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首页 外文期刊写作必读

外文期刊写作必读.pdf

外文期刊写作必读

日本省军分区政委
2011-04-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《外文期刊写作必读pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

TheMostCommonHabitsfrommorethanEnglishPaperswrittenbyGraduateChineseEngineeringStudentsByFeliciaBrittmanThispaperpresentssomeofthemostcommonChineseEnglishhabitsobservedfromovertwohundredEnglishtechnicalpapersbyChinesewritersThehabitsareexplainedandinmostcases,exampletextfromanactualpaperisgivenalongwithpreferredtextAnattemptismadetoexplainhowtocorrectandpreventsuchmistakesInsomecasesapossibleexplanationofwhythehabitoccursisalsogivenThispapercanserveasanindividualguidetoeditingtechnicalpapersespeciallywhenanativeEnglishspeakingeditorisunavailableIntroductionMostChineseuniversitiesrequiretheirdoctoralandmastercandidatesintechnicalandscientificfieldstopublishatleastoneEnglishpaperinaninternationaljournalasadegreerequirementHowever,manyfactorsmakethistaskdifficulttoaccomplishFirst,previousEnglishstudiesmaynothavefocusedenoughonwriting,letalonetechnicalwritingCurrentstudiesmaynotincludeEnglish,causingthewritersEnglishfluencyleveltodeclineSecond,mostwritershaveneverlivedinanEnglishspeakingcountryThird,duetothespecialaspectsoftechnicalwriting,evennativeEnglishspeakingengineeringstudentshaveatechnicalwritingcourseaspartoftheirstudyToooften,students’papersarereturnedunacceptedbecauseofpoorEnglishIfavailable,studentsmayhavetheirpaperseditedbyanativeEnglishspeakerHowever,thiscangetexpensiveforadepartmentthathasmanystudentswitheachpapertypicallyneedingtobeeditedtwiceHiringsomeonetoeditpapersisdifficult,costlyandonlyputsapatchovertheproblemAnativeEnglishspeakercandoagoodjobatgettingridofmostofthegrammaticalmistakesHowever,ifthispersondoesnothaveatechnicalbackground,particularlyintheareaofthepapersheisediting,heisunabletogetridofallofthemistakesandmakesurethatthemeaningisclearHecannotrecognizetheincorrecttranslationoftechnicaltermsforwhichthereisastandardwordSuchmistakeswillnotbepickedupbytheprocessor’sspellingandgrammarcheckerInaddition,iftheyarenotfamiliarwiththetopicorfield,theymaynotgraspthemeaningoftheentirearticleandfailtomakecriticaleditsHiringapersonwithatechnicalbackgroundsimilartothatofthepapersbeingeditedisabetteroptionNevertheless,whileapersonwithatechnicalbackgroundmaybeabletoeditthepapersufficiently,hemaynotbeabletoexplaintothewriterhowtopreventsuchmistakesinthefutureBesides,itisdifficultformostChineseuniversitiestohiresuchstaffsimplyforeditingUniversitiesmayconsiderinvitingavisitingscholarwhowilleditpapersinadditiontodoingresearchorteachingaspartofanexchangeAlthougheditingmaybethefastestwaytopublishpapers,itdoeslittleinthewayofteachingthewritershowtopreventcommonmistakesandcolloquialhabitsthatpreventaclearunderstandingofthewriter’sideasWriterswhohavealreadyobtainedanimpressingcommandoftheEnglishlanguagecanonlytrulybenefitiftheyaremadeawareoftheircommonmistakesandcolloquialhabitsandhowtopreventthemPurposeThepurposeofthisreportistointroducethemostcommonhabitsinChineseEnglishwritingasnotedfromtheovertwohundredpapersIhaveeditedThehabitsincludegrammarmistakes,colloquialisms,andformattingproblemsandinmostcasespreventaclearunderstandingofthewriter’sideasAfewofthehabits,suchaswritingextremelylongsentences,canbecorrectedwithcarefuluseoftheMSWord®grammarandstylecheckerHowever,mosthabits,suchasmissingarticles,gounnoticedbyautomaticgrammarcheckingdevicesStill,ChineseEnglishcolloquialhabitsarenotrecognizedbysuchsoftwaretoolsStructureThecommonhabitsarepresentedintwosectionsThefirstsectionliststhehabitsthat,inmyopinion,needthemostattentionThesehabitsinterrupttheflowofthepapermakingitdifficulttounderstandandoccurmostfrequentlyInthissection,thehabitsareexplained,examplesentencesfromactualpapersaregiventoshowthehabits,andthesentencesarerewrittentoshowthecorrectwaytowritethemInthecaseofmissingarticles,aflowchartisalsogiventoaidinchoosingthecorrectarticlesInthesecondsection,anadditionallistofhabitsisgivenInsomecases,examplesentencesaregivenInothercases,adviceisgivenThesecondsectionisveryusefulinbecomingfamiliarwithsmallnuancesNotallofthecommonhabitsIobservedarepresentedmainlybecausetheycanonlybedealtwithonanindividualbasisForexample,writershaddifficultytitlingtheirpapersandnamingnewtechnicalideastoexpresstheircontentsandfunctionsconciselyThisproblemfrequentlyoccurredbutitcanonlybeaddressedindividuallyOncewritersareawareoftheirhabits,theywouldbeabletowritebettertechnicalEnglisharticlesSection“a,an,the”Thesinglemostcommonhabitistheomissionofarticlesa,an,andtheThisoccursbecauseMandarinhasnodirectequivalentofarticlesandtherulesforusingthemaresomewhatcomplicatedforanonnativespeakersArticlessignalthatanounwillfollowandthatanymodifiersbetweenthearticleandthenounrefertothatnoun(abigbluebicyclethefirstaward)AandanareindefinitearticlestheisadefinitearticleEverytimeasingularnoncountnoun,acommonnounthatnamesonecountableitem,isusedthenounrequiressomekindofdeterminerMistake:The,a,andanare)omittedwheretheyarerequired,)usedwheretheyarenotneededorcontributetowordiness)usedwronglyinplaceofthecorrectarticleExamplesofincorrectusages:IncorrectFigureshowsthedistributionofrelativevelocityonsurfaceofmainandsplitterbladesCorrectFigureshowsthedistributionofrelativevelocityonthesurfaceofthemainandsplitterbladesIncorrectThesoftwarePowerSHAPEischosentobeaDmodelingtoolitisgoodatdealingwithfreesurfacesandcurvesCorrectThesoftwarePowerSHAPEischosentobetheDmodelingtoolitisgoodatdealingwithfreesurfacesandcurvesTherewasonlyoneDmodelingtoolusedinthisstudy,therefore‘Dmodelingtool’isspecificandrequiresthearticletheIncorrectAtheoreticalmethodforcalculatingtheinnerflowfieldincentrifugalimpellerwithsplitterbladesandinvestigationoftheinteractionsbetweenmainandsplitterbladesispresentedinthispaperThevorticesaredistributedonthemainandsplitterbladestosimulatetheeffectsofflowsSystematicalstudyofnumberanddistributionofvorticesisconductedCorrectAtheoreticalmethodforcalculatingtheinnerflowfieldinacentrifugalimpellerwithsplitterbladesandaninvestigationoftheinteractionsbetweenmainandsplitterbladesispresentedinthispaperThevorticesaredistributedonthemainandsplitterbladestosimulatetheeffectsofflowsAsystematicalstudyofthenumberanddistributionofvorticesisconductedIncorrectTheoretically,remanufacturingcouldfullytakeadvantageofresourcescontainedinEOFproducttherebyminimizingimpactonenvironmenttothegreatestextentcomparedtolandfillorrecyclingofmaterialsconsequentlyitcontributesgreatlytoresourceconservationCorrectTheoretically,remanufacturingcouldfullytakeadvantageofresourcescontainedinanEOFproducttherebyminimizingtheimpactontheenvironmenttothegreatestextentcomparedtolandfillorrecyclingofmaterialsconsequentlyitcontributesgreatlytoresourceconservationDefinitions:ArticlesAlsocalleddeterminersornounmarkers,articlesarethewordsa,an,andtheAandanareindefinitearticles,andtheisadefinitearticleArticlessignalthatanounwillfollowandthatanymodifiersbetweenthearticleandthenounrefertothatnoun(acold,metalchairthelightningfastcomputer)DeterminersAwordorwordgroup,traditionallyidentifiedasanadjective,thatlimitsanounbytellinghowmuchorhowmanyaboutit(expressionofquantity,limitingadjective,marker)Theytellwhetheranounisgeneral(atree)orspecific(thetree)TheisadefinitearticleBeforeanoun,theconveysthattheknownreferstoaspecificitem(theplan)AandanareindefinitearticlesTheyconveythatanounreferstoaniteminanonspecificorgeneralway(aplan)CommonnounsAnounthatnamesageneralgroup,place,person,orthing:dog,houseCountnounAnounthatnamesanitemoritemsthatcanbecounted:radio,streets,idea,fingernailsNoncountnounsAnounthatnamesathingthatcannotbecounted:water,timeSpecificnounAnoununderstoodtobeexactlyandspecificallyreferredtousesthedefinitearticletheNonspecificnounAnounthatreferstoanyofanumberofidenticalitemsittakestheindefinitearticlesa,anVerylongsentencesVerylongsentencesareespeciallycommoninChineseEnglishwritingbecausethewritersoftentranslatedirectlyfromChinesetoEnglishAlthough,inChinesewritingitisacceptabletoputseveralsupportingideasinonsentencetoshowtheirrelationship,inEnglish,themainideaandeachsupportingideaistypicallywritteninseparatesentencesOnecanusuallyrecognizeaverylongsentencebyitslength–sixtywordsormoreHowever,sentencesofsmallerlengthscanalsobetoolongiftheycontainmultiplestatementsthatconfusethemainideaLongsentencescanbeavoidedbylimitingeachsentencetooneortwotopicsSemicolonsshouldbeusedwherethewriterreallywantstoemphasizetherelationshipbetweenideasToolongAccordingtothecharacteristicoffancoilairconditioningsystems,thispaperderivesthecoolingformulaoffancoilunitsbasedontheheattransfertheoriesandputsforwardanewmethodtogaugecoolingnamedCoolingMeteringontheAirside,whichcanmonitortheindividualairconditioningcoolingconsumptionduringaperiodoftimebydetectingtheparametersofinletaircondition–temperatureandhumidity–ofthefancoilairconditioningsystemaswellastheparametersofinletcoolingwaterprovidedbythechillerCorrectThispaperderivesthecoolingformulaoffancoilunitsbasedonthecharacteristicsoffancoilairconditioningsystemsandheattransfertheories,andputsforwardanewmethodtogaugecoolingcalledCoolingMeteringontheAirsideThenewmethodcanmonitorindividualairconditioningcoolingconsumptionduringaperiodoftimebydetectingtheconditionofinletair–temperatureandhumidity–ofthefancoilairconditioningsystemaswellastheparametersoftheinletcoolingwaterprovidedbythechillerToolongThegeartransmissionisgradeseven,thegeargapisradians,thegeargaphasdifferentoutputvaluescorrespondingtoanygiveninputvalue,nonlinearityofthegeargapmodelcanbedescribedbyusingthephasefunctionmethod,theexistingbacklashblockinthenonlinearlibraryoftheMatlabzdimulinktoolboxcanbeused,theinitialvalueofgeargapinthebacklashblockissettozeroCorrectThegeartransmissionisgradesevenThegeargap,whichisradians,hasdifferentoutputvaluescorrespondingtoanygiveninputvalueThenonlinearityofthegeargapmodelcanbedescribedbyusingthephasefunctionmethodTheexistingbacklashblockinthenonlinearlibraryoftheMatlabzdimulinktoolboxcanbeusedtheinitialvalueofgeargapinthebacklashblockissettozeroAnothertypeofsuperlongsentencethatfrequentlyoccursintechnicalpapersisthatofalistThewriterwantstogivealargeamountofdata,usuallyparametervalues,andputsthisinformationintoonelong,paragraphsizedsentenceHowever,thebestwaytogivesuchtypeandquantityofinformationistotabulateit(putitinabulletedlist)Toolong…wheremisthemassoftheheavydiskmountedatthemidspanofamasslesselasticshaft,eistheeccentricityofthemasscenterfromthegeometriccenterofthedisk,φistheanglebetweentheorientationoftheeccentricityandtheξaxis,ξkandηkarethestiffnesscoefficientsintwoprincipaldirectionsofshaftrespectively,cistheviscousdampingcoefficientoftheshaftandthedisk,icistheinnerdampingcoefficientofshaft,ωistherotatingspeed,sξandsηarethecomponentsofinitialbendindirectionsofξ,ηaxesrespectively:θξcosbsr=,θηsinbsr=CorrectWheremisthemassoftheheavydiskmountedatthemidspanofamasslesselasticshaft,eistheeccentricityofthemasscenterfromthegeometriccenterofthedisk,φistheanglebetweentheorientationoftheeccentricityandtheξaxis,ξkandηkarethestiffnesscoefficientsinthetwoprincipaldirectionsoftheshaft,cistheviscousdampingcoefficientoftheshaftandthedisk,icistheinnerdampingcoefficientoftheshaft,ωistherotatingspeed,sξandsηarethecomponentsofinitialbendindirectionsofξ,ηaxes,respectively:θξcosbsr=,θηsinbsr=ToolongTheclearheightofthecaseismetersthethicknessoftheroofismetersthethicknessofthebottomismeters,theoverallwidthismeters,theoveralllengthoftheaxialcordismeters,thelengthofthejackingsectionisaboutmeterstheweightofthecaseisabouttonsClear•Caseclearanceheightmeters•Roofthicknessmeters•Bottomthicknessmeters•Overallwidthmeters•Overalllengthoftheaxialcordmeters•Lengthofthejackingsectionmeters(approx)•Weightofthecasetons(approx)Prefacingthemainideaofasentencebystatingthepurpose,locationorreasonfirstChinesewritersoftenprefacethemaintopicofasentencebyfirststatingthepurpose,location,reason,examplesandconditionsasintroductoryelementsHowever,thishastheeffectofdemotingtheimportanceofthemainideaandmakingthereaderthinktheauthorisindirectBringthemainideatothebeginningofthesentencestatinganylocations,reasons,etc,afterwardsIncorrectFortheapplicationinautomobileinteriors,thispaperstudiesthenestingoptimizationprobleminleathermanufacturingCorrectThispaperstudiesthenestingoptimizationprobleminleathermanufacturingforapplicationinautomobileinteriorsIncorrectEspeciallywhennumericalcontrol(NC)techniquesarewidelyusedinindustryandrapidprototypemethodsbringahugeeconomicalbenefits,theadvantageofconstructingDmodelbecomesextremelyobviousCorrectTheadvantageofconstructingaDmodelbecomesextremelyobviousespeciallywhennumericalcontrol(NC)techniquesarewidelyusedinindustryandrapidprototypemethodsbringahugeeconomicalbenefitsIncorrectInsidethetestbox,thespacewasfilledwithasbestosCorrectThespaceinsidethetestboxwasfilledwithasbestosIncorrectInpractice,weemployedthisapproachtodisposeofawheelhousesubassemblyofonekindofautobody,andtheresultsshowthatthismethodisfeasibleCorrectWeemployedthisapproachtodisposeofawheelhousesubassemblyofonekindofautobody,andtheresultsshowthatthismethodisfeasibleIncorrectToensuresheetmetalqualityaswellasassemblyquality,CMMsarewidelyusedinautomotiveindustryproductionCorrectCMMsarewidelyusedinautomotiveindustryproductiontoensuresheetmetalqualityaswellasassemblyqualityTendencyofplacingphraseswhichindicatetimeatthebeginningofasentenceIncorrectWhenUistakenasthecontrolparameter,theBDsfor∆=,,areshowninFigCorrectFigureshowstheBDsfor∆=,,andwhenUistakenasthecontrolparameterPlacethemostimportantsubjectatthebeginningofthesentenceforemphasisIncorrectBasedonthetriangulationstructurebuiltfromunorganizedpointsoraCADmodel,theextendedSTLformatisdescribedinthissectionCorrectTheextendedSTLformatisdescribedinthissectionbasedonthetriangulationstructurebuiltfromunorganizedpointsoraCADmodelIncorrectTheDdentitiondefectandrestorationelementmodelsaredesignedpreciselywithcomplicatedsurfacesCorrectTheDdentitiondefectandrestorationelementmodelswithcomplicatedsurfacesaredesignedprecisely“whichthat”Theantecedent(nounorpronoun)towhichwhichrefersisnotspecific,causingconfusionAntecedentThenounorpronountowhichapronounrefers‘TheShijiazhuangsouthroadundergroundbridgepossessesthelargestjackingforce,whichisbuiltat(t)’‘Shijiazhuangsouthroadundergroundbridgepossessesthelargestjackingforcewhichisbuiltat(t)’Absolutetruthsinpaleontologyareoftenelusive,andeventhefilmmakersweresurprisedatthefierceargumentsthatsplitthescientistswhenaninitialbrainstormingsessionwaselse‘Respectively’and‘respective’RespectivelyrefersbacktotwoormorepersonsorthingsonlyintheordertheywerepreviouslydesignatedormentionedIftwolistsaregiven,respectivelypairsthelistentriesaccordingtotheorderinwhichtheyaregivenInthiscasetheuseofrespectivelyistoallowthewritertogivealotofinformationwithoutconfusingthereaderorwritingseveralshortsentencesRespectivelyisusuallyattheendofthesentenceInbothcases,mentioningtheordermustbeimportanttothemeaningofthesentenceotherwiseitisnotusedForexample:Bobby,NicoleandDarenworered,greenandbluecoats,respectivelyListListBobbyworearedcoatNicoleworeagreencoatDarenworeabluecoatRespectivetotwoormorepersonsorthingsonlyintheordertheywerepreviouslydesignatedormentionedTheusesofthesetwowordsareusuallyincorrectorconfusingasinthefollowingexamplesRespectivelyismisplacedinthesentenceitisputbeforethenounstowhichitrefersIncorrectEquations~canberespectivelylinearizedas:……(equationsgiven)…CorrectEquations~canbelinearizedas:……(equationsgiven)…,respectivelyIncorrectTheweightsofthetwoexpertsarerespectivelyandCorrectTheweightsofthetwoexpertsareand,respectivelyRespectivelyisinsertedtoexpressthatthereisacertainorderinwhichsomethingwasdoneHowever,theorderisalreadyimpliedelsewhereinthesentenceordoesnotneedtobeexpressedbecauseitdoesnotaddvaluetomeaningofthesentenceIncorrectIfboththecoretechnologyscoreandcorequalityscoreofabottleneckprocessare,respectively,belowcertainscores,thenwerefertostrategy,otherwise,ifeitheris,respectively,aboveacertainscore,thenwerefertostrategy

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