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首页 【边沁、斯托里】Codification of the Common Law

【边沁、斯托里】Codification of the Common Law.pdf

【边沁、斯托里】Codification of the Com…

longman
2011-04-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【边沁、斯托里】Codification of the Common Lawpdf》,可适用于职业教育领域

(,,(Citation:CodificationoftheCommonLawLetterofJeremyandReportofJudgesStoryMetcalfandOthersContentdownloadedprintedfromHeinOnline(http:heinonlineorg)SunMar::YouruseofthisHeinOnlinePDFindicatesyouracceptanceofHeinOnline'sTermsandConditionsofthelicenseagreementavailableathttp:heinonlineorgHOLLicenseThesearchtextofthisPDFisgeneratedfromuncorrectedOCRtextCODIFICATIONOFTHECOMMONLAWLETTEROFJEREMYBENTHAM,ANDREPORTOFJUDGESSTORY,METCALFANDOTHERSREPRINTEDDECEMBERNEWYORK:JohnPOLHEMUs,Mf'gStationerandPrinter,NassauStreetHeinOnlineCodificationoftheCommonLaw:LetterofJeremyBentham,andReportofJudgesStory,MetcalfandOthersHeinOnlineCodificationoftheCommonLaw:LetterofJeremyBentham,andReportofJudgesStory,MetcalfandOthersBENTHAM'SLETTERLETTERIVOFCOMPLETENESSASAPPLIEDTOTHEBODYOFTHELAWS:ANDHEREINOFCOMMONLAWTobeknownanobjectmusthaveexistenceButnottohaveexistencetobeamerenonentityinthiscase,myfriends,isaportionnay,byfarthelargestportionofthatwhichispasseduponyouforlawIspeakofCommonLaw,asthephraseisofthewholeofCommonLawWhenmensaytoyoutheCommonLawdoesthistheCommonLawdoesthatforwhatsoeverthereisofreality,looknotbeyondthetwowordsthatarethusemployedInthesewordsyouhaveaname,pretendedtobethenameofareallyexistingobject:lookforanysuchexistingobjectlookforittilldoomsdaynosuchobjectwillyoufindGreatisDianaoftheEphesians!criedthepriestsoftheEphesianTemple,bywhomDianawaspasseduponthepeopleasthenameofareallyexistinggoddessDianaagoddess,andofthatgoddessthestatue,ifnottheveryperson,atanyratetheexpressimageGreatisMinervaoftheAthenians!criedatthatsametimeyouneednotdoubtofitthepriestsoftheTempleofMinervaatAthens:thatAthensatwhichStPaulmadeknown,forthefirsttime,theunknownGodThepriestsofAthenshadtheirgoddessofwisdom:itwasthisMinervaThelawyersoftheEnglishschoolhavehertwinsister,theirGoddessofReasonTheLaw(meaningtheCommonLaw)"TheLaw"(saysoneofherchiefpriests,Blackstone),"istheperfectionofreason"WouldyouwishtoknowwhatalawareallawisOpenthestatutebookineverystatuteyouhaveareallawbeholdinthatthereallyexistingobject,thegenuineobject,ofwhichthecounterfeit,andpretendedcounterpart,isendeavouredtobeputoffuponyoubyalawyer,HeinOnlineCodificationoftheCommonLaw:LetterofJeremyBentham,andReportofJudgesStory,MetcalfandOthersasoftenasinanydiscourseofhisthewordCommonLawistobefoundCommonLawthenameofanexistingobjectOh,mischievousdelusionOh,impudentimposture!Behold,myfriends,how,byasingleletterofthealphabet,youmaydetectitThenexttimeyouhearalawyertrumpetingforthhisCommonLawcalluponhimtoproduceaCommonLawdefyhimtoproducesomuchasanyonereallyexistingobject,ofwhichhewillhavetheeffronterytosaythatthatcompoundwordofhisisthenameLethimlookforittilldoomsdaynosuchobjectwillhefindOfanindividual,nobutofanaggregate,yesWillthatbehisanswerPossiblyfornonemoreplausiblewillhefindanywherePlausiblethefirstmoment,whatbecomesofitthenextAnaggregateOfwhatcanitbebutofindividualsAnindividualCommonLawnosuchthing,youhaveacknowledged,istobefoundThenwhereisthematterofwhichyouraggregateiscomposedNo:assoonwillhefindabodyoJmenwithoutamaninit,orawoodwithoutatreeinit,asathingwhich,withouthavingaCommonLawinit,canwithtruthbestyledtheCommonLawUnfortunately,myfriends,unfortunatelyforusandyouintheverylanguagewhichweallspeak,thereisapeculiarity,inapecpliardegreefavourabletothisimpostureNotinanyexistingEuropeanlanguagebutours,isthesamewordinusetobeemployedtodenotetherealandthefictitiousentitynotintheancientLatin,norinanyofthemodernlanguagesderivedfromitnotintheancientGerman,norinanyofthemodernlanguagesderivedfromitBeholdherethesourceofthedeceptionButinthemindofanyman,bywhomthiswarninghasbeenreceived,nodeceptionwill*itproduce,unlessinthisinstanceimposturebemoreacceptabletohimthantruthInthearticleainthesingleletterahehasanIthuriel'sspearbythetouchofithemayasoftenashepleases,laybaretheimpostureAStatuteLaw,yesaCommonLaw,no:nosuchthingtobefoundHeinOnlineCodificationoftheCommonLaw:LetterofJeremyBentham,andReportofJudgesStory,MetcalfandOthersBeitarealitybeitamerefictionwhatisbuttooundeniable,andtooseverelyfelt,asomethingallthiswhilethereis,withwhichyouareeverandanonperplexedandplagued,underthenameofCommonLawYes,saysourlawyerand,allowingtoyouthatinCommonLawthereisnosuchthingasaLaw,vetwhatyouwillnotdenyandwhatwillequallysuitmypurposeisthatsuchthingsthereareyes,andinnosmallabundancesuckthingsthereareasrulesoflawSomuchforourlawyerRulesyes,sayIRulesoflawnoTheserules,whomaretheymadebyTothisquestiontofindanypositiveanswerispossibleornot,asitmayhappenButwhatisnotonlyalwayspossible,butalwaystrueis,thatthepersonorpersonsbywhomtheserules,whatevertheyare,aremade,isorare,ineveryinstance,withoutexceptionapersonorpersonswho,inrespectofanypartheortheymaytake,orbesupposedtotake,inthelayingdownofanysuchrules,havenotanytitletomakelaw,ortojoininmakinglawThesortofpersonwhosecase,amongthosewhohavenotatitletomakelaw,comesnearesttothecaseofthosewhohave,isajudgeButnolawdoesanyJudge,assuch,eversomuchaspretendtomake,ortobearanypartinmakingWhat,ifpassed,hewouldtakeuponhimtosayhedoesistodeclarelawtodeclarewhat,intheinstanceinquestion,islaw,todeclarethatadiscourse,composedofsuchorsuchasetofwords,isaruleoflawThusspeaking,hewouldbespeakingthewordsputintohismouthbyBlackstoneMeantimebeitorbeitnotaruleoflawhereatanyrateisarule,whichhavingbeenmade,musthavebeenmadebysomebodyWhatismore,notonlyhasitbeenmade,but,bysomejudgewhosedutyitistogivetoreallawstheeffectoflawtheeffectofalaw,asifwereareallaw,hasbeengiventoitTheeffectandwhateffectexactlythesameasifthewordswhichitiscomposedofweresomanywords,constitutingthewholeorapartofsomereallyexistinglawHeinOnlineCodificationoftheCommonLaw:LetterofJeremyBentham,andReportofJudgesStory,MetcalfandOthersInthewordsinquestion,theruleinquestion,wasittheneverdeclaredbeforeIfnot,thenintruthandeffect,thoughnotinwords,theJudgebywhomthisruleisdeclaredtobearuleoflaw,does,insodeclaringit,andactinguponit,takeuponhimselftomakealaw:tomakealaw:andthisisthepretendedlawhetakesuponhimtomakeIfitwasdeclaredbefore,thennothavingbeenmadebyalegislatoritmusthavehadforitsmakersomeperson,behewhohemay,ofwhomthusmuchisknown,viz:thatinthematterinquestionnorighthadhetomakelaw:foritsmaker,eithersomeJudgethatis,amanwhodoesnotpretendtohaveanyrighttomakelaw,orsomeothermanwhowasstillfurtherfromhavinganysuchrightthanaJudgeisAtanyrate,nothavingbeenmadebyanyofoneofyourrespectivelegislatures,thisthingthen,which,byyourJudgesandyourotherlawyers,ispassedoffuponyouasandforaruleoflaw,viz:ofEnglishCommonLawifnotbyaJudgebywhom,then,wasitmadeforlawsdonotmakethemselvesanymorethansnaresorscourgesOfallpersons,who,onthemakingofit,canbesupposedtohavehadapart,theonlyindividualinrelationtowhomyoucanhaveanycompleteassuranceofhishavinghadapartinthemakingofitisaPrinter:theprinterbywhomthefirstprintedbookinwhichitwastobefoundwasprintedBut,thoughitisnotwithoutexampleforthemanbywhomabookisprintedtohavebeenhimselftheauthorofit,examplesofthissortarecomparativelyrareIntheordinarycase,then,hereyouhavetwopersonswhohaveeachofthemborneapartinthemakingofthisdiscoursewhichispalmeduponyouforlaw:twopersons,whotoyou,letitneverbeforgotten,arebothforeignersThisbook,then,onwhatgroundisthattheauthorandtheprintertogethercanhavethustakenuponthemtopassitofftopassitoffinthefirstplaceuponus,inHeinOnlineCodificationoftheCommonLaw:LetterofJeremyBentham,andReportofJudgesStory,MetcalfandOthersthenextplace(suchisyourgoodness)uponyouasandforabookoflawFirstorlast,thegroundatanyratethemostplausiblegroundthatcanbemade,comestothis:Aportionofdiscourse,saidtohavebeenutteredbysomeJudgebysomeJudge,ontheoccasionofsomedecisionpronouncedbyhiminthecourseofasuitatlawOfthisdescription,takeitatthebest,was,orinthebookwassaidtohavebeenthispretendedruleoflawapretendedruleoflawmade,orpretendedtohavebeenmade,byafunctionary,who,assuch,neitherhad,nor(asyouhaveseen)couldsomuchashavepretendedtohave,anyrightortitletomakelaw,orsomuchastobearanypartinthemakingofanyonelawYet,inrelationtolaw,behewhohemay,thisJudgenotonlyclaimedarighttodo,buthasanindisputablerighttodosomethingWhatisthissomethingTake,inthefirstplace,torenderthematterintelligible,thecaseoftheonlyrealsortoflawStatuteLaw,andsupposethatthesortoflawunderwhichtheJudgeisactingWhatinthiscaseisitthat,inrelationtothissamelaw,hehastodoBysomepersonsayaplaintifftheJudgehasbeencalledupontodosomethingathisinstance:somethingatthechargeofsomeotherpersonwho,ifheopposeswhatisthuscalledfor,becomestherebyadefendantWhyisitthatIamtodothis,whichyouarethuscallinguponmetodosaysthejudgeBecause(saystheplaintiff)alawthereis,which,intheeventofyourbein,calleduponbyapersoncircunstancedasam,hasordainedthat,atthechargeofapersoncircumstancedasthedefendantis,apersoncircumstancedasyouare,shallsodoThislawsayssoandsolookatithereifyouhaveneed:itisadiscoursewhichisinprintandtowhich,atsuchorsuchatime,bytheconstitutedauthorities,whoseundisputedrightitwvastodoso,wasgiventhenameandforceoflawHearingthis,ortothiseffect,theJudge(thefactsonwhichtheplaintiffgroundshimselfbeingregardedasHeinOnlineCodificationoftheCommonLaw:LetterofJeremyBentham,andReportofJudgesStory,MetcalfandOthersproved)theJudge,doeshedothatwhichbytheplaintiffheisthuscalledupontodoWhathethereuponandtherebydeclaresdeclaresexpressly,orbynecessaryimplication,isthattheportionoflaw,invirtueofwhichtheplaintiffcalleduponhimsotodo,isaportionoflawmadeandenduedwiththeforceoflaw,byanauthoritycompetentsotodo:andthatofthisdiscoursethetruesenseistheverysensewhichtheplaintiff,ontheoccasionoftheapplicationsomadebyhim,hasbeenascribingtoitThusdoing,whatisitthat,incurrentlanguage,theJudgeissaidtohavebeendoingAnswerpronouncingadecisionajudicialdecision:inparticularajudgment,oradecreeSometimesitiscalledbytheonename,sometimesbytheother:whereuponinvirtue,andinpursuanceofthisdecision,ifneedbe,outgoesmoreoverinhisnameanorderawritarule:sometimesitiscalledbyoneofthesenames,sometimesbyanother:butifitbearule,nothingmorethanaparticularrule,bearingupontheindividualpersonsandthingsinquestion:atanyrate,orderingthedefendanttodosoandso,ororderingorempoweringsomebodyelsetodosoandso,athischargeThatyoumayseethemoreclearlywhatisdoneundershamlaw,hereinabovethenyouhaveanaccountofwhattakesplaceunderreallawWell,now,supposeStatuteLawoutofthecase,whatisdoneisdone,then,inthenameoftheCommonLawInthiscase,then,observewhatthereisofreality,andwhatthereisoffictionWhat,inthiscase,supposingthemattercontestedreallyhasplace,is,asintheothercase,adecision:adecisionpronouncedbyaJudge:saybythatsameJudge:adecisionbywhichexpressionisgiventoanactofhisjudgmeti,followedbyanorder,orwhatisequivalent,bywhichexpressionisgiventoanactofhiswillTheorderisbutparticularthedecisionisinthesamecaseBut,tojustifyhiminthepronouncingofthisdecision,somethingwhichmenarepreparedtoreceiveaslawisHeinOnlineCodificationoftheCommonLaw:LetterofJeremyBentham,andReportofJudgesStory,MetcalfandOthersnecessaryReallaw,bythesuppositionthereisnonefictitiouslawmust,therefore,befeignedforthepurposeWhatdoeshethenAsabove,underthenameofaruleoflaw,eitherhemakesforthepurposeapieceoflawofhisown,or,asabove,herefersto,andadopts,andemploysforhisjustification,apieceoflawalreadymade,orsaidtohavebeenalreadymade,bysomeotherJudgeorJudgesWhatmustallthiswhilebeacknowledgedisthat,settingasidethequestionofitsproprietyandutilityinotherrespectsif,sofarasregardscertainty,viz:onthepartofthedecision,certainty,and,onthepartofthosepersonswhoselotdependsonit,thefacultyofbeingassuredbeforehandwhatitwilleventuallybeadecisiongroundedonthisshamlawwereuponaparwithadecisiongroundedonStatuteLaw,thusfar,atleast,itwouldcometothesamething,anditwouldbeamatterofindifferencewhethertheruleacteduponwereputintothestateofStatuteLaw,orkeptinthestateofCommonLawInthatcase,fordeterminingtheutilityoftheproposedoperationcalledCodification,theonlyquestionmightbeasbetweenthetwosortsoflawwhichofthetwo,theirrespectivesourcesconsidered,afforded,generallyspeaking,thefairestpromiseofbeingmostconducivetotheuniversalinterestThatwhich,atthepresenttime,incontemplationoftheexigenciesofthepresenttime,wouldhaveforitsauthorscitizensoftheState,mostlynativesofthecountrychosenbytherestofthecitizens,inlikemannermostlynativesorthatwhich,inthecourseofseveralhundredyears,wasmadeatdifferenttimesbyfromonetofivepersons,everyoneofthemappointedbyaMonarchbyaMonarch,underaconstitutionofwhich,eveninitsmostimprovedstate,theyokewasfoundbyyoutobesogrievousthat,attheimminentperilofyourlivesandfortunes,andbytheactualsacrificeofthemtonosmallextent,youresolvedtoshakeitoff,andshookitoffaccordinglyThusmuchastowhat,forillustrationsake,maybeHeinOnlineCodificationoftheCommonLaw:LetterofJeremyBentham,andReportofJudgesStory,MetcalfandOthersIconceivedtohavebeenthecaseBut,alas!looktowhatisreallythecase,themorecloselyyouexamineintoitthemoreclearly,willyouperceivethatevenonthegroundofcertaintynocomparisonwillthisshamlawbeabletostandwithreallawYesaswellinpointofstabilitymightyoucomparethewavesoftheoceanwiththerocktheybeatupon,asinpointofcertaintyStatuteLawwithCommonLawwiththisonlygenuinesortoflaw,whichitishereproposedtosubstitutethroughouttothatspurioussortSuppose,then,myfriend,whoeveryouare,supposethat,onthestrengthofthisorthatparticulardecision,orthisorthatgeneralrule,bytheadviceofalawyerwhomyouhaveconsulted,asuitatlawhasbeenengagedinbyyou,eitherinthesituationofplaintiff,orinthesituationofdefendant,forsimplicitysake,sayinthatofplaintiff,ifinthatofdefendant,thesameorthecorrespondingobservationswillstillapplyInappearance,supposethisdecisioneversoclearlydecisiveinyourfavourObservehowmanyandwhatchancesthereareofitsprovinginsufficientinsufficient,andbyreasonofitsinsufficiencyoccasioningyoutoloseyourcauseObservethelistofobjectionsobservetheallegedgroundsorcausesofinvalidationgroundsorcausesmoreorlessperemptory,throughwhichithastorunthegauntletOftherulesinquestion,soimproperlycalledrulesoflaw,thesourcesare,asabove,calleddecisionsofthesegeneralrules,particulardecisionsfromprecedingdecisionscomerules,andfromtheserulesagainsucceedingdecisionsOutoftheserulesanddecisionsaremadetreatisesandabri,mrnentstreatises,containingwithorwithoutrules,argumentationaboutrulesabridgments,containingallegedrules,withorwithoutcommonlywithouttheargumentationoutofwhichtheruleswerespun,andinwhichtheyweredrownedThebooksinwhicharecontainedthedecisionssaidtoHeinOnlineCodificationoftheCommonLaw:LetterofJeremyBentham,andReportofJudgesStory,MetcalfandOthersIIhavebeenpronouncedoneachindividualoccasion,withtheargumentationbywhichtheyaresaidtohavebeenproceeded,andtheruleswhichinthecourseofthatargumentationaresupposedtohavebeenlaiddownasreferredto,arecalledReportBooksBeholdnowasampleoftheobjectionsoftheallegedcausesofinvalidityorinsufficiency,onthegroundofanyoneofwhich,muchmoreofallofthemoranumberofthemtogether,thedecisionorsupposeddecision,onwhichtheconfidenceofyouradvisersrested,maybytheJudgebefoundtobeinsufficientinsufficientinsuchsort,thatinconsequenceoftheallegedinsufficiency,youwillloseyourcauseBeholdthem,ifyourpatienceservesyou,herebelow:iIftherebebutoneReportbookinquestion,thereputationoftheReporternottositivelyhighinthescaleofaccuracyIftherebetwoReportbooksreportingthesamecauseandgivingstatementsinanymaterialparticulardifferent,ofthatwhichisinyourfavorthereputationinthescaleofaccuracynotsohighasofthatwhichisagainstyouif,oneitherside,oronbothsides,conflictingreportsmorethanoneconfusionanduncertaintyproportionableThewholeaggregateoftherelevantfactsnotsufficientlystated:ifithadbeen,thedecisionortherulewouldnothavebeenasitnowappearstobeinyourfavourThematterindisputewasnotofsuchvalueastohaveengaged,eitheronthepartofthearguingCounselonthesideoppositetoyours,oronthepartoftheJudge,adegreeofattentionsufficienttowarranttheplacinganysuchrelianceonthedecisionortherule,asisorcanbeadequatetoyourpurposeOnthesideoppositetothedecisionortherule,relieduponbyyou,thecounselwasnotofsuchknownabilityastohavebroughtoutagainstitalltheobjectionsthatmighthavebeenbroughtoutOfthepointonwhichtheparticulardecisioninquestionwasgrounded,theimportance,withreferencetotheultimateresultof

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