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首页 FACEBOO效应.pdf

FACEBOO效应.pdf

FACEBOO效应.pdf

上传者: ever_never 2011-04-15 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《FACEBOO效应pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含RKUS$Can$INLITTLEMORETHANHALFADECADE,Facebookhasgonefromadormroomnoveltyto符等。

RKUS$Can$INLITTLEMORETHANHALFADECADE,FacebookhasgonefromadormroomnoveltytoacompanywithmillionusersItisoneofthefastestgrowingcompaniesinhistory,anessentialpartofthesociallifenotonlyofteenagersbuthundredsofmillionsofadultsworldwideAsFacebookspreadsaroundtheglobe,itcreatessurprisingeffectsevenbecominginstrumentalinpoliticalprotestsfromColombiatoIranVeterantechnologyreporterDavidKirkpatrickhadthefullcooperationofFacebook'skeyexecutivesinresearchingthisfascinatinghistoryofthecompanyanditsimpactonourlivesKirkpatricktellsushowFacebookwascreated,whyithasflourished,andwhereitisgoingnextHechroniclesitssuccessesandmissteps,andgivesreadersthemostcompleteassessmentanywhereoffounderandCEOMarkZuckerberg,thecentralfigureinthecompany'sremarkableascentThisistheFacebookstorythatcanbefoundnowhereelseHowdidanineteenyearoldHarvardstudentcreateacompanythathastransformedtheInternetandhowdidhegrowittoitscurrentenormoussizeKirkpatrickshowshowZuckerbergsteadfastlyrefusedtocompromisehisvision,insistentlyfocusingongrowthoverprofitsandpreachingthatFacebookmustdominate(hisword)communicationontheInternetIntheprocess,heandasmallgroupofkeyexecutiveshavecreatedacompanythathaschangedsociallifeintheUnitedStatesandelsewhere,acompanythathasbecomeaubiquitouspresenceinmarketing,alteringpolitics,business,andevenoursenseofourownidentityThisistheFacebookEffecttheIfacebookeffectTheInsideStoryoftheCompanyThatIsConnectingtheWorldDavidKirkpatrickSimonSchusterNewYorkLondonTorontoSydneyiSimonSchusterAvenueoftheAmericasNewYork,NYCopyrightbyDavidKirkpatrickAllrightsreserved,includingtherighttoreproducethisbookorportionsthereofinanyformwhatsoeverForinformationaddressSimonSchusterSubsidiaryRightsDepartment,AvenueoftheAmericas,NewYork,NYFirstSimonSchusterhardcovereditionJuneSIMONSCHUSTERandcolophonareregisteredtrademarksofSimonSchuster,IncForinformationaboutspecialdiscountsforbulkpurchases,pleasecontactSimonSchusterSpecialSalesatorbusinesssimonandschustercomTheSimonSchusterSpeakersBureaucanbringauthorstoyourliveeventFormoreinformationortobookaneventcontacttheSimonSchusterSpeakersBureauatorvisitourwebsiteatwwwsimonspeakerscomDesignedbyNancySingerManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataKirkpatrick,David,dateTheFacebookeffect:theinsidestoryofthecompanythatisconnectingtheworldDavidKirkpatrickpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexFacebook(Firm)InternetindustryUnitedStatesOnlinesocialnetworksHistoryITitleHDUF'dcISBNISBN(ebook)ToElenaandClaraContentsPrologue:TheFacebookEffectTheBeginningPaloAltoSocialNetworkingandtheInternetFallInvestorsBecomingaCompanyFallTheCEOPrivacyThePlatform$BillionMakingMoneyFacebookandtheWorldChangingOurInstitutionsTheEvolutionofFacebookTheFuturePostscriptAcknowledgmentsANoteonReportingforThisBookNotesAdditionalReadingIndexthefacebookeffectPrologueTheFacebookEffectOscarMoraleswasfedupItwasholidaytimeinhishometownofBarranquilla,Colombia,justafterthenewyearThegentlespiritedcivilengineerwithagiftforcomputerswasspendinghisdaysatthebucolicnearbybeacheswithhisextendedfamilyButdespitetheholidays,likemuchofthecountryhisthoughtsweredark,andoccupiedwiththesufferingofalittleboynamedEmmanuelEmmanuelwasthefouryearoldsonofClaraRojas,whohadbeenahostageinthejunglesofColombiaforsixyearsHersonhadbeenbornwhileshewasheldbytheguerrillasoftheRevolutionaryArmedForcesofColombia,knownbyitsSpanishinitials,FARCFARCheldatotalofsevenhundredhostages,includingColombianpresidentialcandidateIngridBetancourt,kidnappedalongwithRojasduringthecampaignSympathyandsadnessabouttheplightofFARC'shostageswasaneverpresentfactincontemporaryColombia,aswasfearaboutwhatthepowerfulandmurderousrevolutionaryarmymightdonexttodisruptthecountryButthecaseofEmmanuelhadlatelyacquiredoutsizedprominenceinthepopularpressForsometimePresidentHugoChavezofneighboringVenezuelahadbeenattemptingtonegotiatewithFARCaboutreleasingBetancourtandothersThenabruptlyinlateDecembertheguerrillasannouncedthattheywouldsoonturnoverRojas,hersonEmmanuel,andanotherhostagetoChavezInanationexhaustedfromadecadeslongbattlewiththeviolentguerrillas,thiswasararepieceofgoodnews"Peoplewerelongingforagift,foramiracle,"saysMorales,thirtytwo"AndEmmanuelwasasymbolThewholecountrywasfeelingthepromise:TleaseletEmmanuelgethisfreedomWewouldlikethatasaChristmaspresentfromFARC"Butasthenewyeararrived,Emmanuelstillhadn'tbeenfreedThen,inthefirstdaysofJanuary,ColombianpresidentAlvaroUribewentonnationaltelevisiontodelivertheshockingnewsthatitappearedthefacebookeffectthatEmmanuelwasnoteveninthepossessionofFARC!ItturnedoutEmmanuelhadbecomeseriouslyillsometimeearlier,andFARChadtakenhimawayfromhismother,Clara,anddumpedhimwithapeasantfamilyHewasnow,unexpectedly,inthegovernment'shandsThenationwasstillonholidaywithplentyoftimetowatchthenews,whichwasallaboutpoor,sick,abandonedEmmanuelMorales'spoliticallyengagedextendedfamily,hangingoutbydayatthebeach,debatedwhatmighthappennext"Peoplewerehappybecausethekidwassafe,butweweresofuckingangry,"Moralessays"ForgivemeforusingthatwordbutwefeltassaultedbyFARCHowcouldtheydarenegotiateforthelifeofakidtheydidn'tevenhavePeoplefeltthiswastoomuchHowmuchlongerwasFARCgoingtoplaywithusandlietous"MoraleswanteddesperatelytodosomethingSoheturnedtoFacebookThoughtheservicewasn'tyeteventranslatedintoSpanish,MoralesspokefluentEnglish,asdomanyeducatedColombians,andhadbeenmaintainingaprofilethereforoverayear,postinghisowninformationinSpanishandconnectingwitholdcollegeandhighschoolfriendsSpendingtimeonFacebookwasalreadyadailyritualforhimInFacebook'ssearchboxhetypedthefourletters"FARC"andhitenterTherewerenoresultsNogroupsNoactivismNooutrageGroupsdevotedtoalmosteverythingunderthesunwerecommononFacebookButwhenitcametoFARC,thecitizensofColombiahadbecomeusedtobeingangrybutcowedIneffect,theentirecountryhadbeentakenhostage,andthishadbeengoingonfordecadesMoralesspentadayaskinghimselfifhewaswillingtogopubliconFacebookHedecidedtotaketheplunge,andonthethcreatedagroupagainstFARC"Itwaslikeatherapy,"hesays"Ihadtoexpressmyanger"Hewroteashortdescriptionofthegroup'ssimplepurposetostandupagainstFARCAselfconfessed"computeraddict,"Moraleswasskilledatgraphicstools,sohedesignedalogointheformofaverticalversionoftheColombianflagHeoverlaiditwithfoursimplepleasincapitalsrunningdownthepage,eachoneslightlylargerthanthelastNOMOREKIDNAPPINGS,NOMORELIES,NOMOREKILLINGS,NOMOREFARC"IwastryingtoscreamlikeifIwasinacrowd,"heexplains"ThetimehadcometofightFARCWhathadhappenedwasunbearable"Prologue:TheFacebookEffectButwhatshouldhecallhisgroupOnFacebookit'sconventionaltogivegroupsnameslike"IbetIcanfindonemillionpeoplewhohateGeorgeBush'ButMoralesdidn'tlikesuchtitlesTheywerejuvenileThiswasnotacontestThiswasseriousYethelikedtheideaofamillionAfamousSpanishsongiscalled"OneMillionFriends"OnemillionpeopleagainstFARCThewordvoicessoundedmoreliteraryOnemillionvoicesagainstFARCUnMillondeVocesContraLasFARCThatwasitAftermidnightonJanuary,MoralescreatedthegroupHemadeitpublicsothatanyFacebookmembercouldjoinHispersonalnetworkincludedaboutonehundredfriends,andheinvitedthemallHewastiredAtAMhewenttobedAtAMthenextmorninghecheckedhisgroupFifteenhundredpeoplehadjoinedalready!"Woooooooo!!!"MoraleshowledindelightThiswasanevenbetterresponsethanhehadexpected!ThatdayatthebeachhetoldhisextendedfamilyaboutthegroupandaskedthemtoinvitetheirownFacebookfriendstojoinMostofthemwereavidFacebookusersaswell,andtheyhatedFARC,tooBythetimeMoralesreturnedhomeinthelateafternoon,hisgrouphadfourthousandmembers"That'swhenIsaidtomyself,'Okay,nomorebeach,nomoregoingout'"Hewasreadytogetserious"Ifelt,'OhmyGod!ThisiswhatIwant!Acommittedcommunityaroundthemessage'"AFacebookgrouphasa"wall,"wherememberscanpostthoughts,aswellasdiscussionforumsthatalloworganized,longlastingconversationsamongmanymembersMoralessoonbondedwithseveralpeoplewhowerepostingtherewithspecialvigorTheyexchangedinstantmessagingandSkypeaddressesandcellphonenumberssotheycouldcontinuetheirconversationsofflineAsmoreandmoreColombiansjoinedthegroup,membersstartedtalkingnotonlyabouthowmadtheywereaboutFARC,butwhattheyoughttodoaboutitOnJanuary,justthesecondfullday,aconsensusonthepagewasemergingthattheburgeoninggroupshouldgopublicBythetimeithiteightthousandmembers,peoplewerepostingonthediscussionboard,overandover,"Let'sDOsomething"thefacebookeffectLateontheafternoonoftheth,hisnewfoundFacebookfriends,especiallytwohewasspeakingtobyphone,convincedMorailesthatheshouldproposeademonstrationWhenhedid,theideawasreceivedonthewallanddiscussionboardbyacclamationBytheendofthedaythegroup,stilloperatingonlyoutofMorales'supstairsbedroom,haddecidedtostageanationalmarchagainstFARCItwouldbeFebruary,onemonthaftertheformationofthegroupMorales,whowasusedtobeingleftoutofthingssincehelivedinaprovincialcity,insistedthemarchtakeplacenotonlyinBogota,thecapital,butalsomanyotherplacesthroughoutthecountry,includingofcoursehishometownofBarranquillaSoMoralescreatedaneventcalledtheNationalMarchagainstFARCHeandhiscoorganizers,severalofthemalreadyasconsumedbytheprojectashewas,immediatelygotpushbackfromunexpectedquartersMembersinMiami,BuenosAires,Madrid,LosAngeles,Paris,andelsewherearguedthatitshouldbeaglobaldemonstrationMoralesdidn'tevenrealizepeoplelivingoutsideColombiahadjoinedthegroupTheseColombianemigreswereonFacebookpartlytostayintouchwiththingsbackathomeTheywantedtobeinvolvedinthismovement,tooSoitbecameaglobalmarchWhatensuedwasoneofthemostextraordinaryexamplesofdigitallyfueledactivismtheworldhaseverseenOnFebruary,aboutmillionpeoplemarchedagainstFARCinhundredsofcitiesinColombiaaccordingtoColombianpressestimatesAsmanyasmillionmoremarchedincitiesaroundtheworldThemovementthatbeganwithanimpassionedmidnightFacebookpostinonefrustratedyoungman'sbedroomledtooneofthelargestdemonstrationsever,anywhereintheworldFacebook'sverynewnesshelpedMorales'sdemonstrationgarnerattentioninColombiaThoughseveralhundredthousandColombianswerealreadyusingFacebook,ithadnotappearedontheradaroftheaveragecitizenSowhenthepressbegancoveringplansfortheupcomingdemonstration,itsstoriesfocusedheavilyontheastonishingimpactofthisstrangeAmericanimportandthe"Facebookkids,"asmanyarticlesandTVandradioprogramscalledthemThoughMoralesandhiscoPrologue:TheFacebookEffectorganizersweremostlyintheirearlythirties,thecountrywasalsocaptivatedbythepossibilitythatyoungerpeoplewerenotcowedbyFARCOnceColombianpresidentAlvaroUribeandColombia'spoliticalestablishmentsawthisFacebookuprisingemerge,theydideverythingtheycouldtomakeitasuccessAfteraweekortwothelocalarmycommanderbeganprovidingMoraleswiththreebodyguardsandacar,whichheusedthroughFebruaryMayorsandcitygovernmentsthroughoutthecountryworkedcloselywithdemonstrationvolunteerstograntmarchpermitsButwhatremainsremarkableisthewaysomanyColombiansonFacebooksigneduponthegroupundertheirrealnamesBythedayofthemarchtherewere,Despitedecadesoffearandintimidation,FacebookgaveColombia'syoungpeopleaneasy,digitalwaytofeelcomfortinnumberstodeclaretheirdisgustEvenafternewsaboutthemarchhadbecomeadailydrumbeatinthepressandthewebsitehadturnedintoakeypromotionaltool,Facebookremainedcentral"Facebookwasourheadquarters,"saysMorales"ItwasthenewspaperItwasthecentralcommandItwasthelaboratoryeverythingFacebookwasallthat,rightupuntilthelastday'MoraleshimselfhadvolunteeredtocoordinatethelocaldemonstrationinBarranquillaHeexpectedabout,peopletoshowupInfact,did,aboutpercentofthecity'spopulationTheyfilledmorethantencityblocksAtexactlynoon,MoralesreadastatementthatthegrouphadjointlyagreeduponItwasbroadcastontelevisionalloverLatinAmericaDemonstratorsgatheredeveninremoteplaceslikeDubai,Sydney,andTokyoOnlocalTVnews,onewomanwasinterviewedinthecrushoftheBogotamarchHadshebeenpersonallyinjuredbyFARC,theinterviewerasked"Yes,becauseIamColombian,"sherepliedMoralesandhisgroupmembershadtappedintofrustrationsdeepinthecollectivenationalpsycheWhilepressurefromPresidentUribehasplayedamajorroleinweakeningFARC,thedemonstrationsseemtohavestrucktheirownblowInasignthattheguerrillaswereacutelyawareoftheimpendingmarch,ontheSaturdaybeforeittookplacetheyannouncedthattheywouldreleasethreehostages,allformerColombiancongressmen,asathefacebookeffect"humanitarian"gestureIngridBetancourtandfourteenotherhostageswererescuedinacommandooperationbytheColombianarmyinJulyIninterviewssherecalledlisteningtoaradiointhejungleonFebruary,surroundedbyherFARCcaptorsShesaidshewasdeeplymovedwhensheheardthedemonstratorschantinginunison,"NomoreFARC!Freedom!Freedom!"Thentheguerrillascouldn'tstanditandturnedofftheradioOscarMoralesistellingmeaboutthisinacoffeeshopinManhattaninlateAshedoes,hisvoicecatchesTearswellupHisgroupandthesubsequentdemonstrationmadehimintoanationalandinternationalcelebrityButtheconvictionandconcernthatfueledhiscreationofUnMillondeVocesContraLasFARCremainsaliveTodayhedevoteshisentirelifetotheantiFARCcrusadeThoughFacebookwasnotdesignedasapoliticaltool,itscreatorsobservedearlyonthatithadpeculiarpotentialDuringthefirstfewweeksafteritwascreatedatHarvardUniversityin,studentsbeganbroadcastingtheirpoliticalopinionsbyreplacingtheirprofilepicturewithablockoftextthatincludedapoliticalstatement"Peoplewereusingitbackthentoprotestwhateverwasimportant,"saysFacebookcofounderDustinMoskovitz"Eveniftheywerejustupsetaboutaminorissuewiththeschool"Peoplefromthebeginningintuitivelyrealizedthatifthisservicewasintendedasawayforthemtoreflectonlinetheirgenuineidentity,thenanelementofthatidentitywastheirviewsandpassionsabouttheissuesoftheday"TheColombiathing,"saysMarkZuckerberg,Facebook'sfounder,"isaveryearlyindicatorthatgovernanceischangingandofhowpowerfulpoliticalorganizationscanformThesethingscanreallyaffectpeopleslibertiesandfreedom,whichiskindofthepointofgovernmentInfifteenyearsmaybetherewillbethingslikewhathappenedinColombiaalmosteveryday"Now,twoyearsafterMorales'sstunningsuccess,onecanfindFacebookfueledactivismandprotestineverycountryandcommunitywheretheservicehascaughtonandthatisprettymuchalloftheminthedevelopedworldFacebook,alongwithTwitter,famouslyplayedaPrologue:TheFacebookEffectroleintherevoltagainsttheoutcomeofthemidelectionsinIranAsNewYorkTimesforeignaffairscolumnistTomFriedmanpointedout,"Forthefirsttime,themoderates,whowerealwaysstrandedbetweenauthoritarianregimesthathadallthepowersofthestateandIslamistswhohadallthepowersofthemosque,nowhavetheirownplacetocometogetherandprojectpower:thenetwork"ItwasonFacebookthatdefeatedIranianpresidentialcandidateMirHosseinMousavitoldhisfollowerswhenhethoughtitwastimeforthemtogointothestreetsAndwhenayoungwomanwastragicallykilledduringoneofthoseprotests,itwasonFacebookthatvideoofhermurderemerged,tobesharedworldwideasasymbolofIraniangovernmentrepressionTheIraniangovernment,embarrassed,triedseveraltimestoshutoffaccesstoFacebookButitisusedsowidelyinthecountrythatitwasdifficulttodosoHowcouldColombia'santiFARCmovementgofromAtoZfromonemaninhisbedroomtomillionsinthestreetssoquicklyWhyshouldFacebookturnouttobeauniquelyeffectivetoolforpoliticalorganizingHowdidfounderZuckerberg'sdecisionsatcrucialmomentsinthecompany'shistoryincreaseitsimpactAndinwhatwaysdoitsunprecedentedqualitieshelpexplaintherapiditywithwhichFacebookhasbecomearoutinepartofthelivesofhundredsofmillionsofpeoplearoundtheworldAstherestofthisbookwillexplore,manyoftheanswerslieinasetofphenomenaIcalltheFacebookEffectAsafundamentallynewformofcommunication,FacebookleadstofundamentallynewinterpersonalandsocialeffectsTheFacebookEffecthappenswhentheserviceputspeopleintouchwitheachother,oftenunexpectedly,aboutacommonexperience,interest,problem,orcauseThiscanhappenatasmallorlargescalefromagroupoftwoorthreefriendsorafamily,tomillions,asinColombiaFacebook'ssoftwaremakesinformationviralIdeasonFacebookhavetheabilitytorushthroughgroupsandmakemanypeopleawareofsomethingalmostsimultaneously,spreadingfromonepersontoanotherandontomanywithuniqueeaselikeavirus,ormemeYoucansendmessagestothefacebookeffectotherpeopleevenifyou'renotexplicitlytryingtoIt'showUnMillondeVocesContraLasFARCgrewsofastfromits

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