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首页 来知德易学研究

来知德易学研究.pdf

来知德易学研究

医工成
2011-04-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《来知德易学研究pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

山东大学博士学位论文来知德易学研究姓名:官岳申请学位级别:博士专业:中国哲学指导教师:刘玉建山东大学博士学位论文中文摘要来知德是明代著名易学家《明儒学案》和《明史》皆有其传。研究来氏易学不可脱离他所赖以生存的历史时代因此完整准确地把握其易学必先了解其治《易》时代结合时代揭示其易学特色把握其易学思想脉搏追述其治《易》思想历程。目前对来氏易学研究成果大致有两方面一是来氏易学方法的研究即阐发来氏如何以错、综、爻变、中爻来解释卦爻的取象评述其得失如徐芹庭、高怀民等二是对来氏易学哲学的研究如陈竹义、朱伯昆、陈德述、杨自平、王棋等。而目前综合全面系统探讨研究来氏易学的论著甚少更无涉及其实学之用。故此本文将对来氏易学内容做一综合性研究力图在前人研究基础上作一新的诠释从而揭示来氏易学在传承和发扬中国易学以及正本清源等方面所做出的贡献。本文从篇章结构上大致划分为六部分即绪论、四个章节及结语等。现对各部分加以说明:本文绪论部分主要探讨来氏所处的时代及学术从而彰显他所面对的现实及其需要解决的时代问题。来氏生于明朝正值明王朝日趋衰败社会动荡不安的时代。当时政治上正从兴盛转入衰败时期。官宦专权政治黑暗边防废弛蒙古贵族、女真族不断骚扰边界地主阶级对农民进行残酷压榨阶级矛盾在日益激化。土地兼并问题极为严重致使封建社会各种矛盾尖锐化。政治方面明朝统治从正统朝代已开始日趋腐败不堪所谓帝王“慢弃神器王纲不守。”大权旁落宦官专权大臣尸位俱以搜刮贪赂为能事。阶级矛盾日趋激化尖锐农民起义此起彼伏。经济方面明朝后期资本主义关系在东南一带丌始萌芽新兴市民逐渐形成一股新的力量。新的生产关系改变了封建统治的社会结构随之也丌始动摇封建统治基础。至明中叶后实学思潮兴起晚明是中国古典科学的复兴与总结阶段。思想意识方面雄踞封建社会意识形态宝殿的理学已不适应社会发展它的腐朽性已充分暴露诚然理学是经学思想史上一个里程碑理学注重发挥经书的义理它虽然对外王的事功之学未能有所建树但创立了一整套与天道合一的内圣之学。然而理学发展到晚明其学术内圣之属性趋向空疏而作为外王的社会政治功能办丧失殆尽。明朝中晚期社会动荡变化进一步加深了理学危机。学术方面在来氏生活时代明朝政府大力推行文山东大学博士学位论文化专制路线将程朱《易》学视为“官学”科举考试的阶梯这是当时政府的统治路线。然而理学发展到晚明已经变质作为经学发展的一个特殊形态理学建构一套内圣之学以道德修养为立说之本。朱熹将道德戒律当成天理王守仁却将天理纳入人心使道德修养作为外在于人的天律内化为主体的自律即道德自觉。“明心见性”“致良知”成为心学的主题。然而心学发展到末流形成了重体认本心轻践履重境界轻实际的虚华空疏学风理学末流不重视经世致用故不免因蹈空而失落沦为虚学。经学本身包括内圣外王两方面且以内圣开出外王。由于片面强调内圣且走向空疏导致开出外王失败经世则无从谈起加之明代统治者编成《五经大全》、《四书大全》及《性理大全》颁诏天下以此作为士子科举考试之圭臬严重桎梏了知识界的创造性。凭借这种考试出来的国家官员不具备处理实际事物的才能也不具备治国安邦的雄才大略总之明朝中后期统治阶级开始昏庸宦官专权社会矛盾激化导致明朝统治走向崩溃。鉴于此明朝中晚期一些知识分子企图挽救时局于是乎出现了修正、批判理学讲求经世致用一时间回归原典的实学思潮弥漫意识形态的各个领域。另外来氏易学思想发展形成深受地域文化的熏陶。在历史发展进程中巴蜀地区出现了许多著名易学家如西汉扬雄著《太玄》唐代李鼎祚著《周易集解》宋朝苏轼著《苏世易传》张行成著《通变》张浚著《紫岩易传》黄岩泽著《易学一殇》等。蜀地在易学研究方面历史悠久可以追源于汉代扬雄之师严君平其源远流长影响之深显而易见正如北宋理学家程颐所言:“易学在蜀”。蜀文化是中国文化组成的部分具有历史悠久灿烂辉煌兼容并包渴求开放提倡和谐崇尚休闲传承文明积淀丰厚具有多重性等特色。来氏在这种文化大环境的地域罩成长起来因此其易学思想具有三个主要特征:一、深受程朱理学思想的影响其学说在一定程度上承袭朱子学说二、其易学又不全同于朱子思想对朱子学说加以梳理和勘J下体现出冲破朱子思想禁锎大胆实践敢于问津的时代精神三、具有蜀地文化特征:即其易学思想博大精深融象数义理于一体儒道思想并蓄解卦方式灵活多样不拘泥形式知识渊博历史人文政治兼顾追终原典。因此来氏继承和发展了程朱理学其易学体现了系统性科学性与人文性于一体其易学既是回应时代的产物又山东大学博士学位论文具有自己鲜明的特色。来氏易学思想正处于新旧思想交融时期这是他特殊性成长经历所赋予的历史上任何思想或思潮都是时代的产物来氏易学正是这一特色的彰显他的易学思想既包含对中国古代《易》学思想的继承对理学的批判和修正又包含对新思想的吸纳对中国古代《易》学思想进行全面梳理和总结。因此其易学丰富了中国易学思想宝库内容促进了中国古典哲学的发展。此外该部分最后内容对来氏代表作《易经集注》(简称《集注》)做一简介。《集注》是明代易学发展史上对于易学有突出贡献并深深影响了后世的一部易学经典之作。该书在总结前代易学象数与义理学发展的基础上而形成的是中国古代易学发展史上一个罩程碑。来氏以建立的阴阳错综说体系为根据诠释卦象逻辑结构和邵雍提出的先天图与后天图以错综、爻变、中爻等解卦法诠释六十四卦的卦爻象及卦爻辞继承和发展了易学中传统的取象说。从学术角度而言该著可自成体系在当时颇有新意。因此当时被推为“绝学’’其易学融象数与义理为一体调和了象数派与义理派之间的偏激弊病提出“舍象不可以言易’’“辞因象而系”《集注》代表来氏易学思想之精华。论文的第一章主要从易学发展史的角度对前人《易》之观与来氏《易》之观做一比较和分析从中发现其异同。该部分从古经自身结构与近几年王家台出土的《归藏》比较以及古经成书后的应用三方面论证了古经乃为卜筮之书然而并非仅是卜筮之书书中蕴涵了上古先民的某些哲学思想。成书于战国后期的《易传》是一部哲学著作其对古经进行高度原创性解读对古经蕴涵的思想加以提炼升华。《易传》之后古经与《易传》成为一体即由两者构成的《周易》成为一部天人之学的哲学典籍。继之论述了来氏《周易》观本文认为来氏对《易》之见解基本上继承了汉代与宋代以来的《易传》传统义理与象数兼容且义理源于象数对《易》道德含义与作用加以阐明对“贞一”加以发挥凸现了《周易》对人生的道德修养指导意义。第二章重点阐述来氏易学思想体系为来氏易学之核心其易学体系可以大致分两部分:一为太极论二为卦爻象论。fj{f者为来氏思想的形而上理论部分后者实则落实在易卦爻象上解说易。首先侧重对来氏太极图的研究从中探究其太极宇宙哲学思想。来氏提出“太极三原理"即:“流行者气主宰者理对待者数"。来氏一生著有许多太极图与山东大学博士学位论文八卦图他吸取宋代图书学之精华对河图洛书伏羲文王图等都做过详细研究与论述并有精辟独到见解太极哲学是来氏建构易卦学说体系的理论依据。因此侧重于对来氏哲学思维的探讨在追溯前贤研究同时对比来氏在该领域的继承和发展总结其博大精深的太极理论。其次对来氏易卦爻思想体系做一专门详述着重对其象、错、综、变、中爻等五点说明。第三章从易学哲学角度论证和阐发来氏易学体系象数理气的辩证关系主要分两部分:一、象数与义理关系问题的历史追溯二、来氏论象数与义理的关系。该部分重点论述来氏易学中对象数与义理关系的观点。虽然来氏极为重视象义理乃依附于象而生存但是来氏却将二者之间的关系辩证地加以阐述克服门户偏见全方位对象、数、理及气四者间关系加以探讨阐明它们之间的辩证关系。第四章重点研究来氏思想世界与理学思想内容与特点通过对其著作《集注》对《周易》的诠释与《来瞿唐先生日录》(简称《日录》)中的诗词与理学内容来彰显其世界观及其易学所蕴含的理学思想主要从三方面阐述:一、隐居立圣贤之志二、来氏易心性论三、易为君子谋。从其行为与诗词对世界的情感抒发把握来氏对圣贤之志理想的追求及其人生观。从来氏对理学的研究阐发我们可以对来氏理学世界有一个认识从而折射出时代环境对来氏的思想境界与人生观的潜移默化的影响。结语部分对其易学做一总结评定并对其学术性格与历史进行定位从而对其易学特点有一个整体的把握。从其代表著作《集注》书中可以清楚地看出他是一位潜心专诚研究易学的易学家其《集注》一书被后世视为元明以来易学中的瑰宝正如近世易学家杭辛斋所称道其书日:元明两代之言易学无甚发明著录者大抵盘旋于程朱脚下为多。元之熊与可、胡一桂、熊良辅、王申之、董真卿明之黄道周、乔中和皆其杰出者也然皆有所依傍不能成一家之言。黄道周之《易象正》、《三易洞玑》虽以天象历数阐明易理而艰深奥衍流传不广惟来知德氏崛起川中以二十九年之功成《来氏集注》一书风行大江以南三百年来未绝。虽其错综之说颇贻人口实然取象说理浅显明白惟恐人之不易索解恒罕譬取喻以明之。视故作艰深以文其浅陋者自胜一筹。初学者得此当为善本也。山东大学博士学位论文通过杭氏对来氏易学的评价可看出来氏易学在明清易学研究领域的独特地位其易学研究所阐扬的价值体现出其深厚的学养与生命的智慧同时成为开启明清实学奠定了基础。本文所引用来氏有关材料皆出于明代易学家来知德撰写的《易经集注》上海书店出版社年版及《来瞿唐先生日录》(《续修四库全书》卷)。由于文中引述该书材料过多故采用页内注释方式且以《集注》表示《易经集注》《日录》表示《来瞿唐先生日录》其他材料则采用页下注释方式文中不再赘述。关键词:来氏易学太极图象数义理山东大学博士学位论文ABSTRACTLaiZhi.de,notedIChingscholarofMingDynasty,WasrecordedinthebiographiesofStudiesonMingDynastyConfucianism(MingRuXueAn)andHistoryofMingDynasty(MingShi)aswell.OwingtoinseparabilityofhistimesinresearchtoLaiZhide’SIChingidea,weshouldlearnabouthistimeswhenhestudiedtheclassicworkofIChingincombinationwiththethentimesinordertocompletelyandaccuratelygrasphisIChing。disclosethecharacteristicsofhisIChingstudiesandtouchthepulseofhismindfurthermore,tracebacktheprocessofhisstudies.Atpresent,theachievementinresearchtohisstudyfallintotwoaspects:oneistheapfmtmehofhisIChingstudiesi.e.illuminatinghowheexplainedadoptingimagesofGuabymeansofCUOzong,bianyaoandzhongyaoandevaluatinghisgainandlosesuchasXuQintingandtheotherthestudyofhisIChingphilosophysuchasChelaZhuyiZhuBokunChenDeshuandYangZiping.IncontrastthereisnotallarticlewhichmakesacomprehensiveexplorationintohisIChingstudiesletaloneinvolvingpragmaticvalueofhistheory.Hencethepurposeofthisessay.TheessaywillconductacomprehensiveresearchtoLai’SIChingwithefforttomakenewexplanationsbasedonp孵“ousresearchmaterialandbebeneficialtothesociety.BesidesthisessaytakesafavorableattitudetorevealingthecontributionsmadebyLai’SIChinginthewiderangeindevelopingChineselChingandcorrecting蹦'orsandrestoringIChingtonormal.Thisessayiscomposedofsixparts:()Introduction()ChapterOne()ChapterTwo()ChapterThree()Conclusion.TheintroductionoftheessaymainlydiscusseshiseraandacademicsituationwhichheWasconfrontedwithandtheproblemsoftheeratosolve.LaiZhidewasbornwhenMingDynastyhadbeencomingdownfullofriots.Eunuchscontrolledthepowerandthegovernmentwascorrupted.TheborderwaslooseunprotectedandoftenharassedandinvadedbyMongolianaristocratsandNuezhennationalitypeople.Thelandlords’classexploitedpeasantrycruelly,whichmadeclassconflictssharperdaybyday.thefeudalprivilegeddidlanddealleviedhi曲taxesandlandencirclementdeprivedmanypeasantsofheavylossoffieldswhichcausedthemtobetenantswhosufferedfromtheexplorationofhighproportionoflandrent.山东大学博士学位论文Politically,theregimeofMingDynastytendedtobeextremelycorruptedandtheemperorlookeddownuponthegodsandneglectedsupremelaws.Thepowerfellintothehandsoftheeunuchsandministerswhodidnotperformtheirduties.Instead.theypursuedrobberyandbribery.Classclasheswereparticularlysharp.AndpeasaIltryuprisingswereinupsanddowns.Economically,inthelateperiodofMingDynasty,capitalisticrelationshipstartedtosproutinthesoutheastChina..Andnewlydevelopedcitizensgraduallyformedanewforce..Newproductiverelationshipalteredthesocialstructureofthefeudalregime,.subsequently,shakingthefoundationofthefeudalruling.InnaturalsciencesMingDynastyWasaremarkableperiod.WitheconomicdevelopmentMingDynastywitnessedmanynewachievementsinscientifictechnology.UptothelatterhalfofMingDynasty,capitalisticsproutingandpragmaticideologyboomingcontributedtotherevivalofnaturalsciencesfromsilence,.ThelateperiodofMingDynastyWasatimesofrestoringandsummarizingofClassicChinesesciencesmeanwhileatimesofwidespreadingmodemWesternscienceswhichWesternmissionariesbroughtintoChinatheadvancedcultureandtechnologyfromtheWest.Ideologically,NeoConfucianismwhichhaddominatedthemindoffeudalsociety,hadalreadynotadaptedtothesocialdevelopmentwithitscorruption如llyexposed.IndeedNeoConfucianismwasamilestoneinthehistoryofIChingstudies.ItstressedilluminationofprinciplesanddoctrinesinConfucianclassics.Althoughitfailedtocontributetoking’Spowerenforcementitcreatedacompletesetofwaysofpursuingsages’idealswhichgearedtoheavenlylaws.However,whenNeoConfucianismdevelopedintothelateperiodofMingDynasty,theacademictheoryofbeingidealsagesacademictheorytendedtobeemptywhilethesocialfunctionasking’Spowerenforcementalreadydiedouteither.ThesocialchaosandchangesinthemidlateperiodofMingDynastyfurtherdeepenedthecrisesofNeoConfucianism.Academically,NeoConfucianismchangedinitsessenceinthelateMingDynasty.AsaspecialforminthedevelopmentofConfucianclassicsstudies.NeoConfucianismhadsetupasystematictheoryofbecomingsagesinwhichmoralityservedasitsdoctrines.ZhuXimademoralityandcommandmentstobeheavenlylawswhereasWangShou.renmadeheavenlylawstoenterone’SmindSOhemadethemorality,theheavenlylawsasouterpartofhumans.tobeintemalizedselfdisciplinei.e.moralityconsciousness.‘‘Clearmindseesone’Sxing(nature)’’.‘‘Toconscientiousness’’hadbecomethethemeinXin.xingphilosophy.WhenXinxingphilosophycametoenditdevelopedintheotherwayroundcharacterizedbyemphasizingconscienceandhorizonignoringpracticeandexperience.Inotherwordsthephilosophyinevitablyfellintono.value,insignificantsciencewithnopracticaluse.Politically,N们onfucianismpaidnoattentiontoapplicationtothesociety.AndititselfincludedbothsidesoflPishengandwaiwang,andneishengextendedintowaiwang.Buttoomuchonesidedstressingneishengandevengoingtoimpracticalityledtofailureofwaiw姐舀SOitlostitsvalueofapplicationtothesociety.InadditionCompleteWorksofFiveConfucianClassicsCompleteWorksofFourConfucianClassicsCompleteWorksofPractisingMoralitycompiledbytheMingDynastyConfucianscholarsissuedthescriptacrossthecountry,declaringtheseworkswouldbethecriteriafortheofficialpromotionexaminations,whichseverelyconfinedthecreativityintheacademiccircle.Theofficialschosenbythiswaywerenotarmedwiththetalentofcopingwithpracticalaffairsnorwithmanagingthecotmtry.ThereignwasdarkandfeebleSOmuchSOthattherulingpowerwasinthehandsofotherofficialsandeunuchsthereforethrowingtheMingDynastyonthebrinkofcrises.Undersuchcircumstancessomepatrioticofficials锄dscholarsattemptedtorescuetheMingDynastyfromcrisesanddiscussedtheweaknesseSofNeo.Confucianism.Thentheycorrectedandcriticizedthetheory.TheystressedtheapplicationofthetheoryandSOatmosphereofreturningtotheoriginalclassiespursuitoftheapplicationofknowledgedominatedthewholeideologicalfield.Bcsides.influenceofthelocalcultureplayedallimportantpart.InhistoryBashua泐producedmanynotedIChingschlarslikeYangXionginWesternHanDynasty,whowroteTaiXuan(taixuan)LiDingzuoinTangDynasty,whowroteCollectedNotestoIChing(yijingjijie)ShuShiinSongDynasty,whowroteHistoryofIChingbyShuShi(ShuShiyizhuan)ZhangXingchengwhowroteOnChanges(biantong)ZhangJunwhowroteZ/Yan≥HistoryofIChing(ZiYanyizhuan)andSOon·InLaiZhi.de’Stimes.theMinggovernmentontheonehandactivelyperformedthemonarchicalculturalguidelineandregulatedIChingbyZhuXito“officialdoctrine'’forapromotionladder.OntheotherhandBashuareahadalonghistoryoflChingstudieswhichtracedbacktoYanJunping,YangXiong’Smaster,fromwhomtheinfluenceofI.ChingstudieswasselfevidentjustasChengYuNeoConfucianistinNorthSongDynasty,said“IChingstudiesisinBaShuarea.’’BaShucultureisall山东大学博士学位论文integratedpartofChineseculturewiththefollowingcharacteristics:longandbrillianthistoryofadaptationandmergeharmonyandpursuitforenjoymentpassingoncivilizationandrichintraditionallegacyandmulti·functional.InfluencedbysuchcircumstancesofIChingstudiesLai’SIChingstudieswascharacteristicofBaShuareaculture.HismindWaSbroadandprofoundincollaborationwithimagenumber,principlesandConfucianthought.InilluminatingIChingheexplainedtheIChingguasintheflexiblemultipleandopenwaysunrestrictedtoformwithextensiveandprofoundknowledgemeanwhileconsideringhistoricalhumanandpoliticalelementstracingbacktotheoriginals.HepaSsedonthetraditionalChinesecivilization,inheritedanddevelopedChengZhu’sNeoConfucianism.HisIChingtheoryreflectedacombinationofsystemscienceandhumannature.AtthesametimehedisplayedhismindliberationandbroketheconstraintsofZhuXi’Sdoctrine.Heboldlyfulfilledhisideaandbravelyquestionedauthority.ThereforeLaiZhide’SIChingwasaproductofthetimeswithhisownremarkablefeatures.HisIChingthoughtwasattheturnofolderaintoanewone.Sohisthoughtowedtohisspeciallifeexperience.Asweknow,anythoughtorsurgeofthoughtsareallproductsoftimes.SowasLai’S.Histhoughtwasjustareflectionofthehistimes.HisIChingmindinvolvedboththeinheritingancientChineseclassicIChing’ScriticizingandcorrectingtheNeoConfucianism.Meanwhileheabsorbednewthoughtandwipedouterrorsandsummeduptheancienttraditionalhumanscienceonallsides.SosurelyhismindofIChingenrichedChineseIChingandpromotedthedevelopmentofChineseancientclassicphilosophy.SothefirstpartoftheessayfocusesondescribinghisminddevelopmentinhisIChingstudies.AllhislifewasspentinthecircumstanceswhereCheng·ZhuNeoConfucianismwasdeclaredtobeofficiallyacknowledgedacademicsinotherwordsontheonehandNeoConfucianismruledthenationintheMingDynastyspiritually,ontheotherhandthegovernmentactivelyperformedthemonarchicalculturalpolicyandadvocatedstrongly‘‘threeprogramsandfivecommonsenses’’Intellectualsmindwereconfinedtothecageof“Confuciandoctrine”.TheofficialpromotionexaminationswereorientedtoChengZhuNeoConfucianismtheonlycriteria.UndoubtedlyLai’SmindwasdeeplyinfluencedbyChengZhuNeoConfucianism.Histhoughtwassymbolofaproductofthetimes.Justinsuch山东大学博士学位论文circumstancesfullofsocialupheavalsanddramaticsocialideologicalchangedidhisIChingstudiescameintobeinganddevelop.ThesecondpartoftheessaymakesathoroughexplorationintoLai’SIChingitselfandanalyseshistheoreticsetupsystem.Itispointedthathistheorymayberoughlydividedintotwopartsi.e.taichifigureandIChinggua.BecausehisIChingtheorywasbasedonhisTaichimainlybuiltonhisTaichiastheintroductionandbase"explorationofhiscosmologyillustratedhiscosmicideaandthenmakesananalysisnhisguatheorystudiesintheaspectsofyaoxiangimagenumber,hexagramsandsoonanddetectthefeaturesofhisIChingstudies.FromtheaboveexamplesandanalysisitisclearlyfoundthatLaiZhidetooktheimageasthebaseforexplainingIChinggua.advancingcuozongtheoryinexplainingthelogicofguaimageandShaoYong’SFuxi’SandWenwang’SfigureformatsbesidesheexplainedsixtyfourguaimagesandguayaociwithCUOzongtheory,bianyaoandzhongyaoetc.Inthiswayhecombinedthreesages’IChingintoonebodyandmadetheguaofsamebodyandguaqingstandouttogether.SoheinheritedanddevelopedancientChineseIChing.Hislearningstylegrewintoauniquesystemwithmanyoriginalideas.AndSOhistheoryWascalled“umquelearning”.HisIChingstudiesclearlyshowscholarstheevolutionaryprocessofI·ChingGua,thedifferencesamongthreesagesorfoursages.HisinterpretationofGuaWasbasedonthegrounds.LaiZhidemadeathoroughexaminationandcorrectionintheIChingstudiesfromHantoSongDynastiesandhepointedouttheelTOI'SinHanConfudanscholars’interpretationofYiologyGua,esp.YuFan’SinterpretationofHuffdesertingsemihuguaguabiantheory.etcwhichwereconfusingandmisleadingmeanwhilehowever,hedidnotcompletelythrowawaytheresultsofthepreviousConfucianstudies.Thatisheborrowedinmid·yaoinand·outguaCUOzong(i.e.pangtong)zhengweidispositionofyaoandSOon.Heconductedthestudiesandprovidedinterpretationsontheguayaociintheregularandlogicway.HepointedoutawayforIChingbeginnersandmadeIChingfarfrombeingboringandobscure.InsteaditwasrealisticanditWasanepitomeofadescriptiveanddynamicworld.AndIChingguaWasnolongeraplaneworldinthewayofsimplenarrationbyword.Onthecontrary,itWasadimensionalandmultifacetedworldjustasLaisaid“WecannottalkaboutIChingifwediscardimages.’’山东大学博士学位论文InawordthispartmainlyfocusesthecharacteristicsinLai’SIChingstudiesfromtheangleofIChingguaimages.Insteadofonlylimitingtothestudiesofimage·numberYi·ology,hepaidmuchattentiontothecombinationofprincipleswithimagenumber.ItwentwiththeGreatTreatisewhichsaid“Thesagessetforththediagramsinspectedtheemblemscontainedinthemandappendedtheirexplanations··inthiswaythegoodfortuneandbad(indicatedbythem)weremadeclear.’'ExplanationsandemblemsarebothexistentintheChing.Lmtookafairandjustattitudetothegreatbook.Whileinheritingtheachievementsfromthepreviousscholars’studiesinthecriticalway,heappliedtheprincipleIChingintheSongDynastyinaproperwaytohisownresearch.Hewasnotblindlyobedienttotheauthority.HepointedouttheproblemsexistentintheYiologystudieswithbraveryandproposedhisownoriginalidea.Andthepartalsomakesexpositionandanalysisontheimagenumber,lawandqiinIChing.ThethirdpartfocusesontheresearchtoLai’SIChingphilosophicalideainhislChingstudies.Wediscusstheprobleminthreeaspects:()retrospecttothehistoryofissueabouttherelationsbetweenimagenumberandmeaning()Lai’Silluminationoftherelationsbetweenimagenumberandmeaning.ItwasoneofthefeaturesinhisIChingstudiesthatLaiilluminatedthelawintheIChingfromthepointofthenaturalIChingsages’IChingandtheclassicIChing.Andfromanotherpointofview,ancientChineseculturalfeaturesweredisplayedinhisIChingstudieswithnaturalmaterialismandhumanismfromnaturetohumanismwerereflectedthecombinationandunityofheavenandman.AnotherpointtomentiontheclassicIChingwasreflectionofancientChinesethoughtsabouttherelationbetweennatureandman.HoweverLaiprotrudedsages’roleplayedinbridgingandnarratingtherelationbetweenheavenandman.Justbecauseofthesages’perfectcomprehensionoftheuniversallawsagreatclassicChingwascreated.IChingWasa“arithmatic’’philosophywhichreflectednaturallawsintheformofdiagrams.Mancanlearnandapplyitbutinsteadofaccumulationofknowledgesagestranscendedordinarypeople’Smindandponderingtheuniversalthings.ThefourthpartfocusesonLai’SideologyanditscharacteristicbymeansofhisseveralpoemsandhisinterpretationofGreatTreteasehisworldoutlookandNeoConfucianismideainhisIChingclassicispresented.Wedevelopthe山东大学博士学位论文argumentfromthreeaspects:.keepingahermitlifewithapursuitofsages’ideal.Lai’SIChingmindtheory.Lai’sideaofIChingformenofhonor.WetraceLai’Spursuitofsage’sidealandhisworldoutlookfTomhisbehaviorandpoemswhichreflectedhidfeelingsoftheworldfurthermorereflectingdeepimpactoftheenvironmentanderaonhim.BaseontheinvestigationintoLai’SIChingstudiesinthepreviouschapterswecometosummarizehisacademicstyleandhistoricalevaluation.ThroughthesummingupwecanhaveacommandofhisIChingthoeryfeaturesasthewhole.CollectedNotestoYtjing(ZhouYiJiZhu)wasLaiZhide’SrepresentativeworkthattellsusthatheWiltsadedicatedIChingscholarconcentratedonIChingstudies.HisclassicbookCollectedNotestoIChingWasappraisedhighlyandregardedasalegacyofIChingstudiessinceDynastiesofYuanandMingjustaSHangXinzhaimodemIChingscholar,oncepraisedhisbookandsaidWithregardtoYistudiesinYuanandMingdynastiestherewerenotanyinventions.ScholarsmostlyfollowedthefootprintsofChengZhuNeoConfucianism.AmongthemwereXiongYukeHuYiguiXiongLiangfuWangShenzhiDongZhenqinginYuanDynasty,andHuangDao·zhouQiaoZhongheinMingDynastyoutstanding.Despiteofthefacttheystillfollowedsomeschoolnotformingthcirownstyle.AlthoughbooksofKXiangZheng,San狞Dong历byHuangDaozhou,illustratedprinciplesofIChingthroughemblemscalendar,number,tlleyweresocomplicatedandobscurebeyondcomprehensionthattheywerenotwidelyspread.OnlyLaiZhi.deborninMidSichuanbecamefamousforhisbookofCollectedNotestoIChing(ZhouYiJiZhu).HespenttwentynineyearscompletingthebookwhichspreadinthesouthofChinaforthreehundredyearsandstillon.AlthoughhisCUOzongtheorieswereveryacceptabletoreadersandhismethodsofemployingemblemssimpleandclearandmadedifficulttextintoaneasytounderstoodone.SohesetupIChingtheoryofhisownstyle.HisbookbecameagoodguideandtextbookfortheIChinglearningbeginners.FromMr.Hang’SevaluationweseethatLiaZhideoccupiedansignificantanduniquepositioninthefieldofIChingstudiesintimesofDynastiesMingandQing.山东大学博士学位论文ThevaluereflectedinhislChingstudiessymbolizedhisprofoundandbroadknowledgemoralsandwisdomoflife.Atthesametime

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