachineoncampusorsurrounding*notedownwhereitislocatedandwhatkindofmachineitis(pop,coffee,snack,postagestamps,DVD,CTA,etc)*thinkabouthowtheuserinteractswiththevendingmachineoHowdoesthemachinepresentitscapabilitiestotheuseroWhatcantheuserdooWhataffordancesdoesthemachinepresentoHowdoestheuserknowwhattodofirstoWhatkindoffeedbackdoesthevendingmachinegivetotelltheuseraboutitsstateHomework*drawapagesketch(byhand,nophotographyallowed)ofthevendingmachine,stressingtheuserinterfacedetails(whatdoestheusersee,whatcantheuserpress,whatisthemapping,etc)*redrawthesketchusingacomputerandmakeaprintoutofit(noscanningallowed)*typeapage(x",pointfont,singlespaced)discussionofwhatisgoodandwhatisbadabouttheinterfaceBesuretoincludeyournameatthetop,andtheinformationonthevendingmachineitselfTurninyoursketch,theredrawnversion,andthepagediscussion,stapledtogetherCourse•Firstwewilllookatgoodandbaddesigningeneral,independentofcomputerprograms•Wewilllookathowtoeffectivelypresentinformationspendingmostofthecourselookingathowtoeffectivelydesigninterfaces•WewillfinallylookathowtoperformevaluationofthesetraditionalinterfacesandlookatspecificcasestudiesPlanforComingWeeks•IntroductionDesignofEverydayThings•InformationExplorationPresentationStyles•PrinciplesGoldenRules•InteractionDevicesDirectManipulationDesignofEverydayThings•Itexaminestheeffectofpoordesignandequipmentfailureonhumanbehavior•Itcoversusercentereddesign,oneverydaythingsandoneverydayactionsDesignofEverydayThings•“IjustfoundaNormandoor:Itwasreallydifficulttoopen”•“ScienceFinds,IndustryApplies,ManConforms”•ChicagoWorld'sFair•MoreaboutassimilationLookaroundyou•StartbylookingatInterfacesfor•Doors,Windows•Stove•Projectors•DVDplayersAffordances•Perceivedandactualpropertiesofathing,primarilythosefundamentalpropertiesthatdeterminejusthowthethingcouldpossiblybeused•Affordancesprovidestrongcluestotheoperationofathing•Knobsareforturning•Slotsareforinsertingthingsinto•ProvideagoodconceptualmodelandmakethingsvisibleExample:DoorExample:DoorTwoconceptualmodels•Thedesigner'sconceptualmodel•Theuser'sconceptualmodelSystemImage•Thesystemimageisthevisiblepartofadevice(includingthephysicalstructure,thedocumentation,instructions,etc)•Thedesigneronlytalkstotheuserthroughthesystemimage•Ifthesystemimagedoesn'tmakethedesignmodelclear,thentheuserwillcreateadifferentmodelthroughtheirinteractionMentalModel•Conceptualmodelofthewaysomethingworks•OftenconstructedfromfragmentaryevidenceExample:Thermostat•Willaroomorovenheat(orcool)fasterifthethermostatisturnedallthewaytothemaximumsettingThermostat•Two'folk'theoriesofthermostats•timertheorythermostatcontrolstherelativeproportionoftimethatthedevicestayson•valvetheorythermostatcontrolshowmuchheat(cold)comesoutofthedeviceThermostat•Botharewrong•Thermostatisanonoffswitch•Fullyonorfullyoffnoinbetween•Designgivesnohinttotheactualmodel•User'sformtheirowntheoriesAutomobile•Whyisthebasicautomobileeasytofigureout•Thingsarevisible•Goodmappingsbetweencontrolsandthingscontrolled•Singlecontrolshavesinglefunctions•atleastfordrivingtheradioisanotherstory•GoodfeedbackimmediateandobviouseffectMapping•Relationshipbetweencontrolsandtheiraffects•Wantthemappingtobe'natural'•takingadvantageofphysicalanalogiesandculturalstandards•Steeringwheel•Digitalalarmclocks•Stoveburners•LightswitchesConnectorConnectorHomeExamples•Nowriteupsontheappliances•Trialanderror•LightswitchesHomeExamplesHomeExampleslightswitchforfanlightsHomeExamplesPorchlightsHomeExamplesFuseboxandcircuitbreakersMoreExamples•Lookathome,aroundyou•http:wwwbaddesignscom•Thingsthatdon'tworkthewayyouexpect•Differentthingsthataretoosimilar•Thingsthatarehardtosee•Thingsthatdon'tworkwelltogether•Thingsthatgetinyourway•Thingsthatarehardtoremember•Constraints•Physical•Semantic•Cultural•LogicalExample:ToyExample:ToyForcingfunction•Upuntilthelatesitwaspossibletotryandstartcarwithoutthekeyintheignition•Thekeywasputinthedashboardtounlockthecarandthenyoupressedthestarterbutton•Nowyouinsertthekeyandturnittostartthecar•Separatingthesefunctionsismakingacomeback,sinceyoucannowremotelystartsomecarswithouthavingthekeyintheignitionForcingfunction•Insomecarsyouneedtousethekeystolockthedoor•Can’tlockkeysinsideForcingfunction•Interlockspreventaccidentaluseofadevice•forceoperationstotakeplaceinpropersequence•pinonfireextinguisherorhandgrenade•Lockinskeepsoperationactivepreventingsomeonefrompermanentlystoppingit•ifyouaskawordprocessortoquititshouldaskyouifyouwanttosavethemodifiedfileyouhavebeenworkingonordiscardthechanges•Lockoutspreventsaneventfromoccurring•incaseoffire,cantgobelowthefirstflooronstairsStagesofAction•Formingthegoalstatetobeachieved(oftenillformed)•Formingtheintentiongoaltranslatedintointentiontoperformsomeaction•Specifyinganactiontranslateintentionintosetofinternalcommands•Executingtheaction•Perceivingthestateoftheworld•Interpretingthestateoftheworld•EvaluatingtheoutcomeExample•Youreadingabookatduskanditsgettingdark•Goal•getmorelight•Formingintention•pushtheswitchonthelamp•Specifyingaction•howtomovebodyStagesasDesignAid•Howeasilycanaperson•Determinethefunctionofthedevice•Tellwhatactionsarepossible•Determinemappingfromintentiontophysicalmovement•Performtheaction•Tellifsystemisindesiredstate•Determinemappingfromsystemstatetointerpretation•TellwhatstatesystemisinExamples•Faucets•Airlinerapidcheckinmachines•Thinkabouttheseintermsof•Visibility•Mapping•Feedback•StagesofActionGulfofExecution•Howwelldoesthesystemallowsomeonetodotheirintendedactionsdirectly•Dotheaffordancesprovidedbythesystemmatchtheactionsintendedbytheperson•BadifnotclearwhatactionsneedtobedonetoaccomplishtheintentionGulfofEvaluation•Howwelldoesthesystemprovideavisiblestatethatcanbedirectlyperceivedandthatisinterpretableintermsoftheintentionsandexpectationsoftheuser•HowmucheffortusermustexerttointerpretthestateofthesystemanddeterminehowwelltheexpectationsandintentionshavebeenmetDesigningforErrorUnderstandthecauseoferroranddesigntominimizethosecausesMakeitpossibletoreverse(undo)actions,ormakeithardertodowhatcannotbereversedMakeiteasiertodiscovererrorsthatdooccurandmakethemeasiertocorrectThinkofanobject'suserasattemptingtodoatask,gettingtherebyimperfectapproximations,Don'tthinkoftheuserasmakingerrors,thinkoftheactionsasapproximationsofwhatisdesiredDesign•VisibilityUsercantellthestateofthedeviceandthealternativesforaction•GoodconceptualmodelUsergivenconsistentinpresentationofoperationsandresults•GoodMappingseasytodeterminerelationshipsbetweenactionsandresults,controlsandtheireffects,systemstateandwhat'svisible•FeedbackUserreceivesfullandcontinuousfeedbackComingNextTime•InformationExploration•PresentationStyles

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  • zjucute 2011-07-25 21:02:03

    是那本书的ppt,大纲,不是书本身

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