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首页 [异类:不一样的成功启示录].

[异类:不一样的成功启示录]..pdf

[异类:不一样的成功启示录].

zhw10001
2011-04-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[异类:不一样的成功启示录].pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

OutliersTHESTORYOFSUCCESSMALCOLMGLADWELL#bestsellingauthorofTheTippingPointandBlink$$inCanadaWhydosomepeoplesucceedfarmorethanothersThereisastorythatisusuallytoldaboutextremelysuccessfulpeople,astorythatfocusesonintelligenceandambitionInOutliersMalcolmGladwellarguesthatthetruestoryofsuccessisverydifferent,andthatifwewanttounderstandhowsomepeoplethrive,weshouldspendmoretimelookingaroundthematsuchthingsastheirfamily,theirbirthplace,oreventheirbirthdateThestoryofsuccessismorecomplexandalotmoreinterestingthanitinitiallyappearsOutliersexplainswhattheBeatlesandBillGateshaveincommon,theextraordinarysuccessofAsiansatmath,thehiddenadvantagesofstarathletes,whyalltopNewYorklawyershavethesamerésumé,andthereasonyou'veneverheardoftheworld'ssmartestmanallintermsofgen­eration,family,culture,andclassItmatterswhatyearyouwerebornifyouwanttobeaSiliconValleybillionaire,Gladwellargues,anditmatterswhereyouwerebornifyouwanttobeasuc­cessfulpilotThelivesofoutliersthosepeoplewhoseachievementsfalloutsidenormalexperi­encefollowapeculiarandunexpectedlogic,andinmakingthatlogicplainGladwellpresentsafascinatingandprovocativeblueprintformakingthemostofhumanpotential(continuedonbackflap)InTheTippingPointMalcolmGladwellchangedthewayweunderstandtheworldInBlinkhechangedthewaywethinkaboutthinkingOutlierswilltransformthewayweunderstandsuccessMALCOLMGLADWELListheauthorofthe#internationalbestsellersTheTippingPointandBlinkHeisastaffwriterforTheNewYorkerandwasformerlyabusinessandsciencereporterattheWashingtonPostFormoreinformationaboutMalcolmGladwell,gotowwwgladwellcomLOOKFORThe==•TIPPINGPOINTblinkMALCOLMGLADWELLMalcolmGladwellAlsoavailablefromV"*""JacketdesignbyAllisonJWarnerJacketphotograph©AndyCrawfordDorlingKindersleyGettyImagesAuthorphotographbyBrookeWilliamsVisitourWebsiteatwwwHachetteBookGroupcomPrintedintheUSA©HachetteBookGroup,IncTwoofthemostinfluentialbooksofthepastdecadeTHETIPPINGPOINTHowLittleThingsCanMakeaBigDifference"Afascinatingbookthatmakesyouseetheworldinadifferentway"Fortune"GladwelPstheoriescouldbeusedtorunbusinessesmoreeffectively,toturnproductsintorunawaybestsellers,andperhapsmostimportant,toalterhumanbehavior"NewYorkTimesBLINKThePowerofThinkingWithoutThinking"ArealpleasureBrimswithsurprisinginsightsaboutourworldandourselves"Saloncom"Royallyentertaining"TimeISBNOUTLIERSALSOBYMALCOLMGLADWELLBlinkTheTippingPointOUTLIERSTheStoryofSuccessMALCOLMGLADWELLLITTLE,BROWNANDCOMPANYNEWYORK•BOSTON•LONDONCopyright©byMalcolmGladwellAllrightsreservedExceptaspermittedundertheUSCopyrightActof,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,distributed,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,orstoredinadatabaseorretrievalsystem,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisherLittle,BrownandCompanyHachetteBookGroupParkAvenue,NewYork,NYVisitourWebsiteatwwwHachetteBookGroupcomFirstEdition:NovemberLittle,BrownandCompanyisadivisionofHachetteBookGroup,IncTheLittle,BrownnameandlogoaretrademarksofHachetteBookGroup,IncTheauthorisgratefulforpermissiontousethefollowingcopyrightedmaterial:AmericanPrometheus,byKaiBirdandMartinJSherwin,copyrightbyKaiBirdandMartinJSherwinUsedbypermissionofAlfredAKnopf,adivisionofRandomHouse,IncUnequalChildhoods:Class,Race,andFamilyLife,byAnnetteLareau,copyrightRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaPublishedbytheUniversityofCaliforniaPress"InterculturalCommunicationinCognitiveValues:AmericansandKoreans,byHominSohn,UniversityofHawaiiPress,TheHappiestMan:TheLifeofLouisBorgenicht(NewYork:GPPutnam'sSons,)UsedbypermissionofLindyFriedmanSobelandAliceFriedmanHolzmanLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataGladwell,MalcolmOutliers:thestoryofsuccessMalcolmGladwellstedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexHCISBNInt'ledISBNSuccessfulpeopleSuccessITitleBFSGdcRRDINBookdesignedbyMerylLevaviPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaForDaisyContentsINTRODUCTIONTheRosetoMystery"ThesepeopleweredyingofoldageThat'sit"PARTONE:OPPORTUNITYONETheMatthewEffect"Foruntoeveryonethathathshallbegiven,andheshallhaveabundanceButfromhimthathathnotshallbetakenawayeventhatwhichhehath"Matthew:CONTENTSTWOThe,HourRule"InHamburg,wehadtoplayforeighthours"THREETheTroublewithGeniuses,Part"Knowledgeofaboy'sIQisoflittlehelpifyouarefacedwithaformfulofcleverboys"FOURTheTroublewithGeniuses,Part"Afterprotractednegotiations,itwasagreedthatRobertwouldbeputonprobation"FIVETheThreeLessonsofJoeFlom"Marygotaquarter"PARTTWO:LEGACYsixHarlan,Kentucky"Dielikeaman,likeyourbrotherdid!"VIIICONTENTSSEVENTheEthnicTheoryofPlaneCrashes"Captain,theweatherradarhashelpedusalot"EIGHTRicePaddiesandMathTests"Noonewhocanrisebeforedawnthreehundredsixtydaysayearfailstomakehisfamilyrich"NINEMarita'sBargain"AllmyfriendsnowarefromKIPP"EPILOGUEAJamaicanStory"Ifaprogenyofyoungcoloredchildrenisbroughtforth,theseareemancipated"NOTESACKNOWLEDGMENTSINDEXIXOUTLIERSINTRODUCTIONTheRosetoMystery"THESEPEOPLEWEREDYINGOFOLDAGETHAT'SIT"outlier,lï()rnouni:somethingthatissituatedawayfromorclasseddifferentlyfromamainorrelatedbody:astatisticalobservationthatismarkedlydifferentinvaluefromtheothersofthesampleRosetoValfortoreliesonehundredmilessoutheastofRomeintheApenninefoothillsoftheItalianprovinceofFoggiaInthestyleofmedievalvillages,thetownisorganizedaroundalargecentralsquareFacingthesquareisthePalazzoMarchesale,thepalaceoftheSaggesefamily,oncethegreatlandownerofthosepartsAnarchwaytoonesideleadstoachurch,theMadonnadelCarmineOurLadyofMountCarmineNarrowstonestepsrunupthehillside,flankedbycloselyclusteredtwostorystonehouseswithredtileroofsOUTLIERSForcenturies,thepaesaniofRosetoworkedinthemarblequarriesinthesurroundinghills,orcultivatedthefieldsintheterracedvalleybelow,walkingfourandfivemilesdownthemountaininthemorningandthenmak­ingthelongjourneybackupthehillatnightLifewashardThetownsfolkwerebarelyliterateanddesperatelypoorandwithoutmuchhopeforeconomicbettermentuntilwordreachedRosetoattheendofthenineteenthcenturyofthelandofopportunityacrosstheoceanInJanuaryof,agroupofelevenRosetanstenmenandoneboysetsailforNewYorkTheyspenttheirfirstnightinAmericasleepingonthefloorofatav­ernonMulberryStreet,inManhattan'sLittleItalyThentheyventuredwest,eventuallyfindingjobsinaslatequarryninetymileswestofthecitynearthetownofBan­gor,PennsylvaniaThefollowingyear,fifteenRosetansleftItalyforAmerica,andseveralmembersofthatgroupendedupinBangoraswell,joiningtheircompatriotsintheslatequarryThoseimmigrants,inturn,sentwordbacktoRosetoaboutthepromiseoftheNewWorld,andsoononegroupofRosetansafteranotherpackedtheirbagsandheadedforPennsylvania,untiltheinitialstreamofimmigrantsbecameafloodInalone,sometwelvehundredRosetansappliedforpassportstoAmerica,leav­ingentirestreetsoftheiroldvillageabandonedTheRosetansbeganbuyinglandonarockyhillsideconnectedtoBangorbyasteep,ruttedwagonpathTheybuiltcloselyclusteredtwostorystonehouseswithslateroofsonnarrowstreetsrunningupanddownthehillsideTheybuiltachurchandcalleditOurLadyofMountCarmelandnamedthemainstreet,onwhichitstood,GariTHEROSETOMYSTERYbaldiAvenue,afterthegreatheroofItalianunificationInthebeginning,theycalledtheirtownNewItalyButtheysoonchangedittoRoseto,whichseemedonlyappropri­ategiventhatalmostallofthemhadcomefromthesamevillageinItalyIn,adynamicyoungpriestbythenameofFatherPasqualedeNiscotookoveratOurLadyofMountCarmelDeNiscosetupspiritualsocietiesandorganizedfestivalsHeencouragedthetownsfolktoclearthelandandplantonions,beans,potatoes,melons,andfruittreesinthelongbackyardsbehindtheirhousesHegaveoutseedsandbulbsThetowncametolifeTheRosetansbeganraisingpigsintheirbackyardsandgrowinggrapesforhomemadewineSchools,apark,aconvent,andacemeterywerebuiltSmallshopsandbakeriesandres­taurantsandbarsopenedalongGaribaldiAvenueMorethanadozenfactoriessprangupmakingblousesforthegarmenttradeNeighboringBangorwaslargelyWelshandEnglish,andthenexttownoverwasoverwhelminglyGerman,whichmeantgiventhefractiousrelationshipsbetweentheEnglishandGermansandItaliansinthoseyearsthatRosetostayedstrictlyforRosetansIfyouhadwanderedupanddownthestreetsofRosetoinPenn­sylvaniainthefirstfewdecadesafter,youwouldhaveheardonlyItalian,andnotjustanyItalianbuttheprecisesouthernFoggiandialectspokenbackintheItal­ianRosetoRoseto,Pennsylvania,wasitsowntiny,selfsufficientworldallbutunknownbythesocietyarounditanditmightwellhaveremainedsobutforamannamedStewartWolfWolfwasaphysicianHestudieddigestionandtheOUTLIERSstomachandtaughtinthemedicalschoolattheUniver­sityofOklahomaHespenthissummersonafarminPennsylvania,notfarfromRosetoalthoughthat,ofcourse,didn'tmeanmuch,sinceRosetowassomuchinitsownworldthatitwaspossibletoliveinthenexttownandneverknowmuchaboutit"OneofthetimeswhenwewereupthereforthesummerthiswouldhavebeeninthelatenineteenfiftiesIwasinvitedtogiveatalkatthelocalmedicalsociety,"Wolfsaidyearslaterinaninterview"Afterthetalkwasover,oneofthelocaldoc­torsinvitedmetohaveabeerAndwhilewewerehavingadrink,hesaid,'Youknow,I'vebeenpracticingforsev­enteenyearsIgetpatientsfromallover,andIrarelyfindanyonefromRosetoundertheageofsixtyfivewithheartdisease'"WolfwastakenabackThiswasthes,yearsbeforetheadventofcholesterolloweringdrugsandaggressivemeasurestopreventheartdiseaseHeartattackswereanepidemicintheUnitedStatesTheyweretheleadingcauseofdeathinmenundertheageofsixtyfiveItwasimpossi­bletobeadoctor,commonsensesaid,andnotseeheartdiseaseWolfdecidedtoinvestigateHeenlistedthesupportofsomeofhisstudentsandcolleaguesfromOklahomaTheygatheredtogetherthedeathcertificatesfromresi­dentsofthetown,goingbackasmanyyearsastheycouldTheyanalyzedphysicians'recordsTheytookmedicalhistoriesandconstructedfamilygenealogies"Wegotbusy,"Wolfsaid"WedecidedtodoapreliminarystudyWestartedinnineteensixtyoneThemayorsaid,'AllmyTHEROSETOMYSTERYsistersaregoingtohelpyouHehadfoursistersHesaid,'YoucanhavethetowncouncilroomIsaid,'Whereareyougoingtohavecouncilmeetings'Hesaid,'Well,we'llpostponethemforawhileTheladieswouldbringuslunchWehadlittleboothswherewecouldtakeblood,doEKGsWewerethereforfourweeksThenItalkedwiththeauthoritiesTheygaveustheschoolforthesummerWeinvitedtheentirepopulationofRosetotobetested"TheresultswereastonishingInRoseto,virtuallynooneunderfiftyfivehaddiedofaheartattackorshowedanysignsofheartdiseaseFormenoversixtyfive,thedeathratefromheartdiseaseinRosetowasroughlyhalfthatoftheUnitedStatesasawholeThedeathratefromallcausesinRoseto,infact,wastopercentlowerthanexpectedWolfbroughtinafriendofhis,asociologistfromOklahomanamedJohnBruhn,tohelphim"Ihiredmed­icalstudentsandsociologygradstudentsasinterview­ers,andinRosetowewenthousetohouseandtalkedtoeverypersonagedtwentyoneandover,"Bruhnremem­bersThishappenedmorethanfiftyyearsago,butBruhnstillhadasenseofamazementinhisvoiceashedescribedwhattheyfound"Therewasnosuicide,noalcoholism,nodrugaddiction,andverylittlecrimeTheydidn'thaveanyoneonwelfareThenwelookedatpepticulcersTheydidn'thaveanyofthoseeitherThesepeopleweredyingofoldageThat'sit"Wolf'sprofessionhadanameforaplacelikeRosetoaplacethatlayoutsideeverydayexperience,wherethenor­malrulesdidnotapplyRosetowasanoutlierOUTLIERSWolf'sfirstthoughtwasthattheRosetansmusthaveheldontosomedietarypracticesfromtheOldWorldthatleftthemhealthierthanotherAmericansButhequicklyreal­izedthatwasn'ttrueTheRosetanswerecookingwithlardinsteadofwiththemuchhealthieroliveoiltheyhadusedbackinItalyPizzainItalywasathincrustwithsalt,oil,andperhapssometomatoes,anchovies,oronionsPizzainPennsylvaniawasbreaddoughplussausage,pepperoni,salami,ham,andsometimeseggsSweetssuchasbiscottiandtaralliusedtobereservedforChristmasandEasterinRosetotheywereeatenyearroundWhenWolfhaddieticiansanalyzethetypicalRosetan'seatinghabits,theyfoundthatawhoppingpercentoftheircaloriescamefromfatNorwasthisatownwherepeoplegotupatdawntodoyogaandrunabrisksixmilesThePennsylvanianRosetanssmokedheavilyandmanywerestrugglingwithobesityIfdietandexercisedidn'texplainthefindings,thenwhataboutgeneticsTheRosetanswereacloseknitgroupfromthesameregionofItaly,andWolf'snextthoughtwastowonderwhethertheywereofaparticularlyhardystockthatprotectedthemfromdiseaseSohetrackeddownrela­tivesoftheRosetanswhowerelivinginotherpartsoftheUnitedStatestoseeiftheysharedthesameremarkablegoodhealthastheircousinsinPennsylvaniaTheydidn'tHethenlookedattheregionwheretheRosetanslivedWasitpossiblethattherewassomethingaboutlivinginthefoothillsofeasternPennsylvaniathatwasgoodfortheirhealthThetwoclosesttownstoRosetowereBangor,THEROSETOMYSTERYwhichwasjustdownthehill,andNazareth,afewmilesawayThesewerebothaboutthesamesizeasRoseto,andbothwerepopulatedwiththesamekindofhardworkingEuropeanimmigrantsWolfcombedthroughbothtowns'medicalrecordsFormenoversixtyfive,thedeathratesfromheartdiseaseinNazarethandBangorwerethreetimesthatofRosetoAnotherdeadendWhatWolfbegantorealizewasthatthesecretofRosetowasn'tdietorexerciseorgenesorlocationIthadtobeRosetoitselfAsBruhnandWolfwalkedaroundthetown,theyfiguredoutwhyTheylookedathowtheRosetansvisitedoneanother,stoppingtochatinItal­ianonthestreet,say,orcookingforoneanotherintheirbackyardsTheylearnedabouttheextendedfamilyclansthatunderlaythetown'ssocialstructureTheysawhowmanyhomeshadthreegenerationslivingunderoneroof,andhowmuchrespectgrandparentscommandedTheywenttomassatOurLadyofMountCarmelandsawtheunifyingandcalmingeffectofthechurchTheycountedtwentytwoseparatecivicorganizationsinatownofjustundertwothousandpeopleTheypickeduponthepartic­ularegalitarianethosofthecommunity,whichdiscour­agedthewealthyfromflauntingtheirsuccessandhelpedtheunsuccessfulobscuretheirfailuresIntransplantingthepaesanicultureofsouthernItalytothehillsofeasternPennsylvania,theRosetanshadcre­atedapowerful,protectivesocialstructurecapableofinsulatingthemfromthepressuresofthemodernworldTheRosetanswerehealthybecauseofwheretheywererow,becauseoftheworldtheyhadcreatedforthemselvesintheirtinylittletowninthehillsOUTLIERS"IremembergoingtoRosetoforthefirsttime,andyou'dseethreegenerationalfamilymeals,allthebaker­ies,thepeoplewalkingupanddownthestreet,sittingontheirporchestalkingtoeachother,theblousemillswherethewomenworkedduringtheday,whilethemenworkedintheslatequarries,"Bruhnsaid"Itwasmagical"WhenBruhnandWolffirstpresentedtheirfindingstothemedicalcommunity,youcanimaginethekindofskepticismtheyfacedTheywenttoconferenceswheretheirpeerswerepresentinglongrowsofdataarrayedincomplexchartsandreferringtothiskindofgeneorthatkindofphysiologicalprocess,andtheythemselvesweretalkinginsteadaboutthemysteriousandmagicalbenefitsofpeoplestoppingtotalktooneanotheronthestreetandofhavingthreegenerationsunderoneroofLivingalonglife,theconventionalwisdomatthetimesaid,dependedtoagreatextentonwhowewerethatis,ourgenesItdependedonthedecisionswemadeonwhatwechosetoeat,andhowmuchwechosetoexercise,andhoweffec­tivelyweweretreatedbythemedicalsystemNoonewasusedtothinkingabouthealthintermsofcommunityWolfandBruhnhadtoconvincethemedicalestab­

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