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MCNP5PCs.pdf

MCNP5PCs

liwenguo
2011-04-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《MCNP5PCspdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

LAURApprovedforpublicreleasedistributionisunlimitedTitle:Author(s):Submittedto:Form()LosAlamosNationalLaboratory,anaffirmativeactionequalopportunityemployer,isoperatedbytheUniversityofCaliforniafortheUSDepartmentofEnergyundercontractWENGByacceptanceofthisarticle,thepublisherrecognizesthattheUSGovernmentretainsanonexclusive,royaltyfreelicensetopublishorreproducethepublishedformofthiscontribution,ortoallowotherstodoso,forUSGovernmentpurposesLosAlamosNationalLaboratoryrequeststhatthepublisheridentifythisarticleasworkperformedundertheauspicesoftheUSDepartmentofEnergyLosAlamosNationalLaboratorystronglysupportsacademicfreedomandaresearcher’srighttopublishasaninstitution,however,theLaboratorydoesnotendorsetheviewpointofapublicationorguaranteeitstechnicalcorrectnessNuclearMathematicalandComputationalSciences:ACenturyinReview,ACenturyAnewGatlinburg,Tennessee,April,,onCDROM,AmericanNuclearSociety,LaGrangePark,IL()MCNPTMIMPROVEMENTSFORWINDOWSPCSTimGoorley,ForrestBrown,andLawrenceJCoxLosAlamosNationalLaboratoryXDivision,X,MSFLosAlamos,NMjgoorleylanlgov,fbrownlanlgov,ljcoxlanlgovABSTRACTWiththereleaseofMCNP,muchmoreemphasishasbeenplacedonimprovingitsfunctionalityonPCsrunningMicrosoftWindowsâ(XNTXP)Enhancedinstallationandbuildsystems,supportformoreFortrancompilers,integrationwithXgraphicsbuildfiles,andMPIandPVMparallelcapabilitieshavebeenimplementedinMCNPforWindowsPCsMCNPcanbeinstalledwithanInstallShieldsetupprograms,similartootherWindowsprograms,foruserswhoonlyneedtoinstallexecutablesanddatalibrariesForthoseuserswhoneedtocompilethesource,theGNUmakeutilitycanusedinconjunctionwiththreesupportedFortrancompilers:CompaqVisualFortran(CVF),LaheyFortran(LF)orAbsoftFortran(AF)Alternatively,CompaqDeveloperStudiocanbeusedtocompileMCNPTheXWindowsplottingcapabilitieshavebeenimproved,andalltheappropriateopensourceXRfilesforcompilingMCNParebundledwiththeMCNPsourcecodeXclientsoftwareisstillneeded,however,todisplaygeometry,crosssectionortallyplotsParallelcapabilitieswhichexistonotherplatformshavebeenextendedtoWindowsPCs,allowinguserstoutilizedualCPUPCs,clustersofhomogeneousWindowsPCs(preferablywithMPI),orheterogeneousclusters(preferablywithPVM)WallclockruntimesshowthatMCNPcompiledwithCVFrunstimesfasterthanwhenitiscompiledwithLForAFWallclockruntimesalsoshowMCNPwithMPIandthebalancekeywordmoreeffectivelyutilizesadualprocessorandasmallheterogeneousclusterWindowsPCthanMCNPwithPVMKeyWords:MCNP,MicrosoftWindows,Parallel,MPI,PVMINTRODUCTIONMCNPVersion,,,ageneralpurposeradiationtransportcomputercode,hasbeenreleasedtotheRadiationSafetyInformationComputationalCenterMCNPisdevelopedandsupportedbytheEolusteamatLosAlamosNationalLaboratory(LANL)tosupportAcceleratedStrategicComputingInitiative(ASCI)projectsWiththisrelease,MCNPhasbeenrewrittenintoFortranandseveralnewfeatureshavebeenaddedThesenewfeaturesincludeanewbuildandinstallationprocess,colorplottingenhancements,Dopplerenergybroadeningforphotons,aneutralparticleradiographyimagingcapability,improvedsourceoptions,timeimportancevariancereduction,supportforparallelcommunicationswithMPI,newrandomnumbergenerators,dynamicmemoryonallplatforms,andanewmeshtallycapabilityMCNPisatrademarkoftheRegentsoftheUniversityofCalifornia,LosAlamosNationalLaboratoryTGoorley,FBrown,LJCoxAmericanNuclearSocietyTopicalMeetinginMathematicsComputations,Gatlinburg,TN,EnhancementsforMicrosoftWindowsâPCshavealsobeenincludedwiththisrelease,sincedesktopPCsincreasetheirpowerandpopularityforscientificcomputingapplicationsInadditiontothenewcodefeatureswhichareavailableonallplatforms,improvementsforWindowsPCsincludetwonewmethodsforinstallingandcompilingthesource,supportforthreecommercialFORTRANcompilers,andeasierbuildingofplottingversionswithincludedXgraphicsfilesSupportforparallelcapabilityusingMessagePassingInterfaceMPI,orParallelVirtualMachinePVM,protocols,originallyonotherplatforms,hasbeenextendedtoWindowsPCsThesenewparallelcapabilitiesallowMCNPtoberunonhomogeneousandheterogeneousclustersandordualprocessorMicrosoftWindowsPCsThesePCenhancementsarethesubjectofthispaperThefollowingtwosectionsdescribehowtoinstallandbuildMCNPonaPCThesubsequenttwosectionsdiscussacomparisonofthewallclockruntimesforMCNPonadualprocessordesktopandanetworkofdifferentCPUspeedlaptopsINSTALLINGMCNPONWINDOWSPCSTherearetwodifferentwaystoinstallMCNPonaPCrunningaWindowsoperatingsystem(NTXPME)ThesimplestmethodistousetheInstallShieldâsetupprograms,similartothatofotherWindowsprogramsThefirstsetupprogramcopiestheMCNPexecutables,sourcecode,andtestproblemstoauserselecteddirectoryandthensetstwoenvironmentalvariablesTheMCNPVisualEditorandMCNPdocumentationarealsoinstalledThesecondsetupprograminstallsthedatalibraries,MAKXSF(acrosssectionlibrarycompressionprogram),thefilesXSDIRandSPECS,andsetsanenvironmentalvariableTheuseristhenaskedtologoutandloginandthenrunthetestproblemstoverifythatMCNPhasbeeninstalledcorrectlyThemainadvantageofusingthismethodisthatnocompilersareneededandnosourcecodeneedstobebuiltThisoptionmeetstheneedsofmostusersAlternativelytheusercancopytheMCNPdirectorytreetothedesiredlocationandusetheinstallscripttobuildMCNP,MAKXSF,andorrunthetestproblemsuiteTheinstallscriptcanbeusedtobuildMCNPonlyiftheappropriatecompilersarealreadyinstalledTheadvantagetothismethodisthattheexecutablescanberebuilttoapplypatchesormodificationstothesourceAfterinstallingtheMCNPexecutable,additionalsoftwaremayneedtobeinstalledandappropriateenvironmentalvariablesmayneedtobesetorchangedtotakeadvantageofXgraphicsorparallelcommunicationscapabilitiesinMCNPXwindowsclientsoftware,notprovidedwithMCNP,needstoberunningtodisplaygeometry,tally,orcrosssectionplotsXWindowssoftwareisdiscussedinsectionofthispaperTousetheparallelversionsoftheMCNPexecutables,parallelcommunicationssoftwarewillneedtobeinstalledpriortorunningwiththiscapability,andpriortobuildingaparallelversionofMCNP,iftheInstallShieldexecutablesarenotusedSpecificinstructionsonhowtoinstallMPIandPVMaregiveninsectionTheenvironmentalvariablesPATHandDATAPATHcanbemodifiedtomakefilemanagementeasierDISPLAYmayneedtobesettousetheplottingcapabilitiesofMCNPMCNPenvironmentalvariablesarediscussedinsectionMCNPIMPROVEMENTSFORWINDOWSPCSAmericanNuclearSocietyTopicalMeetinginMathematicsComputations,Gatlinburg,TN,TheInstallShieldSetupProgramTheInstallShieldprogramsforMCNParesimilartothatofotherwindowsapplicationsDoubleclickingonthesetupfilewillstarttheInstallShieldprogramAfterstartingtheMCNPExecutablesinstaller,theinitialsetupwindowisdisplayed,thenthenexttwowindowspresenttheCopyrightnoticeandSoftwareLicenseAgreement,andrequestuserinformationThefollowingwindowaskswhereMCNPshouldbeinstalledItdoesnotneedtobeinthedefaultdirectoryofProgramFilesLANLMCNPTheinstallationpackagewillthencopytheplottingsequentialandparallelexecutables,MCNPsourcecode,documentation(includingtheMCNPManual),VisualEditor,andproblemtestsuiteintothechosendirectoryThefinalscreenqueriestheuserifitcanchangetheappropriateenvironmentalvariables:PATHandDISPLAYSincePATHisalreadypresent,theMCNPdirectorypathisappendedtothisvariableIftheseenvironmentalvariablesarechanged,theusermustlogoutandthenlogbackin(orrebootforsomeoperatingsystems)beforetheywilltakeeffectTheusershouldbeawarethatifanotherexecutablewiththenameMCNPisalreadypresentinthepath,thefirstexecutableinthepath,iethepreviouslyexistingMCNP,maybeunintentionallyusedTheInstallShieldsetupprogramcannotbeusedtobuildMCNPexecutablesThesecondInstallShieldsetupprograminstallsthedatalibraries,theMAKXSFprogramandtheXSDIRandSPECSfilesTheinstallerqueriestheuserforadirectorytoplacethesefiles,whichmayormaynotbeasubdirectorywhereMCNPwasinstalledAfterthisdirectoryisspecified,theenvironmentalvariableDATAPATHissetAdministrativeprivilegesarealsorequired,aswellaswritepermissiontoatleastGigabytesofharddiskspaceThislargeamountofspaceismostlyusedbytheASCIIformat(type)updatedENDFBVIcrosssectionlibraries,whichcanbecompressedwithMAKXSFandtheSPECSfileto~MegabytesFormoreinformationaboutusingMAKXSF,seesectionXIVofAppendixCintheMCNPManualAftertheInstallShieldprogramsarecompleted,theusershouldrunthetestsuitetoverifythattheexecutablehasbeeninstalledandoperatescorrectlyontheuser’sspecificoperatingsystemandhardwareThistestingprocedurecanbestartedbydoubleclickingontherunprobbaticonlocatedinthedirectoryInstallation,whereMCNPwasinstalledAfterthetestproblemsarerun,filesthatlistthedifferencesbetweenthetallyoroutputfilesgeneratedandtheexpectedresultsaredisplayedThesedifferencefilesshouldbereviewedbytheusertodetermineifthedifferencesaresimpleroundofferrorsorsomethingmoresubstantial,indicatingincompatiblehardwareorsoftwareandthatMCNPmaygiveincorrectresultsTouninstalleithertheMCNPExecutablesorMCNPDatainstallpackages,theusershouldremovethemviatheWindowsControlPanel,withtheAddRemoveProgramsfunctionThiswilldeleteanyfilesthatwereinstalled(filescreatedwhilerunningthetestproblemswillnotbedeleted)andwillmodifytheregistryappropriatelyTheenvironmentalvariableswillnotberemoved,however,butthesecanberemovedmanuallyTheInstallScriptAsecondmethodtoinstallMCNPusesaninstallscript,whichinteractivelyqueriestheuserforvariousbuildoptionsandthenexecutesthemakeutilitytobuildMCNP,MAKSXFandorrunTGoorley,FBrown,LJCoxAmericanNuclearSocietyTopicalMeetinginMathematicsComputations,Gatlinburg,TN,thetestproblemsuiteThevariousbuildoptionsincludewhichFortranandCcompilersshouldbeused,thelocationofappropriateXfiles,andthepathtothexsdirfileThescriptalsogivestheusertheopportunitytoonlygeneratecustommakefilesThesecustommakefilescontainthebuildoptionsselected,andwillbeautomaticallyusedwheneverthemakeutilityisusedAnanswerfile,whichliststheoptionschosenintheinstallscript,isalsocreatedTheanswerfilecanonlybeusedtosetoptionsintheinstallscript,andonlyifitisspecifiedontheinstallcommandlineIfMCNPistobebuilt,orthetestsuiteistoberun,theninstallscriptwillthenexecutegmake,(theGNUversionofmake),andwritemostoftheoutputtothefileinstalllogThisscript,whichusesthegmakeutilitytobuildthecode,canonlybeusedifaUnixbasedshellisinstalledInstallingaUnixshellCygwinIftheinstallscriptorgmakeutilityisused,aUnixcommandshellmustbeinstalledUnixcommandshellsarenotstandardonWindowsoperatingsystemsandmustbeinstalledCygwin,afreewareportofaUnixcommandshellforWindowsPCs,canbeobtainedathttp:wwwcygwincomorhttp:wwwredhatcomappsdownloadThesetupprogramcanbedownloadedorrunfromtheRedhatwebsiteThissetupprogramwillstepusersthroughtheCygwininstallationprocess,allowingthemtoselectwebinstallationordownloadinstallationfilestoalocaldriveThelocationwherethecygwinsoftwareshouldbeinstalled(apathwithoutspacesisrecommended)andatemporarydirectorywherefilescanbedownloadedarespecifiedinthenexttwowindowsAfterselectingawebsitetodownloadorinstallfrom,theuserselectsCygwinpackagestoinstallInadditiontotheCygwinpackagesthatareselectedbydefault,thegccandmakepackages(locatedundertheDeveldirectory)willalsoneedtobeselectedtobuildMCNPwiththemakeutilityTheperlpackage(locatedundertheInterpretersdirectory)isalsorecommended,andisrequirediftheAbsoftorLaheyFortrancompilersaregoingtobeusedtocompileMCNPInstallingPlottingSoftware–XWindowsClientInordertodisplayMCNPplots,anXwindowsclientsoftwarepackageisneededSeveralcommercialXwindowsclientsareavailable:ReflectionX(http:wwwwrqcomproducts),Hummingbird’sExceedNT(http:wwwhummingbirdcomproductsncexceedindexhtml),andStarnet’sXwin(http:wwwstarnetcom)NosinglecommercialproductisrecommendedAfreewareXclientisalsoavailablewithCygwin,XFreeIthasalsobeentestedwithMCNPTheseclientsoftwarepackagesdonotneedtobethedeveloperorprofessionalversions,sincetheXheaderandlibraryfilesareincludedwiththeMCNPdistributionInstallingParallelSoftware–MPICHNTorPVMInordertouseorbuildMCNPwithparallelcapabilities,appropriateparallelcommunicationssoftwaremustbeinstalledEitherMPIorPVMcommunicationsprotocolsaresupportedTobuildaparallelversionofMCNPforWindows,seethesectionMCNPIMPROVEMENTSFORWINDOWSPCSAmericanNuclearSocietyTopicalMeetinginMathematicsComputations,Gatlinburg,TN,TheMPIportforWindowsisMPICHNT,developedatArgonneNationalLaboratory,andcanbedownloadedfromhttp:wwwunixmcsanlgov~ashtonmpichntThiswebsitealsooffersthehelpfulreferencesMPICHNTFAQandMPICHUsersManualIfthereisnoneedtorebuildparallelMCNP,onlytheruntimedllsandmpirunpackagewillbeneeded(mpichntexe)ThispackageusesanInstallShieldsetupprogramwhichrequiresinstallationfromanadministrativeaccountonallPCsintheclusterIfMCNPneedstobebuilt,thenthesourcecode(packagempichntsrcexe)shouldbedownloadedandunzippedaswellTheprogramMPIConfigmustberunoneachcomputerafterMPICHNTinstallationThelocalhostnamemustbeaddedandthesettingsappliedOnceMPICHNTisinstalled,afewadditionalstepsarerequiredMPIenabledMCNPmustbecopiedtothesamedirectoryonallhostsMCNPcanbeexecutedthrougheithertheWindowsMPIRunGUIorcommandlineMPIRunFortheMPIRunGUI,hostsmustbeaddedbyselectingortypingtheirnamesinthehostssectionTheDATAPATHmayneedtobesetundertheadvancedoptionsForthecommandlineMPIRun,thehostsmustbespecifiedbythe–hostsoption,whichcanbeusedtospecifythenumberofprocessesstartedoneachhostTypicallythenumberofprocessesisequaltothenumberofCPUsutilizedplusoneThefirstprocesslistedisthemasterprocess,anddoesnotrunanyhistoriesWhen“balance”isspecifiedattheendofthecommandline,MCNPwillloadbalanceitsMPIprocessesForexample,thecommandtostartthreeMCNPMPIprocessesonCompA(adualCPUmachine)andoneprocessonCompBis:mpirun–hostsCompACompBmcnpmpiinp=testbalanceAlternatively,MCNPcanbebuiltandrunwithPVM,developedatOakRidgeNationalLaboratoryThePVMportforWindowscanbedownloadedfromhttp:wwwcsmornlgov~sscottPVMSoftwareThefileParallelVirtualMachinezipcontainsthesourceandbinariesneededtoinstallandrunPVMonasinglecomputerThisInstallShieldprogrammustberunonallWindowsPCsintheclusterPVMrequiresadditionalcommunicationssoftware,aremoteshell(RSH)clientserverpackage,beforeitwillrunacrossaclusterofWindowsPCsTwocommercialRSHpackagescanbeobtainedfromhttp:wwwwinrshdcomandhttp:wwwatamancomTheRSHpackagemustbeinstalledoneachcomputerinthecluster,andthepermissionsmustbesettoallowRSHorREXECconnectionsforthedesireduseraccountsTheAtamanRSHpackagewassuccessfullytestedSimilarpostinstallationstepsarerequiredtorunthePVMversionofMCNPonWindowsPCsTheMCNPexecutablemustbecopiedintothePVMROOTpvmbinWINdirectoryonallhostsPVMmustbestartedonasinglecomputerbeforeaPVMenabledMCNPcanbeexecutedAfterPVMisstarted,additionalhostscanbeaddedtothePVMcluster,withthe“addhost”commandfromthePVMconsolepromptPVMoperabilitycanbetestedandverifiedwiththePVMexampleprograms,suchashelloMCNPcanthenbestartedfromaseparatecommandshellwiththefollowingcommand:mcnppvminp=testtasksnwherenisthenumberofslaveprocessesThenumberoftasksisusuallythenumberofCPUsintheclusterAnegativenumberenteredforncausesMCNPtoskiptheinitialloadbalancingTGoorley,FBrown,LJCoxAmericanNuclearSocietyTopicalMeetinginMathematicsComputations,Gatlinburg,TN,feature,andisrecommendedforahomogeneousclusterAdditionalinformationonhowtoinstallMPIorPVMcanbeobtainedintheirrespectiveuser’smanualsAdditionalinformationonrunningMCNPinparallelcanbefoundinAppendixC,sectionVIIIoftheMCNPManualSettingEnvironmentalVariablesAfterinstallation,itmaybenecessarytochangeoraddthreeWindowsenvironmentalvariablesTheyaresetdifferentlyforWindowsNTXPME,butforeachoftheseoperatingsystemsthevariablescanbeviewedthesamewayThevalueofanenvironmentalvariablePATH,forexample,canbeprintedinacommandshellwindow(iea“DOSprompt”)withthecommandechoPATHThefirstenvironmentalvariablethatmayneedtobechangedisPATH,asemicolonseparatedlistofdirectoriesusedtofindexecutablesanddynamiclinklibrariesThedirectorywhereMCNPisinstalledshouldbeincluded,sothatMCNPcanbeexecutedfromanydirectory,makingfilemanagementmoreconvenientIfseveralprogramswiththesamenameexistwithinPATH,thentheexecutableinthefirstoccurringdirectorywillbeexecutedAppendingthedirectoryofthenewlyinstalledversionofMCNPtothePATHmaynotchangewhichMCNPisexecutedifanolderversionwiththesamenameisgivenearlierinthedirectorylistingFailuretochangePATHwillmeanthattheMCNPexecutablemustbelocatedinthedirectorywheretheinputfileislocatedTousetheplott

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