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首页 Lecture+4+The+English+Renaissance

Lecture+4+The+English+Renaissance.ppt

Lecture+4+The+English+Renaissan…

孙育宏
2011-04-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Lecture+4+The+English+Renaissanceppt》,可适用于外语资料领域

TheEnglishRenaissance(latethcentury~earlythcentury)TheEnglishRenaissance(latethcentury~earlythcentury)IWhatisRenaissanceIIWhatishumanismIIITheEnglishRenaissanceIVWilliamShakespeareHisWorksVAnalysisofHamletVIAnalysisofSonnetIWhatisRenaissanceIWhatisRenaissanceRenaissanceiscommonlyappliedtothemovementorperiodinwesterncivilization,whichmarksthetransitionfromthemedievaltothemodernworldGenerally,itreferstotheperiodbetweenthethandmidthcenturyItfirststartedinFlorenceandVeniceofItaly,withthefloweringofpainting,sculptureandarchitectureFromItalythemovementwenttoembracetherestofEuropeIndifferentcountries,themovementoccurredindifferentperiodswithdifferentemphasisWhatisRenaissanceWhatisRenaissanceTheword“Renaissance”means“rebirth”(oflearning)TheRenaissancePeriodwasmarkedbyareawakeningofinterestinlearning,intheindividualandintheworldofnatureTheRevivaloflearningledscholarsbacktothecultureofGreeceandRomeTheRebirthofinterestintheindividualgaverisetoanewappreciationofbeauty,toadesireforselfexpressioninvariedactivitiesandtothecreationofgreatworksofartTherenewalofcuriosityaboutthenaturalworldultimatelydrewmentodiscovernewlandsandnewscientifictruthsIIWhatishumanismIIWhatishumanismHumanismwasaliteraryandphilosophicsystemofthoughtwhichattemptedtoplacetheaffairsofmankindatthecenterofitsconcernsOriginatinginItalyduringtheRenaissance,itsoonspreadthroughoutmostofwesternEuropeHumanistthoughtwasbasedonanewreadingofGreekandRomanLiterature,anaffirmationoftheimportanceofPlatonicphilosophy,andareinterpretationofthewritingsofAristotleIttookasamajorinterestthelifeofmaninthepresent,andunlikemedievalphilosophy,whichpostulated(要求,主张)aCityofGodinthehereafter(来世),itattemptedtolaythefoundationsforalifeofjustice,nobility,andgoodnessonearthWhatishumanismWhatishumanismHumanismwasanattituderatherthanaphilosophy,nondogmatic(非教义)Accordingtohumanists,manshouldmould(塑造)theworldaccordingtohisowndesires,andattainhappinessbyremovingallexternalchecksbytheexerciseofthehumanintellectHumanismwasoneofthemostimportantfactorsgivingrisetotheRenaissanceIIITheEnglishRenaissanceIIITheEnglishRenaissanceTheRenaissancewasaEuropeanphenomenonIthaditsorigininnorthItalyinthefourteenthcentury,andspreadnorthwardtootherEuropeancountriestoFrance,toGermany,totheLowCountries,andlastlytoEnglandItrevivedthestudyofRomanandGreekclassicsandmarkedthebeginningofbourgeoisrevolutionDuringtheperiodofEnglishRenaissanceEnglandenjoyedstabilityandprosperityItbecamethestrongpowerintheworldandthemistress(霸主)ontheseasTheEnglishRenaissanceencouragedtheReformationoftheChurchEnglishKing,HenryVIII,whostartedtheReformation,declaredthebreakwithRomeandbecameheadoftheEnglishChurchThusCatholicismwasgotridofinEnglandProtestantism(新教)wasestablishedTheEnglishRenaissanceTheEnglishRenaissanceTheincreasingofclothindustrystimulatedthegreedofthemoneyedclassestoseizemoreandmorelandoutofthehandsofthepeasantsThisisknownastheEnclosureMovementAsaresultofthemovement,thousandsuponthousandsofpeasantslosttheirlandandbecamehiredlaborersforthemerchantsIntheRenaissancePeriod,scholarsandeducatorswhocalledthemselvesHumanistsbegantoemphasizethecapacitiesofthehumanmindandtheachievementsofhumanculture,incontrasttothemedievalemphasisonGodandcontemptforthethingsofthisworldSohumanismbecamethekeynote(主调)ofEnglishRenaissanceDivisionofEnglishRenaissanceDivisionofEnglishRenaissanceEnglishRenaissanceisusuallydividedintothreeperiods:)ThefirstperiodcalledthebeginningoftheRenaissancestartedinandcametoanendin)ThesecondperiodknownasthefloweringtimeoftheRenaissancewasfromto)ThethirdperiodbetweenandistheepilogueoftheRenaissanceInthesecondperiod,QueenElizabethruledthecountryForthisreasonitisalsocalledElizabethanPeriodWilliamShakespeare,thegreatestplaywrightofEngland,livedintheElizabethanPeriodSointhehistoryofEnglishliterature,thisperiodisoftenreferredtoastheAgeofWilliamShakespeareTheEnglishRenaissanceLiteratureTheEnglishRenaissanceLiteratureFromthefirsthalfofthethcentury,theEnglishRenaissancebegantodevelopintoafloweringofliteratureManyformsofwritingappear:translationofclassicalliterature,worksonhistory,booksdescribingdiscoveriesandadventuresPoetryisanimportantsphereinexpressingthevoiceandtheenergyoftheage(Sonnet十四行诗andblankverse无韵诗areused)Mostimportantisthedrama,thatis,thehighestgloryofEnglishRenaissanceofthethcenturyTherepresentativewritersareEdmundSpencer(斯宾塞):poetryTheFairyQueen仙后WilliamShakespeare:dramaFrancisBacon(培根):essay杂文IVWilliamShakespeare()IVWilliamShakespeare()WilliamShakespeareWilliamShakespeareLifeLiteraryCareerFeaturesofHisWorksAnalysisofHamletAnalysisofSonnetLifeLife)HewasbornonApril,inStratfordonAvon)Heoncewenttothelocalgrammarschoolatseven)At,heleftschoolandbecameateacher)In,hewasmarriedtoAnneHathaway)HewenttoLondonandbeganwritinginor)HelaterbecamepartownerofthetheatreGlobe)Hereturnedtothenativetownin)HediedonApril,andwasburiedinStratfordChurchShakespeare'sbirthplaceShakespeare'sbirthplaceThetheatreGlobeThetheatreGlobeLiteraryCareerLiteraryCareerShakespearewroteplays,sonnetsandnarrativepoemsShakespeare'sliterarycareercanberoughlydividedintoperiods:Periodofearlyexperimentation()Periodofrapidgrowthanddevelopment()Periodofgloomanddepression()Periodofcalmafterstorm()Periodofearlyexperimentation()Periodofearlyexperimentation())Itwasmarkedbyyouthfulnessandrichimagination,byextravaganceoflanguageandbythefrequentuseofrhymedcouplets(英雄双行体)andblankverse(无韵诗))Mainplays:①historicalplays:HenryVI <亨利六世> RichardIII<理查德三世>②comedies:③tragedies:)Twonarrativepoems:②Comedies②ComediesTheComedyofError<错误的喜剧>TheTamingoftheShrew <驯悍记>TheTwoGentlemenofVerona<维洛那二绅士>Love’sLabor’sLost <爱的徒劳>③tragedies③tragediesTitusAndronicus<泰特斯•安德鲁尼克斯>RomeoandJuliet <罗密欧与朱丽叶>VenusandAdonis<威纳斯与阿多尼斯>TheRapeofLucrece<鲁克利受辱记>)TwonarrativepoemsPeriodofrapidgrowthanddevelopment()Periodofrapidgrowthanddevelopment())Hebecameamasterinfullcommandofhismedium,wrotehisbesthistoricalplays,brilliantcomediesandsonnets)Mainworks:①comedies:②historicalplays:RichardIIHenryIVHenryV,③Romantragedy:JuliusCaesar       <尤利乌斯·凯撒>①comedies①comediesAMidsummerNight’sDream<仲夏夜之梦>TheMerchantofVenice<威尼斯商人>AsYouLikeIt<皆大欢喜>TwelfthNight<第十二夜>Periodofgloomanddepression()Periodofgloomanddepression())Theperiodmarkedthefullmaturityofhispowerandhe producedthemostpowerfulworks,hisfourgreattragediesandhisdarkcomedies)Mainworks:①tragedies:②comedies: TroilusandCressida      <特洛伊洛斯与克瑞西达>③Romantragedies:AntonyandCleopatra      <安东尼和克莉奥佩特拉>            FourGreatTragediesFourGreatTragediesHamlet <哈姆雷特>(1601)Othello <奥赛罗>(1604)KingLear<李尔王> (1605)  Macbeth<麦克白>(1605)Periodofcalmafterstorm(1609-1612)Periodofcalmafterstorm(1609-1612))Henolongerhatedtheworldbutaccepteditwithasmileofresignationandagainturnedtocomediesromanticcomedies)Mainworks: Cymbeline<辛白林> TheWinter’sTale <冬天的童话>   TheTempest<暴风雨>TheLifeofKingHenryVIII<亨利八世>FeaturesofHisWorksFeaturesofHisWorksComediesHistoriesTragediesPoemsComediesComediesThegreatcomedies)Theme:Hesangoftheyouth,loveandidealofhappiness)Characters:①Heportrayedyoungpeoplefreedfromthefeudalfetters,whoweresonsanddaughtersofRenaissance②Healsoportrayedshrewdclownsandothercommonpeople③Heplacedwomenataprominentplace,anewtypeLatercomedies)Thesecomediescoveredawiderangeoftragicevents,patheticemotions,anddifficultconditionsbutallendedinreconciliationandreunion)TheyreallyemphasizeduponarenewalofhopeHistoricalPlaysHistoricalPlays)Heshowedthehorrorsofcivilwar,theresponsibilityofanefficientruler,theimportanceoflegitimatesuccessiontothethrone,thenecessityfornationalunityunderoneking)TheonlyoneidealkingisHenryV)HenryIVandHenryVaretworemarkableplaysTragediesTragediesThegreattragedies)Histragedieswereassociatedwithaperiodofgloomandsorrowinhislife)Theyshowedthestruggleandconflictsbetweengoodandevil,betweenjusticeandinjusticePoemsPoems)Shakespearewrotenarrativepoemsandsonnetswhichwereaddressedtoahandsomeyoungmanandadarklady)Hisplaysarepoeticaldramas,manyimportantdialoguesandsoliloquies(独白)intheplaysassumetheformofpoetrySummarySummaryShakespeareisarealistandoneofthefoundersofrealisminEnglishliteratureHisdramaticcreationoftenusedthemethodofadaptionHisdramasareelastic,theactiondevelopsfreelywithoutbeinghinderedbytheclassicalrulesHeisskilledinmanypoeticformsandhisplaysarepoeticaldramasHeisagreatmasterofEnglishlanguageAnalysisofHamletAnalysisofHamletHamletisconsideredthesummitofShakespeare’sartThestorycomesfromanoldDanishlegendBeforeShakespeare,ThomasKydhadwrittenaplayonthesamesubjectButunderShakespeare'spen,themedievalstoryassumedanewmeaningTheMainCharactersTheStory(seepp)TheMainCharactersTheMainCharactersHamlet  哈姆雷特        Claudius  克劳迪斯         Gertrude乔特鲁德Polonius 波洛琉斯      Ophelia  奥菲利娅          Laertes雷欧提斯Hamlet  哈姆雷特  Hamlet  哈姆雷特  Claudius  克劳迪斯   Claudius  克劳迪斯   Gertrude乔特鲁德Gertrude乔特鲁德Polonius 波洛琉斯Polonius 波洛琉斯  Ophelia  奥菲利娅 Ophelia  奥菲利娅 Laertes雷欧提斯Laertes雷欧提斯HamletHamlet真正构成Hamlet精华部分的是Hamlet十多段或长或短的独白(soliloquy).它们全面而完整地勾画了悲剧主人公的心路历程反映了当时人们对社会人生自我善恶正义与丑恶等的思考也正是这些独白使Hamlet具备了深刻的人文主义精神和深邃的思想超越了同时代一般意义上的复仇悲剧.SceneIARoomintheCastleSceneIARoomintheCastle生存还是毁灭这是一个值得考虑的问题默然忍受命运的暴虐的毒箭或是挺身反抗人世的无涯的苦难通过斗争把它们扫清这两种行为哪一种更高贵?死了睡着了什么都完了要是在这一种睡眠之中我们心头的创痛以及其他无数血肉之躯所不能避免的打击都可以从此消失那正是我们求之不得的结局。死了睡着了睡着了也许还会做梦恩阻碍就在这儿因为当我们摆脱了这一腐朽的皮囊以后在那死亡的睡眠里究竟将要做什么梦那不能不使我们踌躇顾虑。人们甘心久困于患难之中也就是为了这个缘故谁愿意忍受人世的鞭挞和讥嘲、压迫者的凌辱、傲慢者的冷眼、被轻蔑的爱情的惨痛、法律的迁延、官吏的横暴和费尽辛勤所换来的小人的鄙视要是他只要用一柄刀子就可以清算他自己的一生?谁愿意负着这样的重担在烦劳的生命的压迫下呻吟流汗倘不是因为惧怕不可知的死后惧怕那从来不会有一个旅人回来过的神秘之国是它迷惑了我们的意志使我们宁愿忍受目前的折磨不敢向我们所不知道的痛苦飞去?这样重重的顾虑使我们全变成了懦夫决心的赤热的光彩被审慎的思维盖上了一层灰色伟大的事业在这一种考虑之下也会逆流而退失去了行动的意义。且慢!美丽的奥菲利娅!女神在你的祈祷之中不要忘记替我忏悔我的罪孽。(朱生豪译))Questions:Questions:Whysleepissofrightening,accordingtoHamlet,sinceitcanendtheheartacheandthethousandnaturalshocksWhywouldpeopleratherbearallthesufferingsoftheworldinsteadofchoosingdeathtogetridofthem,accordingtoHamletWhatmakespeoplelosetheirdeterminationtotakeactionPleaseexplaininrelationtothesocalledhesitationofHamletWhatissonnetWhatissonnetSonnetisalyricpoeminasinglestanzaconsistingofiambicpentameter(五音步抑扬格)lineslinkedbyanintricaterhymescheme(韵式)Therhyme,inEnglish,usuallyfollowsoneoftwomainpatterns:()TheItalianorPetrarchan(彼得拉克式)sonnet()TheEnglishsonnetortheShakespeareansonnet()TheItalianorPetrarchan sonnet()TheItalianorPetrarchan sonnetAnoctave(行诗)(lines)rhymingabbaabba,andasestet(6行诗)(lines)rhymingcdecdeorsomevariantsuchascdccdc(2)TheEnglishsonnetortheShakespeareansonnet(2)TheEnglishsonnetortheShakespeareansonnetTheEarlofSurrey(萨里爵士)andotherEnglishexperimentersinthethcenturyalsodevelopedanewformcalledtheEnglishsonnetortheShakespeareansonnetThisstanzafallsintoaquatrains(lines)andaconcludingcouplet(lines),rhymingababcdcdefefggThisisatypicalrhymeschemeusedbyShakespeareinallhissonnetsItisaverypopularpoemformandusedwidelyinEnglishliteratureIntheElizabethera,EdmundSpenserwasalsofamousforhissonnetsAndlater,JohnMilton(弥尔顿),Byron(拜伦)andKeats(济慈)allcontributedexcellentsonnetsSonnetSonnetShallIcomparetheetoaSummer’sdayaThouartmorelovelyandmoretemperate:bRoughwindsdoshakethedarlingbudsofMay,aAndsummer’sleasehathalltooshortadate:bSometimetoohottheeyeofheavenshinescAndoftenishisgoldcomplexiondimmeddAndeveryfairfromfairsometimesdeclines,cBychanceornature’schangingcourseuntrimmeddButthyeternalsummershallnotfade,eNorlosepossessionofthatfairthouow’stfNorshalldeathbragthouwander’stinhisshade,eWhenineternallinestotimethougrow’st:fSolongasmencanbreathe,oreyescansee,gSolonglivesthis,andthisgiveslifetotheegTranslationofSonnetTranslationofSonnet能不能让我来把你比拟作夏日?你可是更加温和更加可爱狂风会吹落五月里开的好花儿夏季的生命又未免结束得太快:有时候苍天的巨眼照得太灼热他那精彩的脸色也会被遮暗每一样美啊总会离开美而凋零被时机或者自然的代谢所摧残但是你永久的夏天决不会凋枯你永远也不会失去你美的仪态死神夸不着你在他影子里踯躅你将在不朽的诗中与时间同在只要人类在呼吸眼睛看得见我这诗就活着使你的生命绵延。(屠岸译)SonnetSonnetTheme:expressingthedeeplovetohisfriendRhymingscheme:ababcdcdefefggmetre:iambicpentameterSonnetSonnetWhenineternallinestotimethougrow’st:wheninthisimmortalpoetryyoubecomeevenwithtime美在永恒的诗行中永生Theboastofimmortalityforone’sversewasaRenaissanceconventionandgoesbacktotheclassicsItimplies,notegoismonthepartofthepoet,butafaithinthepermanenceofpoetryQuestionsQuestionsHowdoesthepoetanswerthequestionheputsforthinthefirstlineWhatmakesthepoetthinkthat“thou”canbemorebeautiful(fair)thansummerandimmortalSummaryofShakespeare’ssonnetsSummaryofShakespeare’ssonnetsThebulkofShakespeare‘ssonnetswerewrittenbetweenandEachlineofasonnetisiniambicpentameter(五音步抑扬格),andtherhymeschemeisababcdcdefefggHissonnetsseemtofallintotwoseries:oneseriesareaddressedtoWH,evidentlyapatron(资助人),andtheotheraddressedto"darklady"whoplayedthepoetfalseFordepthofsentiment,formasteryofdiction,forperfectionoffinish,theyareamongthemostexcellentofElizabethanpoetryPoemAnalysisPoemAnalysisHowtoanalyzeapoemWhatismetreandrhythmWhatisfootRhymeRhymingschemeWhatisblankverseHowtoAnalyzeaPoemHowtoAnalyzeaPoem如果一首诗的重读呈现某种节奏格式,结果就有了韵律,”韵律分析”(scansion)就是计算一行诗中的重读音节,以确定其韵律格式最普通的方法是在重读音节上方标“′”,而在非重读音节上方标“︶”。在某种意义上说,重读符号等同于按音乐节拍踏步。音律分析是颇深的学问。但熟悉常见的英诗的韵律格式,有助于一般水平的人更好地理解诗人是如何获得声韵效果的WhatismetrerhythmWhatismetrerhythm构成英诗节奏的基础是韵律(metre)。在希腊语中“metre”这个字是“尺度(标谁)”的意思。英诗就是根据诗行中的音节和重读节奏作为“尺度(标准)”来计算韵律的。英诗的特点之一是与其他文体不同的排列格式。各诗行不达到每页页边每行开始词首大写。几行成为一节(stanza)不分段落。各行都要讲究一定的音节数量行末押韵或不押韵交错排列。……音节重读(stressed)非重读(unstressed)。……这就是一种正规的重读形式在诗歌中即体现为韵律。研究诗歌韵律规则的科学叫作韵律学(Prosody)。WhatisFoot(音步)WhatisFoot(音步)英诗中这种重读与非重读音节的特殊性组合叫作音步。音步是衡量一行诗的韵律的单位。一个音步通常由一个重读音节和一个或两个非重读音节构成。但不能少于两个或多于三个音节而且其中只有一个必须重读。分析英诗的格律就是将它划分成音步并区分出是何种音步以及计算音步的数量。这种音步划分叫scansion。音步单位用一条垂线分隔:eg“Theclock︳struckone”由两个音步构成。音步格式音步格式英诗的音步格式主要有以下五种:音步        格式     例子抑扬格(iamb)︶′away扬抑格(trochee)′︶lovely抑抑扬格(anapest)︶︶′understand扬抑抑格(dactyl)′︶︶desperate扬扬格(spondee)′′heartbreak抑扬格是最普通的音步格式。扬抑格抑抑扬格扬抑抑格也是英语格律诗音步的主要格式。但是扬扬格不是整首诗的音步格式而是在为了获得变化或强调效果时兼用的格式。四种普通韵律格式如下:抑扬格 Whatkept︱hiseyes︱fromgiv︱ingback︱thegaze扬抑格Hewas︱louder︱thanthe︱preacher抑抑扬格Iamcalled︱tothefront︱oftheroom扬抑抑格Singitall︱merrily这些音步格式的韵律各不相同能创造不同的效果.抑扬格和抑抑扬格称为“上升的韵律”(risingmeters)因为它们由非重读音节过渡到重读音节.扬抑格和扬扬抑格称为“下降的韵律”(fallingmeters).扬抑格和扬扬抑格与抑扬格和抑抑扬格相比显得轻快.尽管没有哪一种韵律格式可视为比另一种更适合某种主题却可以确定某种韵律格式是否适合某一首诗。一首写死亡一类严肃主题的诗采用轻快的韵律就很可能不适合。音步名称音步名称以下是各种长度的诗行的名称:一音步 monometer二音步 dimeter三音步 trimeter四音步 tetrameter五音步 pentameter六音步 hexameter七音步 heptameter八音步 octameter根据一行诗的音步数量和音步的格式我们就可以简明地描写这行诗歌的韵律性质.如:“Ifshe︱couldwrite︱anote”就是一行三音步的抑扬格诗。如:Idi︱dn’twant︱theboy︱tohit︱thedog这是一行“抑扬格五音步”(iambicpentameter)诗因为它含有五个音步每个音步的格式都是抑扬格。抑扬格是英诗最常见的形式因为这种韵律对于英语来说无论是说还是写都显得自然.无固定押韵的五音步诗称为blankverse,莎士比亚的诗剧弥尔顿的《失乐园》是这种诗体的杰作.RhymeRhymingScheme(韵律安排)RhymeRhymingScheme(韵律安排)英语诗歌的押韵可以根据单词的内音素重复的部位不同而分成不同种类最常见的有头韵(Alliteration)、谐元韵(Assonance)和尾韵(Rhyme)。头韵指词首重复如great和grew谐元韵是指词中重读元音重复如great和fail尾韵则指词尾音素重复如great和bait。但一行诗中可能同时存在多种押韵形式。英语诗歌的行与行之间的押韵格式称韵法(rhymingscheme)。常见有两行转韵(AABB)、隔行押韵(ABCB)、隔行交互押韵(ABAB)和交错押韵(ABBA)。WhatisblankverseWhatisblankverseBlankverse(无韵诗):consistsoflinesofiambicpentameter(stressediambicverse)whichareunrhymedhencetheterm“blank”OfallEnglishmetricalformsitisclosesttothenaturalrhythmsofEnglishspeech,andatthesametimeflexibleandadaptivetodiverselevelsofdiscourseasaresultithasbeenmorefrequentlyandvariouslyusedthananyothertypeofversificationItwasintroducedintoBritainbytheEarlofSurrey(萨里爵士)

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