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Model-Based Design for Embedded Systems.pdf

Model-Based Design for Embedded…

上传者: sunlove2008 2011-04-23 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Model-Based Design for Embedded Systemspdf》,可适用于工程科技领域,主题内容包含NicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPageiModelBasedDesignfor符等。

NicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPageiModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsNicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPageiiComputationalAnalysis,Synthesis,andDesignofDynamicModelsSeriesSeriesEditorPieterJMostermanTheMathWorksNatick,MassachusettsDiscreteEventModelingandSimulation:APractitioner'sApproach,GabrielAWainerDiscreteEventModelingandSimulation:TheoryandApplications,editedbyGabrielAWainerandPieterJMostermanModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystems,editedbyGabrielaNicolescuandPieterJMostermanModelBasedTestingforEmbeddedSystems,editedbyJustynaZander,InaSchieferdecker,andPieterJMostermanMultiAgentSystems:SimulationApplications,editedbyAdelindeMUhrmacherandDannyWeynsNicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPageiiiCRCPressisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup,aninformabusinessBocaRatonLondonNewYorkModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsGabrielaNicolescuPieterJMostermanNicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPageivMATLABandSimulinkaretrademarksofTheMathWorks,IncandareusedwithpermissionTheMathWorksdoesnotwarranttheaccuracyofthetextofexercisesinthisbookThisbook’suseordiscussionofMATLABandSimulinksoftwareorrelatedproductsdoesnotconstituteendorsementorsponsorshipbyTheMathWorksofaparticularpedagogicalapproachorparticularuseoftheMATLABandSimulinksoftwareCRCPressTaylorFrancisGroupBrokenSoundParkwayNW,SuiteBocaRaton,FLbyTaylorandFrancisGroup,LLCCRCPressisanimprintofTaylorFrancisGroup,anInformabusinessNoclaimtooriginalUSGovernmentworksPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperInternationalStandardBookNumber:(Hardback)ThisbookcontainsinformationobtainedfromauthenticandhighlyregardedsourcesReasonableeffortshavebeenmadetopublishreliabledataandinformation,buttheauthorandpublishercannotassumeresponsibilityforthevalidityofallmaterialsortheconsequencesoftheiruseTheauthorsandpublishershaveattemptedtotracethecopyrightholdersofallmaterialreproducedinthispublicationandapologizetocopyrightholdersifpermissiontopublishinthisformhasnotbeenobtainedIfanycopyrightmaterialhasnotbeenacknowledgedpleasewriteandletusknowsowemayrectifyinanyfuturereprintExceptaspermittedunderUSCopyrightLaw,nopartofthisbookmaybereprinted,reproduced,transmitted,orutilizedinanyformbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopying,microfilming,andrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublishersForpermissiontophotocopyorusematerialelectronicallyfromthiswork,pleaseaccesswwwcopyrightcom(http:wwwcopyrightcom)orcontacttheCopyrightClearanceCenter,Inc(CCC),RosewoodDrive,Danvers,MA,CCCisanotforprofitorganizationthatprovideslicensesandregistrationforavarietyofusersFororganizationsthathavebeengrantedaphotocopylicensebytheCCC,aseparatesystemofpaymenthasbeenarrangedTrademarkNotice:Productorcorporatenamesmaybetrademarksorregisteredtrademarks,andareusedonlyforidentificationandexplanationwithoutintenttoinfringeLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataModelbaseddesignforembeddedsystemsGabrielaNicolescu,PieterJMostermanpcm(Computationalanalysis,synthesis,anddesignofdynamicmodelsseries)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(hardcover:alkpaper)EmbeddedcomputersystemsDesignandconstructionINicolescu,G(Gabriela)IIMosterman,PieterJIIITitleIVSeriesTKEMdcVisittheTaylorFrancisWebsiteathttp:wwwtaylorandfranciscomandtheCRCPressWebsiteathttp:wwwcrcpresscomNicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPagevContentsPrefaceixIntroductionxiContributorsxixPartIRealTimeandPerformanceAnalysisinHeterogeneousEmbeddedSystemsPerformancePredictionofDistributedPlatformsLotharThieleandSimonPerathonerSystemCBasedPerformanceAnalysisofEmbeddedSystemsJürgenSchnerr,OliverBringmann,MatthiasKrause,AlexanderViehl,andWolfgangRosentielFormalPerformanceAnalysisforRealTimeHeterogeneousEmbeddedSystemsSimonSchliecker,JonasRox,RafikHenia,RazvanRacu,ArneHamann,andRolfErnstModelBasedFrameworkforSchedulabilityAnalysisUsingUPPAALAlexandreDavid,JacobIllum,KimGLarsen,andArneSkouModelingandAnalysisFrameworkforEmbeddedSystemsJanMadsen,MichaelRHansen,andAskeWBreklingTrueTime:SimulationToolforPerformanceAnalysisofRealTimeEmbeddedSystemsAntonCervinandKarlErikÅrzénvNicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPageviviContentsPartIIDesignToolsandMethodologyforMultiprocessorSystemonChipMPSoCPlatformMappingToolsforDataDominatedApplicationsPierreGPaulin,OlivierBenny,MichelLangevin,YoucefBouchebaba,ChuckPilkington,BrunoLavigueur,DavidLo,VincentGagne,andMichelMetzgerRetargetable,EmbeddedSoftwareDesignMethodologyforMultiprocessorEmbeddedSystemsSoonhoiHaProgrammingModelsforMPSoCKatalinPopoviciandAhmedJerrayaPlatformBasedDesignandFrameworks:METROPOLISandMETROIIFeliceBalarin,MassimilianoD’Angelo,AbhijitDavare,DouglasDensmore,TrevorMeyerowitz,RobertoPasserone,AlessandroPinto,AlbertoSangiovanniVincentelli,AlenaSimalatsar,YosinoriWatanabe,GuangYang,andQiZhuReconfigurableMulticoreArchitecturesforStreamingApplicationsGerardJMSmit,AndréBJKokkeler,GerardKRauwerda,andJanWMJacobsFPGAPlatformsforEmbeddedSystemsStephenNeuendorfferPartIIIDesignToolsandMethodologyforMultidomainEmbeddedSystemsModeling,Verification,andTestingUsingTimedandHybridAutomataStavrosTripakisandThaoDangSemanticsofDomainSpecificModelingLanguagesEthanJackson,RyanThibodeaux,JosephPorter,andJanosSztipanovitsMultiViewpointStateMachinesforRichComponentModelsAlbertBenveniste,BenoîtCaillaud,andRobertoPasseroneNicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPageviiContentsviiGenericMethodologyfortheDesignofContinuousDiscreteCoSimulationToolsLuizaGheorghe,GabrielaNicolescu,andHanifaBouchenebModelingandSimulationofMixedContinuousandDiscreteSystemsEdwardALeeandHaiyangZhengDesignRefinementofEmbeddedMixedSignalSystemsJanHaase,MarkusDamm,andChristophGrimmPlatformforModelBasedDesignofIntegratedMultiTechnologySystemsIanO’ConnorCADToolsforMultiDomainSystemsonChipsStevenPLevitan,DonaldMChiarulli,TimothyPKurzweg,JoseAMartinez,SamuelJDickerson,MichaelMBails,DavidKReed,andJasonMBolesSmartSensorsModelingUsingVHDLAMSforMicroinstrumentImplementationwithaDistributedArchitectureCarlesFerrer,LauraBarrachinaSaralegui,andBibianaLorenteAlvarezIndexNicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPageviiiNicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPageixPrefaceTheunparalleledflexibilityofcomputationhasbeenakeydriverandfeaturebonanzainthedevelopmentofawiderangeofproductsacrossabroadanddiversespectrumofapplicationssuchasintheautomotiveaerospace,healthcare,consumerelectronics,etcConsequently,theembeddedmicroprocessorsthatimplementcomputationalfunctionalityhavebecomeapartofalmosteveryfacetofourworld,therebysignificantlyimprovingthequalityofourlivesTheversatilityofcomputationalfeaturesinvitesandendorsesadegreeofimaginationandcreativityindesignthathasunlockedanalmostinsatiabledemandforconsistentlyincreasingboththecomplexityofembeddedsystemsandtheperformanceofembeddedcomputationsThequesttorisetothesedemandshasresultedincomputingarchitecturesofaheterogeneousnatureThesearchitecturesoftenintegrateseveraltypesofprocessors,analoganddigitalelectroniccomponents,aswellasmechanicalandopticalcomponents,allonasinglechipToefficientlydesignforsuchheterogeneityandtomaximallyexploititscapabilitieshavebecomeoneofthemostprominentchallengesthatwearenowfacedwithasadesignautomationcommunityModelBasedDesignisemergingasasolutiontobridgethegapbetweencomputationalcapabilitiesthatareavailablebutthatweareyetunabletoexploitUsingacomputationalapproachinthedesignitselfallowsraisingthelevelofabstractionofthesystemspecificationatwhichnovelanddifferentiatingfunctionalitiesarecapturedAutomationcanthenassistinrefiningthisspecificationtoanimplementationForthistobesuccessful,performancestudiesofpotentialimplementationsatahighlevelofabstractionareessential,combinedwiththenecessityoftraceabilityandparameterizationthroughouttherefinementprocessThisbookprovidesacompilationoftheworkofinternationallyrenownedauthorsonModelBasedDesignEachchaptercontributessupremeresultsthathavehelpedestablishModelBasedDesignandthatcontinuetoexpanditsbarriersTherespectiveauthorsexcelintheirexpertiseontheautomationofdesignrefinementandhowtorelatepropertiesthroughoutthisrefinementwhileenablinganalyticandsyntheticqualitiesWearedelightedandhonoredbytheirparticipationintheeffortthatledtothisbook,andwesincerelyhopethatthereaderswillfindtheindulgenceofintellectualachievementasenjoyableandstimulatingaswedoInclosing,wewouldliketoexpressourgenuineappreciationandgratitudeforallthetimeandeffortthateachoftheauthorshasputinOurixNicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPagexxPrefacepleasantcollaborationhascertainlyhelpedmakethecompletionofthisprojectaseasyaspossibleOfcourse,noneofthiswouldhavebeenpossiblewithoutthecontinuoussupportoftheteamatTaylorFrancis,especiallyourpublisher,NoraKonopka,andthestaffinvolvedintheverificationandproductionprocess:AmyBlalock,AshleyGasque,andCatherineGiacariManythankstoeachofyouAspecialwordofthanksgoesouttoJeanneDaunaisforhelpinguswiththeextensivepreparationofthefinalmaterialGabrielaNicolescuPieterJMostermanMATLABRisaregisteredtrademarkofTheMathWorks,IncForproductinformation,pleasecontact:TheMathWorks,IncAppleHillDriveNatick,MAUSATel:Fax:Email:infomathworkscomWeb:wwwmathworkscomSeewwwmathworkscomtrademarks<http:wwwmathworkscomtrademarks>foralistofadditionaltrademarksNicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPagexiIntroductionGabrielaNicolescuandPieterJMostermanThepurposeofthisbookistoprovideacomprehensiveoverviewofthecurrentstateofModelBasedDesignforembeddedsystems,thechallengesinvolved,andthelatesttrendsToachievethisobjective,thebookoffersacompilationofoutstandingcontributionsfromindustryandacademiaThecontributionsaregroupedintothreemainpartsPartIcomprisesthecontributionsthatfocusonakeydimensioninthedesignofembeddedsystems:theperformanceanalysisofrealtimebehaviorbasedoncomputationalmodelsPartIIiscomposedofcontributionsproposingapproachesthattakeintoconsiderationthespecificcharacteristicsanddesignchallengesofmultiprocessorsystemsonchip(MPSoCs)PartIIIcontainscontributionsinthefieldofsystemleveldesignofmultidomainsystemsAn“embeddedsystem”isasystemdesignedtoperformadedicatedfunction,typicallywithtightrealtimeconstraints,limiteddimensions,andlowcostandlowpowerrequirementsItisacombinationofcomputerhardwareandsoftwareandadditionalmechanical,optical,orotherpartsthataretypicallyusedinthespecificroleofactuators,sensors,andtransducers,ingeneralInsomecases,embeddedsystemsarepartofalargersystemorproduct,forexample,anantilockbrakingsysteminacarExamplesofembeddedsystemsarecellphones,digitalcameras,GPSreceivers,faxmachines,printers,debitcreditcardreaders,heartratemonitors,bloodgasmonitors,etcGanTheevolutionofembeddedsystemsparallelsMoore’slaw,whichstatesthatthenumberoftransistorsonanintegratedcircuitdoubleseverymonthsThistechnologicalprogressenabledtheintegrationofcomplexelectronicsystemsonasinglechipandtheemergenceofMPSoCsAnMPSoCisasystemonchipthatcontainsmultipleinterconnectedinstructionsetprocessors(CPUs)ThetypicalMPSoCisaheterogeneousmultiprocessorJer:itiscomposedofseveraldifferenttypesofprocessingelementsMoreover,thememoryarchitectureandtheinterconnectionnetworkmaybeheterogeneousaswellMPSoCscanbefoundinmanyproductssuchasdigitaltelevisions,settopboxes,telecommunicationnetworks,cellphones,andvideogamesInresponsetothechallengesoffurtherminiaturization,theInternationalTechnologyRoadmapforSemiconductors(ITRS)emphasizestheMoreThanMoore’sLawmovementITRThismovementfocusesonxiNicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPagexiixiiIntroductionsystemintegrationratherthananincreaseintransistordensityandleadstoafunctionaldiversificationinintegratedsystemsThisdiversificationallowsfornondigitalfunctionalitysuchasradiofrequency(RF)circuitrypowercontrol,optical,andormechanicalcomponentssensorsandactuatorstomigratefromthesystemboardlevelintothesocalledsysteminpackage(SiP)levelorsystemonchip(SoC)levelimplementationTUMThesemultidomainheterogeneoussystemsenablenewapplicationsandcreatenewmarketsSystemapplicationsareinkeyfieldssuchastransportation,mobility,security,health,energy,communication,education,andentertainmentZHASomeexamplesofapplicationsofthesesystemsaredevicesfornonintrusivesurgery,sensorsforharshenvironments(eg,chemicallyaggressive,extremetemperature,excessivevibration,andhighshock),carsurroundsensors,precrashdetection,energyautonomoussystems,tirepressuremonitoring,cartocarcommunicationandnavigation,andultrasonicdevices(eg,fordistancemeasurementandthreedimensionalimaging)TheheterogeneityofmodernembeddedsystemsisresponsibleforacomplexitythatisexceptionallychallengingtotheirdesignMoreover,thesesystemshaveparticularlytightperformance,timetomarket,andcostconstraintsTomeettheseconstraints,engineersmustfindsolutionstoefficientlydesignsystemsincludingcomplexelectroniccomponentsthatintegrateseveralcores,RFcircuitry,digitalandanaloghardwarecomponents,aswellasmechanicalandopticalcomponentsModelBasedDesignaddressesthisissuebyfocusingoncomputationalmodelsasthecoredesignartifactThemodelenablesahierarchicaldesignprocesswheretheentiresystemisfirstrepresentedatanabstractlevelwhilemodelelaborationiterativelyrefinesthisdesignandincludesdetailsasnecessarytoimplementtherequiredfunctionalityThus,differentmodelsthatmaybeplayingdifferentrolesarerequiredforthemainstagesofthedesign:thespecification,thetestandvalidation,andtheconsecutiverefinementTheabilitytoefficientlyconstructmodelscombinedwithassociatedtoolsandsystematicmethodologiesprimesModelBasedDesignforsuccessbyprovidingacompletesolutionthatenablesconcurrentengineering,performanceanalysis,automatictestgeneration,buildingefficientspecificationsandexecutionmodels,codegenerationandoptimization,andautomaticrefinementthroughdifferentabstractionlevelsThisbookprovidesacomprehensivesurveyandoverviewofthebenefitsofModelBasedDesigninthefieldofheterogeneousembeddedsystemsTheselectedcontributionspresentsuccessfulapproacheswheremodels,tools,andmethodologiesresultinimportantcostreductionandperformancegainofheterogeneousembeddedsystemswhiledecreasingtheirtimetomarketOrganizationThisbookisdividedintothreeparts:PartIRealTimeandPerformanceAnalysisinHeterogeneousEmbeddedSystems,PartIIDesignToolsandMethodologyforMultiprocessorSystemonChip,andPartIIIDesignNicolescuModelBasedDesignforEmbeddedSystemsCFinalsPagexiiiIntroductionxiiiToolsandMethodologyforMultidomainEmbeddedSystemsThefollowingtextpresentsanoverviewofeachofthepartsalongwithabriefintroductiontothecontentsofeachofthechaptersPartIRealTimeandPerformanceAnalysisinHeterogeneousEmbeddedSystemsPartIhighlightstheimportanceofconsideringtherealtimeaspectsofheterogeneousembeddedsystemsalongwithanalysesoftheirperformanceThispartcomprisessixchaptersthatfocusoncapturingtheaspectsoftiminginmodelsforembeddedsystems,andondefiningtoolsthatexploitthesemodelsinordertoprovideaccurateperformancepredictionandanalysisintheearlystagesofdesignTheseaspectsareillustratedbymeansofapplicationsinthefieldsofsignalandimageprocessing,automotive,robotics,andwirelesscommunicationsChapterprovidesaclearintroductiontosystemlevelperformancepredictionandanalysisIthighlightsitsroleindesignandprovidesanoverviewofthetwomainapproachescurrentlyemployedinthisfield:theanalyticalandthesimulationbasedapproachesTheintroduction

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