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首页 麦肯锡《金字塔式写作原则简介》38页

麦肯锡《金字塔式写作原则简介》38页 .ppt

麦肯锡《金字塔式写作原则简介》38页

日本省军分区政委
2011-04-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《麦肯锡《金字塔式写作原则简介》38页 ppt》,可适用于高等教育领域

INTRODUCTIONTOPYRAMIDPRINCIPLE金字塔式写作原则简介为什么学习这门课程如何高效地进行沟通提高沟通的效能:沟通是为了解决问题要有明确和有价值的思想提高沟通的效率:沟通要让对方准确快速地理解你的意思掌握关键点WritingBackwardsThePyramid从结论说起TheGoverningThought(TOPS)中心思想LogicalArguments逻辑论证LogicalGroupings逻辑组合NoGaps,NoOverlaps(MECE)不遗漏、不重叠(不多不少)AGENDA课程EVOLUTIONOFSTRATEGICWRITING策略性写作方式的演变Writingsentences造句Writingstories写故事Writingbackwards从后面(结论)写起IIIIII雪莉吾友:我俩是多年老朋友了共渡过许多好时光…但一个月前你说了些令人难受的话…上两星期你又没来参加我办的宴会…后来…雪莉吾友:我恨你!因为……DearShirley雪莉吾友…Ihateyou我恨你Reason#第一个理由Reason#第二个理由Reason#第三个理由WRITINGBACKWARDS(PYRAMIDPRINCIPLE)从结论说起(金字塔写作原则)SOLVINGTHEPROBLEM解决问题Facts事实Analyses分析Conclusions结论Recommendations建议方案COMMUNICATINGTHESOLUTION沟通解决问题的办法Recommendations建议方案Actionsstepsreasons行动步骤理由Factsanalyses事实分析Whatshouldbedone该做什麽?Howorwhyshoulditbedone为什麽该做这些?如何做?Howdoyouknowtherecommendationsaresound怎麽知道这建议方案是完善的?DEVELOPINGASTRUCTUREFOR"WRITINGBACKWARDS"如何建构「从结论说起」的作品Governingthought中心思想Keylinesupport支撑思想的主要理由Support支撑理由Support支撑理由AGENDA课程WritingBackwardsThePyramid从结论说起TheGoverningThought(TOPS)中心思想LogicalArguments逻辑论证LogicalGroupings逻辑组合NoGaps,NoOverlaps(MECE)不遗漏、不重叠(不多不少)"IFYOUWERETOBOILYOURBOOKDOWNTOAFEWWORDS,WHATWOULDBEITSMESSAGE"『您能用一句话介绍您的这本大作吗?』GOVERNINGTHOUGHT中心思想的要诀TOPSTargetedtoouraudience瞄准观众Overarching周延完整Powerful掷地有声Supportable言之有据GOVERNINGTHOUGHTISITTOPS检验中心思想是否合乎标准?ThecompanyhaspotentialintheA,B,andCmarketsegments本公司在甲、乙、丙三个市场具备发展潜力Thecompanyshouldenteremergingmarketsegmentsaggressivelytopreemptcompetition本公司应积极打入新兴起的市场区隔之中以及早占有优势竞争地位AGENDA课程WritingBackwardsThePyramid从结论说起TheGoverningThought(TOPS)中心思想LogicalArguments逻辑论证LogicalGroupings逻辑组合NoGaps,NoOverlaps(MECE)不遗漏、不重叠(不多不少)Governingthought中心思想Keylinesupport主要理由Governingthought中心思想ARGUMENT论证式GROUPING组合式ARGUMENTSTRUCTURE(DEDUCTIVEREASONING)逻辑论证式架构(演绎推论)Keylinesupport主要理由Governingthought中心思想Noncontroversialstatementaboutsituation以无可争议的说法来陈述情况Commentonsituation对情况的评论Implicationofsituationandcomment("therefore"point)情况所代表的涵义及评论(「因此」…)LOGICALARGUMENTEXAMPLE逻辑论证举例Toimprovesales,DynamoshouldtakeimmediatestepstodevelopandexecuteamoretargetedmarketingplanfortheLX贵公司必须立即采取行动研拟并实行对象明确的营销计划以改善LX产品的销售Asyoususpected,somemanufacturingflawshavehurtsalesofDynamo抯newsystemLX正如你所料想的生产过程的瑕疵影响了新产品LX的销售However,majorcauseofdisappointingsalesisDynamo抯unfocusedmarketingeffort然而真正使得销售不振的主要原因则在于贵公司市场营销的重点不集中Therefore,Dynamoshouldtakeimmediatestepstodevelopandexecuteamoretargetedmarketingplan因此贵公司应立即研拟一份更明确强调重点对象的营销计划并开始实行SOMEARGUMENTPATTERNS部分逻辑论证模式SuccessrequiresX需有X才能成功SuccessrequiresX需要X才能成功YouarepursuingX你正朝X发展YouthoughtXwasaproblem你认为X是问题Performanceisnotasexpected绩效不如预期YouarenotequippedtodoX你无法作到YouarenotfocusingonX你的重心不在XYwouldbebetter但Y比较有利FurtherinvestigationshowsitY但调查显示Y才是问题UnderlyingcauseisX问题出在XTherefore,developcapabilityforX因此建立作X的能力Therefore,shiftfocustoX因此转移重心到XTherefore,changedirectiontoY因此转向Y前进Therefore,shiftfocustoY因此转移重心到YTherefore,takestepstofixX因此设法解决XPROSANDCONSOFARGUMENTS逻辑论证的利弊Keyline主要理由Governingthought中心思想Noncontroversialstatementaboutsituation以无可争议的说法来陈述情况Commentonsituation对情况的评论意见Implicationofsituationandcomment("therefore"point)情况所代表的涵义及评论(「因此」……)Pros利Cons弊Demonstratesthatnootheravenuewillwork证明内容的必然走向(没有第二条路可走)Canbeparticularlyeffectivewithresistantaudiences对有拒绝心理的听众尤为有效Ifaudiencedisagreeswith"situation"or"comment,"argumentwillfailtopersuade如听众对「情况」或「意见」有异议该论证即失去了说服力Requiresaudiencetoremembermuchinformationbeforegettingto"sowhat"听众在听到最后的「所以」结论时先要记忆大量信息AGENDA课程WritingBackwardsThePyramid从结论说起TheGoverningThought(TOPS)中心思想LogicalArguments逻辑论证LogicalGroupings逻辑组合NoGaps,NoOverlaps(MECE)不遗漏、不重叠(不多不少)GROUPINGSTRUCTURE(INDUCTIVEREASONING)逻辑组合式架构(归纳结论)Keyline主要理由Governingthought中心思想Samekindofidea:同类想法ReasonsExamplesActions原因例子行动LOGICALGROUPINGEXAMPLE逻辑组合举例Toimprovesales,DynamoshouldtakeimmediatestepstodevelopandexecuteamoretargetedmarketingplanfortheLX贵公司必须立即采取行动研拟并实行对象明确的营销计划以改善LX产品的销售Explicitlyidentifyhighprioritysegmentsandtheirneeds确实找出高优先性的客户群及其需求Developtailoredpromotionsandsalesaids发展针对目标客户设计的促销活动及工具Establishappropriatecustomercontactandfollowupguidelines建立合宜的客户联系及追踪制度ISTHISAGOODGROUPING这是个好的逻辑组合吗?Thedivisionshouldtakeseveralstepstoimproveprofitability该部门应采取多种措施改善盈利Shiftstrategicfocus改变战略性焦点Reexaminesalesforceincentives重新检讨销售队伍的原动力Theimprovementprogramhasimportantimplicationsfortheorganization改善计划对公司而言有很重大的意义ISTHISAGOODGROUPING这是个好的逻辑组合吗?Planningforthefuture为未来筹划Implementingtheproposedplanningsystemwillbecostlyandtimeconsuming推行建议的计划系统花费会很高而且很费时Itisnotclearthatthenewsystemwillcorrectthemajorweaknessesoftheexistingsystem新系统是否可纠正现有系统的主要弱点还是未知之数Importanceofgoodplanning好好作出规划的重要性ISTHISAGOODGROUPING这是个好的逻辑组合吗?Accountingsystemneedstobemodified会计系统需作修改Retailstoreshavenotsufferedmajorprofitdecline零售商店的利润并未大幅下降Variationsinproductlineprofitabilitybyregionnotwellunderstood并没有真正理解各区不同产品系列的利润差别SouthernRegiononlymoderatelymoreprofitable南区只取得稍高的利润PresentstorePLleadstowrongdecisionsatstorelevel商店根据现有的盈亏情况错误地作出决定PROSANDCONSOFGROUPINGS逻辑组合的利弊Keyline主要理由Governingthought中心思想Pros利Cons弊Majorpointseasytoremember便于记住要点Veryeffectiveforactionorientedaudiences对注重具体措施的听众极为有效Ifonepointrejected,remainingpointsmaystillpersuade一点被否定其余各点仍具说服力Couldbetooforcefulforsomeaudiences对一些听众可能有勉强之嫌Asyoususpected,somemanufacturingflawshavehurtsalesofDynamo抯newsystemLX正如你所料想的生产过程的瑕疵对新产品LX的销售造成损害However,majorcauseofdisappointingsalesisDynamo抯unfocusedmarketingeffort然而真正使得销售不振的主要原因则在於贵公司市场营销的重点不集中Therefore,Dynamoshouldtakeimmediatestepstodevelopandexecuteamoretargetedmarketingplan因此贵公司应立即研拟一份更明确强调重点对象的营销计划并开始实行Explicitlyidentifyhighprioritysegmentsandtheirneeds确实找出高优先性的客户群及其需求Developtailoredpromotionsandsalesaids发展针对目标客户设计的促销活动及工具Establishappropriatecustomercontactandfollowupguidelines建立合宜的客户联系及追踪制度DynamoshouldtakeimmediatestepstodevelopandexecuteamoretargetedmarketingplanfortheLX贵公司必须立即采取行动研拟并实行明确对象的营销计划以改善LX产品的销售DynamoshouldtakeimmediatestepstodevelopandexecuteamoretargetedmarketingplanfortheLX贵公司必须立即采取行动研拟并实行明确对象的营销计划以改善LX产品的销售ARGUMENT论证式GROUPING组合式Needforaction需要行动的理由vs相对于Actions行动的内容AGENDA课程WritingBackwardsThePyramid从结论说起TheGoverningThought(TOPS)中心思想LogicalArguments逻辑论证LogicalGroupings逻辑组合NoGaps,NoOverlaps(MECE)不遗漏、不重叠(不多不少)MutuallyExclusiveCollectivelyExhaustive(Nooverlaps)(Nogaps)相互之间具有排他性整体而言毫无遗漏MECE不多不少(不重叠)(不遗漏)ISITMECE这是否「不多不少」?Weshouldsellourhouse我们应把房子出售Weneedmoreroom我们需要更大的地方Thehouseisold,andneedsexpensivebasicrepairs房子已很旧需进行花费很高的基本维修Thekitchenistoosmall厨房太小Thefurnaceisbroken炉子坏了Thereistoomuchtrafficonourstreet我们这条街交通太繁忙了ISITMECE这是否「不多不少」?Entrybarriersarelow进入市场的障碍很少Minimalstartupcosts开业的成本很低Noregulatoryrestrictions没有法规上的限制Littleneedforproprietarytechnologyorexpertise不太需要专有的科技或专业知识Qualifiedpersonnelreadilyavailable已有符合条件的人员ISITMECE这是否「不多不少」?Thecompanyshouldadoptaninvestgrowstrategyinthisbusiness对此项业务公司应采投资增长战略Themarketisfavorable该市场看好Thebusinessisstrong业务茁壮Financialandmarketperformancehasbeenexcellent财务方面和市场的绩效一直都非常好Thesalesandfinancialoutlookappearsgood销售和财政方面的前景看来很好Innovativemarketingstrategieshaveprovedsuccessful有创意的市场营销战略证明是成功的BUILDINGOURPYRAMID建立我们的金字塔Whatisourmainmessage(governingthought)IsitTOPS我们主要传达的信息(中心思想)是什麽?是否合乎TOPS的标准?Shouldweuseanargumentoragrouping应采用论证式还是组合式?Doesourfinalstructurepasstherelevantlogictest最后的架构是否通过有关的逻辑测试呢?Forgroupings,arethepointslogicallythesame(eg,allsteps,allproblems,allbenefits)andinthelogicalorder如采用逻辑组合方式各要点在逻辑上是否相同(如:都是步骤、问题或利益?)并按照逻辑顺序排列?Forarguments,doesthesecondpointcommentonthefirstpointinawaythatleadstothethirdpointandonlythethirdpoint如采用逻辑论证方式第二点是否是针对第一点的评论意见并一定会引申到第三点而不致引申到其他地方?DobothargumentsandgroupingssupporttheirsummaryinaMECEway用论证式或组合式的论点是否可不多不少地支持结论呢?Mutuallyexclusive(ME):Iseachpointusedonlyonceandinthebestplace相互之间具有排他性:每一个论点是否只用一次并用在最适当的位置?Collectivelyexhaustive(CE):Dowehaveallthepointsweneedtosupportordefendthesummaryidea整体而言毫无遗漏:我们是否提出了支持或辩护结论中心思想所需的全部论点呢?GROUPINGANDSUMMARIZING组合和总结Fixholeinroof修理车顶的破洞Getnewfloormats买新的车内地毯Writenewspaperad写报纸广告稿Getnewoverheadlight买新的顶灯Fixthedents修理车身凹陷处Getrustspotspaintedover把锈斑喷漆Makesignforrearwindow写後窗售车广告Writeannouncementforbulletinboard写公告板的售车海报Vacuuminterior将车内吸尘WhatdoIneedtodotosellmyoldcar卖旧车前的准备UNSCRAMBLETHEFOLLOWING整理以下各句KewpiehasintroducedabettertastingsauceatacheaperpriceKewpie新推出价格较低、口味较好的酱汁Raguchangeditssaucerecipeandcustomersdon抰likeitRagu改变其酱汁配方但客户不喜欢TheUS"pastaboom"isover美国的「面食风潮」已过Competitorsproductsaregainingfavor竞争对手们的产品较受客户喜爱Trendsettersnowpreferwildricetospaghetti新的流行趋势是吃米食而非面食Heinzhassuccessfullylaunchedaninnovativenew"ItalianPrima"sauceHeinz成功地推出一项创新的「意大利第一面酱汁」RaguaddedmorespicestothesauceRagu在酱汁中加重香料份量Spaghettiisonceagainperceivedasalowbudget,starchy,andunexcitingfood意大利肉酱面再度被视为廉价、呆板而无趣的食物Hunt抯hasincreaseditsmarketsharewithitspremiumquality"Donello"lineHunt抯以高品质的Donello系列产品而占有更大的市场份额RagureducedtheamountofmeatinthesauceRagu在酱汁中减少肉的份量USsalesofRaguspaghettiaredecliningasaresultofadverseproductdevelopmentandenvironmentaltrendsRagu意大利面在美国的销售下跌主要因为其反潮流而行的产品开发作法及市场环境趋势的影响SOLUTION解答GROUPINGANDSUMMARIZINGSOLUTION组合和总结解决方案Fixholeinroof修理车顶的破洞Getnewfloormats买新的车内地毯Writenewspaperad写报纸广告稿Getnewoverheadlight买新的顶灯Fixthedents修理车身凹陷处Getrustspotspaintedover把锈斑喷漆Makesignforrearwindow写後窗售车广告Writeannouncementforbulletinboard写公告板的售车海报Vacuuminterior将车内吸尘Getbodyworkdone(atbodyshop)(在车体修理工场)修理车体Spruceupinterior(atgasstation)(在汽油站)把车内部打理乾净Prepareadvertisements(athome)(在家里)准备广告GROUPINGANDSUMMARIZINGPYRAMID组合和总结金字塔式Preparetosellthecar准备出售汽车Fixholeinroof修理车顶的破洞Fixdents修理车身凹陷处Repaintrustspots重新喷漆遮盖锈斑Getfloormats买新的车内地毯Getlight买新的灯Vacuum吸尘Writenewspaperad写报纸广告稿Makesign写售车广告Writeannouncement写公告Getbodyworkdone车体修理Spruceupinterior车内部打理乾净Prepareadvertisements准备广告RAGUSOLUTIONRAGU的解决方案USsalesofRaguspaghettisaucearedecliningasaresultofadverseproductdevelopmentandenvironmentaltrendsRagu意大利面在美国的销售下跌主要因为其反潮流而行的产品开发作法及市场环境趋势的影响()Raguchangeditssaucerecipeandcustomersdon抰likeitRagu改变其酱汁配方但客户不喜欢()Competitorsproductsaregainingfavor竞争对手们的产品较受客户喜爱()US"pastaboom"isover美国的「面食风潮」已过()RaguaddedmorespicestothesauceRagu在酱汁中加重香料份量()RagureducedtheamountofmeatinthesauceRagu在酱汁中减少肉的份量()Heinzhassuccessfullylaunchedaninnovativenew"ItalianPrima"sauceHeinz成功地推出一项创新的「意大利第一面酱汁」()Trendsettersnowpreferwildricetospaghetti新的流行趋势是吃米食而非面食()Spaghettiisonceagainperceivedasalowbudget,starchy,andunexcitingfood意大利肉酱面再度被视为廉价、呆板而无趣的食物()Hunt抯hasincreaseditsmarketsharewithpremiumquality"Donello"sauceHunt抯以高品质的Donello系列产品而占有更大的市场份额()KewpiehasintroducedabettertastingsauceatacheaperpriceKewpie新推出价格较低、口味较好的酱汁()

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