加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 【劳瑞默尔】Institutes of law

【劳瑞默尔】Institutes of law.pdf

【劳瑞默尔】Institutes of law

longman
2011-04-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【劳瑞默尔】Institutes of lawpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

VSb^iiigJifeig,:BOUGHTWITHTHEINCOME*JsPROMTHESAGEENDOWMENTFUNDTHEGIFTOFHimrgWSageAa££LZ*JjJj±CornellUniversityLibraryKLTheinstitutesoflaw:atreatiseofthefiuCornellUniversityLibraryTheoriginalofthisbookisintheCornellUniversityLibraryTherearenoknowncopyrightrestrictionsintheUnitedStatesontheuseofthetexthttp:wwwarchiveorgdetailscuTHEINSTITUTESOFLAWliasetrnvoxosevpTjxafih>koISiZpov©ccovDemosthenes"DaseineGesetzbuchdosReclitsistdieGottliche"Weltordnung"Krattse"Allhumanlawsare,properlyspeaking,onlydeclaratory''^BitktceMoVovyapfiovLxovtokot'd£iav'itrov,ko!toxelvT°iwuvAristotle"Theunfetteredmultitiideisnotdearertomethantheunfetteredking"ChanningTHEINSTITUTESOFLAWriItl!l:fATREATISEOFTHEPEINCIPLESOFJUEISPEUDENCEASDETERMINEDBYNATUREBYJAMESLORIMEKADVOCATE,REGIUSPROFESSOROFPUBLICLAWANDOFTHELAWOFNATUREANDNATIONSINTHEUNIVERSITYOFEDINBURGH,MEMBEROFTHEINSTITUTEOFINTERNATIONALLAW,ANDCORRESPONDINGMEMBEROFTHEACADEMYOFJURISPRUDENCEOFMADRID,ETCSECONDEDITION,REVISEDANDENLARGEDCOo•IIIfitWILLIAMBLACKWOODANDSONSEDINBURGHANDLONDONMDOCOLXXXGAllRightsreservedPREFACETOTHESECONDEDITIONIthasoftenbeenasubjectofregrettomethatthespeculativetendenciesofmycountrymenwerenotdirectedmoredefinitelytothelifeofmaninSocietyandintheStateHadthosegreatthinkerswhohaverenderedtheScottishSchoolofPhilosophyillustrioussetbeforethemthetaskofplacingPoliticsandJurisprudenceonascientificbasis,PoliticalEconomymight,longago,haveceasedtobetheonlypracticalscienceforwhichtheworldwasindebtedtoaScotchprofessorThistaskIrecognizedasmoreimmediatelyincumbentontheoccupantoftheChairwhichIhadbeencalledtofillandthedesireofcontributing,howeverhumbly,toitsaccomplishment,hasdeterminedthecharacterbothofmyoralteachingandofthisTextbookAlthoughthepresentisnotaspeculativeage,insomerespectsithas,unquestionably,beenfavourabletotheworkwhichIhadinhandThatmitigationofdogmatismwhichMrHerbertSpencerhaswittilydescribedasthe"theologicalthaw,"byenablingustodistinguishbetweenthetemporary,local,andrelative,andthepermanent,universal,andabsoluteelementsinreligioussystems,hasgiventothehistoryofVlllPREFACETOTHESECONDEDITIONreligiousopinionavalueforsecularpurposeswhichitdidnotformerlypossessIhave,consequently,nothesitatedtoavailmyselfoftherichmaterialswithwhichorientalscholarshiphasnowfurnishedus,inordertobringintoprominencetheunvaryingethicalelementwhichunderliesallvariationsofdogmaandofritualThisethicalelementclearer,fromthefirst,inthehigherthaninthelowerracesofmankindbecomesclearerandmoredefiniteastheconsciouslifeofeachraceevolvesitself,andasitsaccordancewithsubjectiveandobjectiverevelationsoftheschemeoftheuniverseisperceivedAsfaithbecomesmorereasonable,reasonbecomesmorefaithful,andultimatelywemusthopethatthegreatproblemofScholasticismwillbesolvedbytheirculminationinajointresultItistotheruleoflifethusgraduallyrecognized,thatIhavegiventhenameofNaturalLaw,and,intheconcreterealizationofwhichIhavesoughtthelinealongwhichalltruePositiveLegislationmustnecessarilytravelConformityornonconformitywithNaturalLaw,inthissense,is,tomymind,theonlyconceivablemeasureofthevalueofsocialactivitythatiseitherpermanentoruniversalanditisonthisgroundthatIhaveadheredtotheacademicalmethodwhichreliedonit,inplaceofadoptingthemethodofmeasuringactionsbyresults,onwhichthemodernscienceofSociologydependsBeforewecanmeasurebyresults,theresultsmustbemeasuredandmydifficultywithreferencetoutility,whenproposedastheultimatemeasure,asIhaveelsewhereexplained,isquismstoditcustodemUtility,initsturn,mustbemeasuredbysomeendorobjectwhichitseeks,and,tillwereachateleologicalPREFACETOTHESECONDEDITIONIXmeasurethattranscendsindividualornationaltastesandsentiments,Pilate'squestionregardingtruthwillapplytoitShortofnaturethereisnoscienceofendsandtoascribeeitherutilityorinutilitytomeansirrespectiveofends,ismerebaselessdogmatismIftheresultswhichwedeclaretobeusefulbeidentifiedwiththeobjectsofnature'slegislation,thewholeaspectoftheaffair,ofcourse,ischangedOurresultsbecomeends,andnotonlythey,butallthemeansthatcontributetotheirattainmentmaysafelybelabelledasusefulBut,inthatcase,SociologypresupposesscientificjurisprudenceUtilitarianism,asanythingmorethanaphaseoftheinductivemethod,scarcelycrossedtheBorder,andnevercrossedtheChannelatallButsofirmwastheholdwhichittookonEnglandinthelastgeneration,thattomanyofmyelderlyandmiddleagedreadersthepossibilityofits"utility"beingcalledinquestionhasprobablyneverpresenteditselfOntheotherhand,itisrare,Ibelieve,eveninEngland,tofindaBenthamitepursangwhoisunderfortyIdonotthinkonehasturnedupamongstmystudentsforthelasttenyears,thoughmanyofthemhavebeengraduatesoftheEnglishuniversitiesandbeforeanotherdecadeelapses,thepreferencefortheolderandgrandertraditionswhichGrotiusinheritedfromSocrates,"thegreatlawyerofantiquity,"asLordMansfieldcalledhim,throughtheStoicsandtheKomanJurists,overthosewhichBenthamtransmittedtoAustin,will,IhopebeasuniversalandunequivocalasthatforclassicalandmedisevalarchitectureoverthearchitectureoftheGeorgianerahasalreadybecomeXPKEEACETOTHESECONDEDITIONThissecondeditiondoesnotdifferessentiallyfromthefirstbutinmanydirections,Itrust,ithasbeenrenderedclearerinstatementandmoreconsistentinargument,inconsequenceofthesincerethoughgenerouscriticismsofmycolleaguesoftheInstituteofInternationalLaw,andthedailyfrictionofthelectureroom,where,forthelastsevenyears,thefirsteditionhasbeenusedasatextbookbytheexceptionallyadvancedandcultivatedclassofstudentswhomithasbeenmyprivilegetoaddressAsIhavebeencarefultoavailmyselfofsuggestionsandindicationsofopinionfrombothsources,whenevertheyappearedtometobeofvalue,theworkinitspresentformmayberegardedastheresultofaprocessofdevelopment,ratherthanofasingleeffortofcompositionTosomeextentithasthecharacterofabillthathasnotonlybeenreadasecondtime,buthaspassedthroughcommitteeandforthisreasonIpresentittotheprofessionandtothepublicwithfewermisgivingsthanIfeltinthecaseofitspredecessorFormanyvaluablesuggestions,andcriticismsofaminuterkind,aswellasfortherevisionofthesheetsastheypassedthroughthepressanaidwhichmyimperfectsighthasrenderedmoreindispensablethanformerlyIamindebtedtomyfriendMrJohnKirkpatrickAsMrKirkpatrickisagraduateofthreeuniversitiesCambridge,Heidelberg,andEdinburghandhashadmuchliteraryexperience,bothasawriterandaneditor,hiskindinterpositiononthisoccasionhasbeenaboontomyreadersaswellasafavourtomeWithalltheseadvantagesImustnothopethatIhavesucceededinmakingthisworkevenaperfectexpressionofwhatPREFACETOTHESECONDEDITIONxiwas,nodoubt,animperfectconceptionButIhavebeenmindfulthat,asallisnotgoldthatglitters,soallisnotdeepthatisdarkandIcanhonestlysaythatIhaveleftnointentional"secrets"formyreaderstopuzzleoutTheEnglishlanguageis,capableofconveyingclearlywhateverwehavegotclearlyintoourheads,andtheapologywhichColeridgeofferedtothosewhoaccusedhimofobscurityintelligibilityhaudintellectumadferoisonewhichmustbeverysparinglyusedThebookisintendednotforjuristsonly,butforcultivatedpersonsgenerally,andifitisnotgenerallyintelligible,thefaultismineCONTENTSINTRODUCTIONPAGEPreliminaryDefinitionsandDivisions,BOOKIOFTHESOUECESOFNATURALLAWChapterIOptheSourcesopNaturalLawIThePrimarySource,orSourceofLawitself,IITheSecondarySourcesorChannelsoftheRevelationofNaturalLaw,st,Directrevelation,(«)Miraculousrevelationtoman,(b)Miraculousrevelationthroughman,(c)Specialrevelationthroughman,d,Indirectrevelation,ChapterIIOptheSchoolsopJurisprudencest,TheTheologicalSchool,(a)Itsreality,"(b)Itsadequacy,d,TheInductiveorObservationalSchool(SubjectiveandObjective),d,TheSubjective,orsocalledPhilosophicalSchool,th,TheObjective,orSensationalSchool,ChapterIIIOptheAutonomyopHumanNaturest,Ournatureassertsitsexistence,andvindicatesitsassertion,d,Ournatureguaranteestheveracityofitstestimonywithreferencetoitsqualities,XIVCONTENTSd,Ournatureassertsthatitistheresultofacauseexternaltoitself,andindependentofitsvolition,th,Ournatureacceptsitselfasagift,voluntarilygiven,butnecessarilyreceived,th,Inacceptingitselfasnecessary,ournatureacceptsitselfasright,anditsfundamentalqualitiesandradicalimpulsesastheabsolutecriteriaofrightandwrong,ChapterIVInquiryintotheHistoryofOpinionwithREFERENCETOHUMANAUTONOMY{A)Thecanonofthelimitationofthehistoricalmethod,(B)Thecanonoftheapplicationofthehistoricalmethod,(C)Theregulativecanonsfortheapplicationofthehistoricalmethod,st,Preferencemustbegiventothebestwitnesses,d,Evenamongstthewitnesseswhomweadmit,theprinciplethattestimoniaponderandasunt,nonnumeranda,mustbeapplied,d,Theabstractvalueoftwowitnessesbeingequal,thevalueofacoincidencebetweentheirtestimonywillincreaseinproportiontothedissimilarity,anddiminishinproportiontothesimilarity,ofthecircumstancesinwhichitisgiven,(A)OfOriental,oranteClassicalAnthropologygenerally,(a)TheShemiticPaces,(J)TheAryanorIndoGermanieRaces,st,TheoriginalAryanFamily,d,TheEastern,orIndianBranch,d,TheWesternAsiaticBranch,th,NonAryanandMixedRacesofAsia,th,Buddhism,(c)TheTuranianRaces,TheChinese,{B)OfClassicalAnthropology,(a)Greece,()Rome,TheRomanLaw,InternationalLaw,(c)Alexandria,,(C)ShemiticandChristianAnthropology,(a)TheBible,()TheFathers,(c)TheSchoolmenandEcclesiasticalJurists,(d)TheReformation,,CONTENTS,xvChapterVHumanNatubeRevealsitsownImpotence,ChapterVIHowManbecomesConizantoftheRuleopLife(a)Theruleoflifeisprescribedbyburwholenature,(i)Conscienceisnotaseparatefaculty,ChapterVIIOftheRightsandDutieswhichNatureRevealsNaturerevealsnorightsinrelationtotheCreator,,NaturerevealstousdutiesinrelationtotheCreator,Inourrelationtocreation,animateandinanimate,naturerevealsrights,(«)Thefactofbeinginvolvestherighttobe,()Therighttobeinvolvestherighttocontinuetobe,(c)Liketherighttobe,therighttocontinuetobehashovalidityagainstGod,{d)Therighttobe,andtocontinuetobe,impliesarighttotheconditionsofexistence,(e)Therighttobeimpliesarighttodevelopourbeing,andtotheconditionsofitsdevelopment,()Therighttobeinvolvestherighttoreproduceandmultiplyourbeing,(gOTherighttoreproduceandmultiplyourbeinginvolvestherightoftransmittingtoouroffspringtheconditionsoftheexistencewhichweconfer,(h)Therighttobeinvolvestherighttodisposeofthefruitsofbeing,intervivos,(i)Therighttobeinvolvestherighttodisposeofthefruitsofbeing,mortisams,()Alloursubjectiverightsresolvethemselvesintotherighttoliberty,(k)Inthelimitationswhichnatureimposesonoursubjectiverights,wehavethefirstrevelationoftheprincipleoforder,(Z)Naturerevealstousthepossibilityandtheconsequencesofthetransgressionofherlaws,(m)Naturerevealsobjectiverightswhichexactlycorrespondtooursubjectiverights,Naturerevealsobjectiveduties,ordirtiesbyotherstous,whichexactlycorrespondtooursubjectiveduties,ordutiesbyustoothers,'Theexistenceofsubjectiveandobjectiverightsandduties,andoftheirmutualdependence,constitutethesolerevelationwhichnaturemakestouswithreferencetohumanrelations,xviCONTENTSChapterVIIIHowwisbecomeCognizantofLawinGeneralNaturallawsarerationalinferencesfromthefactsofnature,Naturallawsarenocossaryinferencesfromtliofactsofnature,Naturallawsdeterminetheultimateobjoctsofpositivelaws,andfixtheprinciplesofjurisprudenceasawhole,Thenaturalordofactobasisonwhichpositivelawrestsbeingknown,thepositivelawwhichgovernsanygivenhumanrelationmaybediscovered,Thoughnecessarilyexistentanddiscoverable,positivolawsneverhavebeen,andprobablynevorwillbe,perfectlydiscovered,ChapterIXOftheLawsofNature,orPrinciplesofJurisprudencewhichResultfromtheHumanRightsandDutieswhichNatureRevealsasFacts{a)Allhumanlawsaredeclaratory,(b)Lawcannotchangethecharacter,oraltortherelationsofpersons,(')Lawcannotconstitute,extend,orcircumscribeaproprietaryrelation,{d)Lawcannotchangethepriceofanycommodity,ChapterXOftheRelationbetweenLegislationandJurisdictionThofunctionofthejudgo,assuch,islimitedtotheinterpretationandapplicationofwrittenorofconsuetudinarylaw,ChapterXIOftheHistoryoftheDistinctionbetweenPerfectandImperfectObligations,anditsEffectingivingrisetotheNegativeSchoolofJurisprudence(a)Rightsanddutiesbeingthroughoutreciprocalandcoextensive,thcroisnodistinction,inprincipleie,innaturebetweenoneclassofobligationsandanother,{!>)Thoattompttodistinguishbetweenperfectandimperfectobligationswasnotunknowntoantiquity,(c)ItisgenerallyascribedtoThomasius,ChapterXIIOfJusticeandCharity(a)Theprinciplesofjusticeandcharityareidenticaltheirseparatorealizationisimpossibleandtheircommonrealizationnecessarilyculminatesinthosameaction,CONTENTSxvu()ThedoctrineoftheidentityoftheprinciplesofjusticeandcharitywastaughtbyChrist'smediatorialsacrifice,andisimpliedinthewholeschemeofredemption,(c)ThedoctrineoftheidentityofjusticeandcharitywasnotfirstpromulgatedbyChrist,andisnotexceptionallyChristian,BOOKIIOFTHEOBJECTSOFNATURALLAWANDJURISPRUDENCEINGENERALChapterIOptheRelationbetweenJurisprudenceandEthics(a)Theultimateobjectofjurisprudenceistherealizationoftheideaintheidealofhumanity,(ft)Theproximateobjectofjurisprudence,theobjectwhichitseeksasaseparatescience,isliberty,ChapterIIOptheRelationbetweenOrderandLibertyOrderandliberty,likejusticeandcharity,areinprincipleidentical'Theycanberealizedonlyinconjunction,andnecessarilyculminatetogether,ChapterIIIOptheHistoryoptheDoctrinethattheIdeaopLibertyinvolvestheIdeaopAbsoluteEquality(a)Asaprotestagainstauthority,()BytheJesuits,(c)ByHobbes,(d)Spinoza(e)Rousseau,()DemocratsoftheRevolution,(g)Ahrens,ChapterIVOptheRelationofEqualitytoLibertycontinuedInwhatsenseisequalityinvolvedintheideaofliberty'!Theideaoflibertyinvolvestheideaofequalityinonesenseonlythatwhichispopularlycalled"equalitybeforethelaw,'(a)Analyticjustice,()Syntheticjustice,xviiiCONTENTSChapterVOftheLimitswithinwhichAggressionisaNaturalEight(a)Aggressionisanaturalright,theextentofwhichismeasuredbythepowerwhichGodhasbestowedontheaggressor,orpermittedhimtodevelopUptothispoint,therightofconquest,individual,social,political,andethnical,isinvolvedintheideaofliberty,andincludedintheobjectsofjurisprudence,(b)Anendthatisjust,justifiesthemeansrequisiteforitsattainmenttherightofaggression,consequently,justifiestheapplicationofforce,andinvolvestherightofwar,when,andtotheextenttowhich,forceorwarisnecessaryforitsvindication,BOOKIIIOFTHESOURCESOFPOSITIVELAW,OESPECIALJURISPRUDENCEChapterIOftheUltimateSourcesofPositiveLaw(a)TheLawofNature,(b)Theconditionsofexistenceunderwhichthatlawmustberealized,ChapterIIOftheProximateSourcesofPositiveLaw(a)Theprimarysourceofpositivelawistherealpowerofthewholecommunitysubjecttothelaw,asexhibitedinandmeasuredbyitsrationalwill,"()Thesecondarysourcesofpositivelawarethemeansbywhichthecommunityvindicatesitsrealasdistinguishedfromitsmerelyapparentpower,ChapterIIIOfthePrimarySourceofPositiveLaw(a)Realpositivelaw,asdistinguishedfrommereenactedlaw,willexistinacommunity,andthecommunitywillbepracticallyautonomous,totheextenttowhichpowerandreasonexistandcoincideinit,()Positivelawcanoriginateandsubsistinacommunityonlytotheextenttowhichthatcommunityisfree,andalltruelegislationisthus,inthelastanalysis,selflegislation,(c)Positivelawcanspringonlyfromthewholeautonomouscommunitywhichobeysit,,CONTENTSXIX(d)Asthepresenceofpositivelawisproportionedtotheexistenceandcoincidenceofpowerandreason,thecontributionswhichtheindividualmembersofthecommunityareinaconditiontomaketoitwillbeproportionedtotheexistenceandcoincidenceofpowerandreason,ortheexistenceofrealpower,ineachofthem,ChapterIVTheDoctrineoftheNecessarySovereigntyoftheKationalWilloftheWholeCommunityisinaccordancewiththeCommonsenseofMankind,ChapterVOftheSecondarySourcesofPositiveLawThesecondarysourcesofpositivel

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/49

【劳瑞默尔】Institutes of law

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利