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首页 【华兹华斯与生态传统】Romantic_Ecology__Wordsworth_and_The_…

【华兹华斯与生态传统】Romantic_Ecology__Wordsworth_and_The_Environmental_Tradition.pdf

【华兹华斯与生态传统】Romantic_Ecology__Wo…

calvino_lue
2011-04-24 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【华兹华斯与生态传统】Romantic_Ecology__Wordsworth_and_The_Environmental_Traditionpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ROMANTICECOLOGY'WordsworthandtheEnvironmentalTraditionJonathanBateEILondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedtggtbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeadivisionofRoutledge,ChapmanandHall,IncWestthStreet,NewYork,NYG)JonathanBateTypesetinlptBembobyWitwellLtd,SouthportPrintedinGreatBritainbyClaysLtd,StIvesplcAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataBate,JonathanRomanticecology:WordsworthandtheenvironmentaltraditionPoetryinEnglish'Wordsworth,'William,ITitleLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBate,JonathanRomanticecology:'WordsworthandtheenvironmentaltraditionJonathanBatemf,t,a,t','ll"lWordsworth,Williant,{JKnowledgeNaturalhistoryWordsworth,Williarn,GPolicicalandsocialviewsEnvironmentalpolicyGreatBritainHistorythcenturyPastoralpoetry,EnglishHistoryandcriticismEnvironmentalpolicyinliteratureEcologyinliteratureNatureinliteratureRomanticismEnglandITitlePRN'dcrsBNosls(hbk)ISBNsa(pbk)Forparticipantspastandfutureinthe'WordsworthSummer(lonferenceand'Wordsworth'WinterSchoolatGrasmere,inwhosespiritofdialoguebetweenprofessionalcriticandcommonreader,,rndwithwhosesenseoftherelationshipbetweenpoetryandplace,thisbookiswrittenCONTENTSAcknowledgeffientsINTRODUCTTONIALANGUAGETHATISEVERGREENTHEECONOMYOFNATURETHEMORALOFLANDSCAPETHENAMTNGOFPLACESNofeslndexvlllACKNOWLEDGEMENTSIammostgratefultoJohnKerrigan,HilaryGaskin,andGlenCavalierofortheirreadingofthetypescriptandtoNicholasRoe,AlanLiu,LudmillaJordanova,andAiunDavidforcommentsondraftsofindividualchaptersThisbook'sapproachto'WordsworthowesadebttoTerryMcCormick,butneitherhenoranyoneotherthanmyselfisresponsibleforitsweaknessesForinvitationswhichgavemetheopportunitytotryoutsomeofmyideasintheformoflectures,IwouldliketothankRichardWordsworthofGrasmere,JayFoxofBrighamYoungUniversity(whoalsopublishedaversionofthelecture),andtheInterdisciplinaryGroupforHistoricalLiteraryStudiesofTexasAMUniversityAnearlierversionofabouthalfofchapterappearedinEssaysinCriticism,andafewsentencesothesamechapterrnTheCambridgeReuiewIamgratefultotheeditorsofthesepublicationsforpermissiontoreviseandreprintthismaterialJaneArmstrongatRoutledgeencouragedtheprojectfromanearlystageJBTrinityHall,CambridgeAllEnglandmay,ifitsochooses,becomeonemanufacturingt()wnandEnglishmen,sacrificingthemselvestothegoodofgt'ncralhumanity,maylivediminishedlivesinthemidstofnoise,,f'clarkness,andofdeadlyexhalationButtheworldcannotl,t'comeafactorynoramineNoamountofingenuitywillever,,r,rkcirondigestiblebythemillion,norsubstitutehydrogenforwirreNeithertheavaricenortherageofmenwilleverfeedtIr,'nrN,rririssweetthatissilentitisonlysweetwhenfulloflow(urrc:ntsofundersoundtripletsofbirds,andmurmurandchirp,,firrsectsAstheartoflifeislearned,itwillbefoundatlasttlrrtalllovelythingsarealsonecessarythewildflowerbythewryside,aswellasthetendedcornandthewildbirdsandtrt'ttureSoftheforest,aswellasthetendedcattlebecauseman,kr(hnotlivebybreadonlyJohnRuskin,(JntoThisLast()IrINTRODUCTIONTheairpollution,morethantheexistenceoftheIronCurtain,broughtabouttherevolutioninCzechoslovakia(LuboBeniak,Mlad'!SuEt,Prague,December)literarycriticismhasneverbeenapuredisciplineEversincePlatoandAristotlearguedoverwhetherpoetsareharmfulorbeneficialtothestrte,politicalandmoralconcernshaveborneinuponthediscussionoflrtcratureInevitablyandproperlythiswillbethecasesolongaspoctrcontinuestohaveanyeffectonhowweunderstandourselves,Ir,,wwethinkaboutthewaysinwhichweliveourlivesAspolitical,r,dmoralvisionschange,soliterarycriticismwillchangetooIbeganwritingthisintroductiononafairlytypicaldayearlyinwhenthethreeleadingstoriesontheeveningtelevisionnewswere:theCentral(ommitteeoftheCommunistPartyoftheSovietUnionvotedtorbolisharticlesixoftheconstitution,thusbringingtoanendthel,rrmalguaranteeoftheParty'ssolerighttoPowertheannouncementol'amovetowardsaunifiedGermancurrencyandtheaPPearanceofast'icrntificreportsupportingthehypothesisthattherearelinksbetweenlrt'akweatherconditionsandglobalwarmingwasmoreofanthana',,butitmaywelltakeitsplacerrrhistorybesidetheoriginalrevolutionaryyearasamomentwhenan,,ltlorderfinallydiedOnecouldwellimagineacitizenofCze,lroslovakiawhohadseenthePragueSpringofnippedinthebudlrndingintheeventsoftgSg'theshootsAndhopefulblossomsofa,t'condspring'ThephraseisWordsworth'sHeuseditwhenhe,,',cnedtheeleventhbookofthetextofhisautobiographicalepic,'t'hePrelude,atthemomentaftertheexecutionofMaximilienl(obespierre:'Fromthattimeforth,AuthorityinFrancePutonaruilderfaceTerrorhadceased'TheresonanceswithdonotneedslrcllingoutButinmakingacontemPoraryapplicationitisworthROMANTICECOLOGYpausingforamomentonthemetaphoricalappealtospringThe'PragueSpring'hasremainedapowerfulimageb"rrofits,error"lpropriety:itmakesusthinkoftheendofalongwinteroftyrannyorperhapsoflowerssproutingfromanironcurrainAswith'wordsworth's'secondspring',arransformationinthevolatilepoliticalorderisdramatizedbymeansofcomparisonwithafamiliarprocessinthecyclicalorderofexternalnatureTheforceoftheimagedependsonthestabilityofthenotionof'spring',theknowledgethateverywinterwillbefollowedby^spring*tltwillbriigwarmthandnewlifeThisnotioninturndependsonasetoassumptionsaboutmeteorologicalcertainty:itassumesthat,inEuropeatleast,winterwillalwaysbecoldAphraselikeWordsworth's,ItisthefirstmilddayofMarch'lonlymakessenseafteracoldJanuaryandFebruarySuddenlythatthirdnewsitemisseentobereler"o,oo,onlytopoliticsbutalsotopoetryoneeffectofglobalwarmingwillbe(iralready)apowerfulincreaseintheseverityofwindsinnorthernF,uropetheswallowhasgreatdifficultyincopingwithwind,sothereisagenuinepossibilitythatwithinthelifetimeoftoday'sstudentsBritainwillceasetobeacountrytowhichthisbirdmigratesKeats'sode'ToAutumn'ispredicateduponthecertaintyofthefollowingspring'sreturnthepoemwilllookverydifferentifthereissoonanautumnwhen'gatheringswallowstwitterintheskies'forthelasttimeTheswitnessedsomethingofareturntohistory,amoveawayfromahistoricalformalisms,amongpractitionersofliierarycriticismlntheareaofEnglishRomanticpoetry,thefoundationforthemostcharacteristicworkofthedecadewaslaidbyJeromeJMcGanninaseriesofessaysandasmallbutprovocativebookcalledTheRomanticIdeologyzThecapstoneofthedecade'scriticism,publisheding,wasaverylargebookbyAlanLiucalledwordsworth:ThesenseofHistorytTheconceptionsofideology'and'history'underlyingthesetook,,inthebroadsenseMarxistindeed,McGann'stitleisaveryconsciousechoofMarx'sThecermanldeologyIfwereducethethesi,ofthesecriticstoitsbarebones,wefindthatitisessentiallyasophisticatedrevisionofaveryoldaccusation:InhonouredpovertythyvoicedidweaveSongsconsecratetotruthandliberty,Desertingthese,thouleavestmetogrieve,Thushavingbeen,thatthoushouldstceasetobe(Shelley,'To'Wordsworth')INTRODUCTIONJustforahandfulofsilverheleftus,JustforaribandtostickinhiscoatHealonebreaksfromthevanandthefreemen,Healonesinkstotherearandtheslaves!(Browning,'TheLostLeader')Wordsworthdevelopedacreedoftheallpowerful,redeemingpoeticlrnagination,itispopored,asakindofcompensationforhispolitical,lisiliusionmentorevenaPostasyRomanticismgivesuPonitsoriginalrcvolutionaryimpulsesandfindswhatitsupposesis'Aparadisewithin,lrrrppierfar''Wordsworth'sgreatautobiographicalepicendsnotwith,,tlirrf,rldawnoftheearlydaysoftheFrenchRevolution,butwiththcRestorationofImagination:themindofmanbecomesAthousandtimesmorebeautifulthantheearthOnwhichhedwells,abovethisframeofthings(Which,'midallrevolutionsinthehopesAndfearsofmen,dothstillremainunchanged)Inbeautyexalted,asitisitselfOfsubstanceandoffabricmoredivine(ThePrelude,xlri)lrrraginationisseenasawayoftranscending'thisframeofthings',therrrthinwhichwedwell,whererevolutionsgosourimaginationrt'rrrains'unchanged',itis'exalted','divine'Themostremarkabletour,,'forceinAlanLiu'sbookisanexcavationofthe'history'inthis,,,r,rrtheNapoleonicmatterthatisburiedbeneath'Wordsworth'snr()stpowerfulapostrophetothelmagination,thecrossingoftheAlps,,ctionofThePrelude,booksixImplicitly,WordsworthisupbraidedIorsuppressinghistoryandfor'privileging'theindividualimaginationAlterall,'individualism'isabourgeoisfetish'Iheargumentsareextremelysubtle,attimesbrilliant,buttherrrrderlyingvisionisthecrudeoldmodelofLeftandRightThisisrnrrlerstandable:afterall,thosetermsthemselvesarederivedfromthesrrtingplanoftheNationalAssemblyintherevolutionaryFrancewhictr,'WordsworthvisitedButitispreciselythisoldmodelthatisl,t'ginrringtolookredundantasMarxistLeninismcollapsesinEasternlrriropeFrthore,ifthequotationatthebeginningofmyintroducrionistobebelieved,thiscollapsecannotbeconstructedasanythingsosinrpleasatriumphoftheRight,letaloneofinternationalcapitali,r,ro,difficulttoassimilatenationalismandreligion,twoofthedrivinglirrcesoftherevolutions,intoaLeftRightmodel,buttheROMANTICECOLOGYpoliticalsignificanceofairpollutiondemandsacategoriesThepoliticalmaphasbeenredrawnrethinkingoftheanditistimeforliterarycriticismtopoliticizeitselfinanewwayForallthetheorizingofthelasttwohundredyears,andinparricularthelasttwenry,noonehassucceededmuchbtie,thanDryohnsonindefiningthefunctionofwharwenowcall'literature,:TheJnlyendofwritingistoenablethereadersbettertoenjoylife,orbettertoendureit'ThusonemightsaythatforaneoMarxistreaderintheAmericanacademytheendofwritingistomakepoliticalmarginalizationendurableandtosettheoreticalcatsamongestablishment"pigeonsinenjoyablewaysThisbookisdedicatedtothlpropositionth"tih*"yinwhichwilliamwordsworthsough,too"tlehisreadersbetterroenjoyortoendurelifewasbyteachingthemtolookatanddwellinthenaturalworldSuchapropositionsoundsunexceptionable:mostpeopleknowtwofactsaboutwordsworth,thath*otaboutd"ffodis"ndthathelivedintheLakeDistrict,andthesetwofactswouldseemtosuggestthathewasa'naturepoet'Butsomeofthemosteminentliterarycriticsofourtimehavebelievedthatwordsworthwasnotanaturepoet,orthatthereisnosuchthingasnature,orthatifthereissuchathingandWordsworthwasinterestedinitthenthatinterestwasverysuspectonpoliticalgroundsThecommonreader'sviewofwordsworthderivesfromthevictorianwayofreadinghim,JohnStuartMill'sway,JohnRuskin's,LeslieStephen'sthisbooiwillarguethat,unfashionableasthatwaynowisinlilerarycircles,itmightj"ustbethemostusefulwayofapproaching'wordsworthinthetqosandtheearlytwentyfirstcenturyTheconceptofa'useful'wayofreadingisaJohnsonianoneThetwosentencesprecedinghisfamousremarkaboutthefunctionofwritingarethefollowing:Manyofthebookswhichnowcroudtheworld,maybejustlysuspectedtobewrittenforthesakeofsomeinvisibleojofbeings,forsurelytheyareofnousetoanyofthecorporealinhabitantsoftheworldoftheproductior*oithelastbouitor,yeer,howmanycanbesaidtoserveanypurposeofuseorpleasureTheonlyexcuseforaddingtothealreadyovercrowdedshelfofbookson'lTordsworthistotrytorevealrocorporealreadershowtheymayderivesomefreshuseorpleasurefromhisworksMuchliterarycriticismandtheorizingisaimed,ifnotatan'invisibleorderofbeings,thenatanumericallyminuteorderwithintheacademyThisboofi,INTRODUCTION,ldressedtosomeofthecurrentconcernsotheacademy,butitisalsowrittenfor'thecommonreader'Toaddressthetwoaudiencesatonceisariskybusiness,sincetheybeginwithverydifferentpremisesaboutwriting'Broadlyspeaking,'asFrankKermodehasit,'theeliteisstillrrndertheinfluenceofnotionsofaestheticautonomythathadtheir,rriginsinthethoughtofthelateeighteenthcenturythemassesassumethatnaiverealismistheproperaimowriting'oCrudely:thecommon't'aderisinterestedinwhatliteratureis'about'theprofessionalreaderisinterestedinthewaysinwhichliteratureisnot'about'thethingsits:rysitisabout,isinterestedinwhatliteraturesuppresses(egwomen,history)orinthepropositionthatliteraturecannotreallybe'about'rrrythingsinceto'decode'atextisto'reencode'itInabooksuchasrlristherewillinevitablybemomentswhentheassumptionswillseemrrrivelytransparenttoprofessionalreadersandunnecessarilyoPaqueto(()nlmonreadersButsuchmomentsmightbeconsideredapriceworth,:ryingfortheopeningofadialoguebetweenverydifferentkindsofr',rderSinceDrJohnsonrecognizedthatwritingalwayshasanend,he*,,uldnothavebeensurprisedbythemodernviewthatwhenwritingrlroutliterarytextswecannotavoidbeingaffectedbyourownlristoricalcircumstancesTheendsofliterarycriticsarenotonlyt'xcgeticalbutalsopolemicalconsciouslyornot,criticsalwaysreadt('xtsselectiveiyinordertomakethemservetheirownpurposesllcdescriptionthusslidesintoappropriationDevoutnineteenth(('nturyreviewersusedthediscourseofreligionwhenwritingaboutWordsworthemancipatedlatetwentiethcenturycriticsusethedis(()urseoffeminismwhenwritingaboutRomanticism:boththenandrrw,elementsoforabsencesfromthepoet'swritingsareemphasized,'r,,rdertofulfilthespecificpolemicaldesiresofspecificreadersButrrsonlereadingsandthopetoshowthatmyreadingofWordsworthrsoneothemthecritic'spurposesarealsothewriter's,andwhenrlrisisthecasetherecanbeacommunionbetweenlivingreaderand,lt'adwriterwhichmaybringwithitaparticularenjoymentandal)('rceptionaboutenduranceKeatssaidthatwemayreadfinethingslrutweneverfeelthemtothefulluntilwehavegonethesamestepsasrlrcauthorIshallarguethatWordsworthwentbeforeusinsomeofthestepswearenowtakinginourthinkingabouttheenvironmentThepurposewhichJeromeMcGannwishedtomake'WordsworthscrveinthehistoricalcircumstancesoftheearlyswasthelroliticizationofRomanticstudiesintheUnitedStatesItwasnotnewtrrreadRomanticismpoliticallyFromWilliamHazlittonwards,manyROMANTICECOLOGY'lrrtrttsttislrcdreadershavearguedthattheFrenchRevolutionwasthe'tttttrlbassofthepoeticrevolutionwenowcallRomanticismSinceitrsrrrrrifestfromTheEighteenthBrumaireofLouisBonapartethattheIrt'rrchRevolutionwasalsothegoundb"ssofMarxism,McGannrrrighthavefurtheredhisendsblyarguingthatRomanticismandMarxismmakethesamemusicAndifehadwishedtomakeconceptualasopposedtohistoricalconnectionshecouldperhapshavebegunwithHazlitt'sdistinctionbetween,basis,"od,r,rprrrLrur,(thelatterincluding'language,literature,manners,nationalcustoms,)inthefragmentaryRoundiobleesr^y'onpatriotism,sButMcGannchosenottofollowsuchactivistsasEpThompsonandMichaelFootintoLeftleaningdescriptionsofRomanticismH*",influencednot::muchbypoliticalpracticeasbyLouisAlthusser,smodelofliterarure'sservilitytoideorogyeHeaccordinglyredescribedRomantirirasideology:the'Romanticldeology'drplr,andidearizes,itprivilegesimaginationattheexpense#nirroy,ircoversupsocialconditionsasitquestsfortransrdn,Theideathatpoetry,'""consciousness,cansetonefreeoftheruinsofhistoryandcultureisthegrandillusionofeveryRomanticpoet'rorhepoint'aboutthisdritionisnotthatitistrueforofouritissplendidlytrueinrespectsanddeeplyfalseinothersbutth"iit,rrd"porpor,namelytooferachallenge,:,h:hegemonywhichia"tr}og,imaginationprivilegingcriticslikeGeofdeyH'"t",andHaroldBloomhadheldoverRomanticstudiesintheuoiraStatesfortwentyyears,inparticularthroughtheirhugelyinfluentialbooks,irar*ri'n,,PoetryandThevisilnarycompanyrlInadevelopmentparalleltothesocalled'newhistoricism'inRenaissancestudir,thburr*odRomanticistsarenow'history'and'politics'termslikevision,and'imagination',socentraltothepreviousgenerationofcritics,arenowtreatedwithscepticismandoftenootigf,thostilityMcGannhashadextraordinarysuccessingettingwhathe"wanted,"rldno*itlooksasifeverybodyisconstructingRomanticismideoiogicallyrhro,rgh,modelhistoricalpogession,whatbeganasan"rrJ',p,tooverthrowahegemonicregimehasitselfbecomehgroricAnewchallengeisleede{,oranotherBourbonRestorationwillbeuponusbeforeweKnowrtEtymologyteachesusthat'radical'pertainsto'root,AradicalreadingwillgorosomerootThusacriticintheThompsonFootmould,likeNicholasRoe,willgobacktotheRomantics,participationintherevolutionaryactivityofthsThoseintheMcGannmouldwillgotothesamerootbutorntrateonthepoet,slatersuppressionINTRODUCTION,fthatrevolutionaryactivityExemplaryanalysesofthelattersortareAlanLiu'sreadingoftheerasureofNapoleonfrom'Wordsworth's:rccountofthecrossingoftheSimplonPass,whichIhavealreadyrrrentioned,andanessaybyMarjorieLevinsononthe(supposed)transmutationoftheLibertyTreeandtheChampdeMarsintothetree,rndfieldofthelmmortalityOde,withitsimplicationthattoreplacehistoricallyparticularrevolutionarysymbolswithidealorimaginativeconceptionsofTreeandFieldisadubioussleightofhandtrIftheFrenchRevolutionwasonegreatrootofRomanticism,thenwhatusedtobecalled

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