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首页 美国哥伦比亚自贸协定提议

美国哥伦比亚自贸协定提议

美国哥伦比亚自贸协定提议

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2011-04-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《美国哥伦比亚自贸协定提议pdf》,可适用于经济金融领域

CRSReportforCongressPreparedforMembersandCommitteesofCongressTheProposedUSColombiaFreeTradeAgreement:EconomicandPoliticalImplicationsMAngelesVillarrealSpecialistinInternationalTradeandFinanceApril,CongressionalResearchServicewwwcrsgovRLTheProposedUSColombiaFreeTradeAgreement:EconomicandPoliticalImplicationsCongressionalResearchServiceSummaryImplementinglegislationforaUSColombiaFreeTradeAgreement(CFTA)(HRS)wasintroducedinthethCongressonApril,underTitleXXI(BipartisanTradePromotionAuthorityActof)oftheTradeActof(PL)TheHouseleadershiptookthepositionthatthePresidenthadsubmittedthelegislationtoimplementtheagreementwithoutadequatelyfulfillingtherequirementsofTradePromotionAuthorityOnApriltheHousevotedtomakecertainprovisionsin§oftheTradeActof(PL),theprovisionsestablishingexpeditedprocedures,inapplicabletotheCFTAimplementinglegislation(HRes)ItiscurrentlyunclearwhetherorhowthethCongresswillconsiderimplementinglegislationforthependingUSColombiaFTATheagreementwouldimmediatelyeliminatedutiesonofUSexportsofconsumerandindustrialproductstoColombiaAnadditionalofUSexportswouldreceivedutyfreetreatmentwithinfiveyearsofimplementationandmostremainingtariffswouldbeeliminatedwithintenyearsofimplementationTheagreementalsocontainsprovisionsformarketaccesstoUSfirmsinmostservicessectorsprotectionofUSforeigndirectinvestmentinColombiaintellectualpropertyrightsprotectionsforUScompaniesandenforceablelaborandenvironmentalprovisionsTheUnitedStatesisColombia’sleadingtradepartnerColombiaaccountsforaverysmallpercentageofUStrade(in),rankingndamongUSexportmarketsandthasasourceofUSimportsAboutofUSimportsfromColombiaentertheUnitedStatesdutyfree,whileUSexportstoColombiafacedutiesofuptoEconomicstudiesontheimpactofaUSColombiafreetradeagreement(FTA)havefoundthat,uponfullimplementationofanagreement,theimpactontheUnitedStateswouldbepositivebutverysmallbecausethesizeoftheColombianeconomyisverysmallwhencomparedtothatoftheUnitedStates(about)NumerousMembersofCongressopposetheCFTAbecauseofconcernsabouttheviolenceagainstlaborunionactivistsinColombiaPresidentBush’sAdministrationbelievedthatColombiahadmadesignificantadvancestocombatviolenceandinstabilityandviewsthependingtradeagreementasanationalsecurityissueinthatitwouldstrengthenakeydemocraticallyinSouthAmericaPresidentBarackObamametwithColombianPresidentAlvaroUribeattheWhiteHouseonJune,Afterthemeeting,PresidentObamastatedthathehadaskedtheUnitedStatesTradeRepresentative(USTR)toworkcloselywithColombiangovernmentrepresentativestoseehowthetwocountriescouldmoveforwardonthependingagreementPresidentObamacommendedColombiaforitsprogressinaddressingtheviolenceagainstlaborunionleadersInMarch,USTRRonKirkstatedthattheObamaAdministrationisworkingondevelopingafinitelistofproposalstogivetoColombiatoresolvetheissuesthatblockedcongressionalapprovalofafreetradeagreementwiththeUnitedStatesandthattheproposalswouldlikelyberelatedtoworkerrightsprotectionandtheissueofpersecutioninColombiaTheObamaAdministrationalsostatedinMarchthatthependingFTAswithColombia,Korea,andPanamaareimportanttoUSnationalsecurity,eachfordifferentreasons,becausenationalsecuritydependsoneconomicsecurityandUScompetitivenessForColombia,afreetradeagreementwiththeUnitedStatesispartofitsoveralleconomicdevelopmentstrategyTheProposedUSColombiaFreeTradeAgreement:EconomicandPoliticalImplicationsCongressionalResearchServiceContentsIntroductionRationalefortheAgreementReviewoftheUSColombiaFreeTradeAgreementKeyCFTAProvisionsMarketAccessTariffEliminationandPhaseOutsAgriculturalProvisionsInformationTechnologyTextilesandApparelGovernmentProcurementServicesInvestmentIPRProtectionCustomsProceduresandRulesofOriginLaborProvisionsEnvironmentalProvisionsDisputeSettlementBipartisanTradeFrameworkAmendmentsonLaborandEnvironmentofMay,AmendmentsonBasicLaborStandardsProvisionsonEnvironmentOtherProvisionsUSColombiaEconomicRelationsUSColombiaMerchandiseTradeAndeanTradePreferenceActUSColombiaBilateralForeignDirectInvestmentPoliticalSituationinColombiaHistoryofViolenceinColombiaHumanRightsIssuesTheUribeAdministrationUSPolicyTowardColombiaTheProposedCFTA:IssuesforCongressEconomicImpactStudyFindingsAgriculturalSectorLaborIssuesViolenceIssuesConclusionFiguresFigureUSMerchandiseTradewithColombiaTheProposedUSColombiaFreeTradeAgreement:EconomicandPoliticalImplicationsCongressionalResearchServiceTablesTableKeyEconomicIndicatorsforColombiaandtheUnitedStatesTableUSTradewithColombia,TableUSImportsfromColombiaTableUSImportsfromColombiaunderATPATableUSDirectInvestmentPositioninColombiaContactsAuthorContactInformationTheProposedUSColombiaFreeTradeAgreement:EconomicandPoliticalImplicationsCongressionalResearchServiceIntroductionTheproposedUSColombiaFreeTradeAgreement(CFTA)isabilateralfreetradeagreementbetweentheUnitedStatesandColombiawhich,ifratified,wouldeliminatetariffsandotherbarriersingoodsandservicesbetweenthetwocountriesTheCFTAnegotiationsgrewoutofaregionalefforttoproduceaUSAndeanfreetradeagreementamongtheUnitedStates,Colombia,Peru,andEcuadorinMayAfternegotiatorsfailedtoreachanagreementforanAndeanfreetradeagreement(FTA),ColombiacontinuednegotiationswiththeUnitedStatesforabilateraltradeagreementOnFebruary,,theUnitedStatesandColombiaconcludedtheUSColombiaFTA,andfinalizedthetextoftheagreementonJuly,OnAugust,,PresidentBushnotifiedtheCongressofhisintentiontosigntheUSColombiaFTAThetwocountriessignedtheagreementonNovember,TheUnitedStatesColombiaTradePromotionAgreementImplementationAct(HRS)wasintroducedinthethCongressonApril,ThebillswereintroducedunderTitleXXI(BipartisanTradePromotionAuthorityActof)oftheTradeActof(PL)Thisactmakesexpeditedlegislativeproceduresestablishedin§oftheTradeActof(PL)availableforcongressionalconsiderationoflegislationtoimplementfreetradeagreementsnegotiatedunderauthorityoftheActUnderthesestatutoryprocedures,knownas“tradepromotionauthority”or“TPA”andsometimescalled“fasttrack”procedures,Congresshasamaximumofdaystoconsidertheimplementinglegislation,themeasureisprivilegedforconsideration,thelengthofconsiderationislimited,andamendmentsareprecludedTheHousemustactfirstonthebill,becausethelegislationwouldaffectrevenue,andundertheactitmustdosowithindaystheSenatecannotactuntilthebillpassestheHouseTheSenatecould,nevertheless,takeupandpassitsownimplementingbill,thenholditatthedeskpendingthearrivaloftheHousecompanionInthatcase,however,theexpeditedproceduresofthestatute(limitingdebate,precludingamendment,etc)wouldnotbeapplicablefortheSenate’sconsiderationofitsmeasure(exceptbyunanimousconsent)ItiscurrentlyunclearwhetherthethCongresswillconsiderimplementinglegislationfortheproposedUSColombiaFTAInthethCongress,theHouseleadershiptookthepositionthatPresidentBushhadsubmittedthelegislationtoimplementtheCFTAwithoutadequatelyfulfillingtherequirementsoftheTradeActofforconsultationwithCongress,andonApriltheHouse,byavoteof,adoptedHRes,makingcertainprovisionsoftheexpeditedprocedureinapplicabletotheCFTAimplementinglegislationHRessuspendedtheTPAprovisionrequiringthatthecommitteesofjurisdictionautomaticallybedischargedfromtheimplementingbilliftheyhadnotreporteditbydaysofsessionafteritsintroductionItalsoremovedtheTPAprovisionthatmakingamotiontoproceedtoconsiderationofthebillhighlyprivilegedandnotdebatable,therebyrestoringthenormalcontrolexercisedbytheleadershipoverthefloorscheduleifthecommitteesofconsiderationweretoreporttheimplementingbillFormoreinformationonTradePromotionAuthority,seeCRSReportRL,TradePromotionAuthority(TPA):Issues,Options,andProspectsforRenewal,byJFHornbeckandWilliamHCooperTheProposedUSColombiaFreeTradeAgreement:EconomicandPoliticalImplicationsCongressionalResearchServiceTheadoptionofHResremovedtheobligationfortheHousetovoteontheCFTAwithindaysofsession,althoughtheHouseleadershipretainedtheabilitytoscheduleavoteatanytimeunderthegeneralrulesoftheHouseIfitchosetodoso,considerationwouldmostlikelyoccurpursuanttoaspecialrulereportedbytheCommitteeonRulesandadoptedbytheHouse,whichwouldpresumablyestablishtermsforconsiderationsimilartothosedirectedbytheTPAHResdidnotchangetheTPAprovisionsthattheCFTAisnotamendableonceitcomesup(althoughinprinciple,thisrestrictioncouldbealteredbythetermsofaspecialruleforconsideringtheimplementingbill)NordoesitaltertheapplicabilityofTPArulesintheSenateBecausethethCongressdidnotconsiderimplementinglegislationfortheCFTA,implementinglegislationisnotnecessarilyeligiblefor“fasttrack”considerationinthethCongressUnderTPA,atradeagreementanditsimplementinglegislationcanbesubmittedtoCongresspursuanttotheactonlyonce,anditisthePresident’sinitialsubmissionoftheagreementthattriggersthedayprocessunderexpeditedproceduresForthisreason,itisgenerallyunderstoodthattheeligibilityoftheCFTAforexpeditedconsiderationunderthestatutewouldnotcarryoverorberenewedinasubsequentCongress,althoughthisproceduralpointhasnotbeen“officiallytested,”becausetheSpeakerhasmadenoformalrulingonthematterfromthechairTheCFTAimplementinglegislation,however,couldstillbereintroducedinthethCongressunderthegeneralrulesofbothhouses,andcouldbeconsideredintheHouseunderaTPAlikeprocedurepursuanttoaspecialrulereportedbytheCommitteeonRulesandapprovedbytheHouseRationalefortheAgreementSincethes,thecountriesofLatinAmericaandtheCaribbeanhavebeenafocusofUStradepolicyasdemonstratedbythepassageoftheNorthAmericanFreeTradeAgreement(NAFTA),theUSChileFreeTradeAgreement,theDominicanRepublicCentralAmericaFreeTradeAgreement(CAFTADR),andtheUSPeruTradePromotionAgreementTheBushAdministrationmadebilateralandregionaltradeagreementskeyelementsofUStradepolicyUStradepolicyintheWesternHemisphereoverthepastfewyearshasbeenfocusedoncompletingtradenegotiationswithColombia,Peru,andPanamaandongainingpassageofthesefreetradeagreementsbytheUSCongressTheUSPeruFTAwasapprovedbyCongressandsignedintolawinDecember(PL)AfreetradeagreementwithColombiawouldincreasemarketaccessforUSgoodsandservicesintheColombianmarket,currentlynotthecaseundertheAndeanTradePreferenceAct(ATPA)ATPAisaunilateraltradepreferenceprograminwhichtheUnitedStatesextendspreferentialdutytreatmenttoselectColombiangoodsenteringtheUnitedStatesItispartofabroaderUSinitiativewithLatinAmericatoaddresstheillegaldrugissue(seesectiononATPAlaterinthisreport)AboutofUSimportsfromColombiaentertheUnitedStatesdutyfreeunderATPA,underotherUStradepreferences,orthroughnormaltraderelationsInsideUSTrade,“HouseApprovesFastTrackRulesChangeforUSColombiaFTA,”April,Formoreinformation,seeCRSReportRL,USPeruEconomicRelationsandtheUSPeruTradePromotionAgreement,byMAngelesVillarrealTheProposedUSColombiaFreeTradeAgreement:EconomicandPoliticalImplicationsCongressionalResearchServiceThemajorexpectationamongproponentsofthependingfreetradeagreementwithColombia,aswithothertradeagreements,isthatitwouldprovideeconomicbenefitsforboththeUnitedStatesandColombiaastheleveloftradeincreasesbetweenthetwocountriesAnotherexpectationisthatitwouldimproveinvestorconfidenceandincreaseforeigndirectinvestmentinColombia,whichwouldbringmoreeconomicstabilitytothecountryForColombia,afreetradeagreementwiththeUnitedStatesispartofthecountry’soveralldevelopmentstrategyandeffortstopromoteeconomicgrowthandstabilityReviewoftheUSColombiaFreeTradeAgreementKeyCFTAProvisionsThecomprehensivefreetradeagreementwouldeliminatetariffsandotherbarrierstogoodsandservicesTheagreementwasreachedafternumerousroundsofnegotiationsoveraperiodofnearlytwoyearsSomeissuesthattooklongertoresolvewererelatedtoagricultureColombiahadbeenseekinglenientagricultureprovisionsintheagreement,arguingthattheeffectsofliberalizationonruralregionscouldhaveadverseeffectsonsmallerfarmersanddrivethemtococaproductionTheUnitedStatesagreedtogivemoresensitivesectorslongerphaseoutperiodstoallowColombiamoretimetoadjusttotradeliberalizationSectorsreceivingthelongestphaseoutperiodsincludedpoultryandriceThissectionsummarizesseveralkeyprovisionsintheoriginalagreementtextasprovidedbytheUnitedStatesTradeRepresentative(USTR),unlessotherwisenotedMarketAccessTheagreementwouldprovidefortheeliminationoftariffsonbilateraltradeineligiblegoodsColombia’saveragetariffonUSgoodsiswhiletheaverageUStariffonColombiangoodsisColombiaappliestariffsintherangeonrangeoncapitalgoods,industrialgoods,andrawmaterialsonmanufacturedgoodswithsomeexceptionsandtoonconsumerand“sensitive”goodsUponimplementation,theagreementwouldeliminateofdutiesonUSexportsofconsumerandindustrialproductstoColombiaAnadditionalofUSexportswouldreceivedutyfreetreatmentwithinfiveyearsofimplementationandmostremainingtariffswoul

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