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首页 【博比奥】Left_and_Right__The_Significance_of_a_Polit…

【博比奥】Left_and_Right__The_Significance_of_a_Political_Distinction.pdf

【博比奥】Left_and_Right__The_Signif…

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2011-04-10 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【博比奥】Left_and_Right__The_Significance_of_a_Political_Distinctionpdf》,可适用于职业教育领域

LeftandRightTheSignificanceofaPoliticalDistinctionNorbertoBobbioTranslatedandIntroducedbyAllanCameronTheUniversityofChicagoPressNORBERTOBOBBIOisEmeritusProfessorofLegalandPoliticalPhilosophyattheUniversityofTurinandtheauthorofTlwmasHobbesandtheNaturalLawTradition,publishedbythisPressinTheUniversityofChicagoPress,ChicagoPolityPress,Cambridge,UnitedKingdomThistranslationcopyright©PolityPressFirstpublishedinItalyasDestraeSinistra:RagioniesignificatidiunadistinzionepoliticaCopyright©Donzellieditore,Rome(firstedition),(secondedition)AllrightsreservedPrintedinGreatBritainISBN:(cloth)ISBN:(pbk)LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBobbio,Norberto,DestraesinistraEnglishLeftandrightINorbertoBobbio:translatedandintroducedbyAllanCameronpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesISBN(alkpaper)ISBN(pbk:alkpaper)Rightandleft(Politicalscience)PoliticalsociologyPoliticalsciencePhilosophyITitleJABcThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaperCONTENTSIntroductionviPrefacetotheFirstItalianEditionxxiiAChallengetotheDistinctionExtremistsandModeratesTheLeftRightDistinctionSurvivesInSearchoftheCriterionwhichGovernstheDistinctionOtherCriteriaEqualityandInequalityFreedomandAuthoritarianismThePoleStarAReplytotheCritics()NotesIntroductionWhenthisbookwaspublishedinItalyjustbeforetheelectionswhichbroughtBerlusconi'sshortlivedrightwingalliancetopower,ittookthecountrybystorm,sellingover,copiesinayear,makingittheoverallbestsellerinItalyItremainedthebestsellerinthenonfictioncategoryformanymonthsthereafterAsNorbertoBobbiohimselfpointsout,ifItalianswerelqpkingforassistanceonhowtovoteinItaly'sdramaticallychangedpoliticallandscape,theywouldhavebeensorelydisappointed:thebookispurelyconcernedwithananalyticaldi§iinction,anditsrelevancegoesfarbeyondItalyanditspoliticalvicissitudesTheparadoxwhichtheauthorpointsoutisthat,whiletheleftrightdistinctionisincreasinglybeingchallengedinItaly,theItalianparliamentaryscenehasshiftedfromaspectrumofpartiesdominatedbythecentretoamorepolarizedsysteminwhichtwocoalitionsfaceeachother,astarkchoicebetweenleftandrightSuchasituationis,ofcourse,familiarinEnglishspeakingcountrieswhichhaveamarkedpreferenceforthefirstpastthepostelectoralsystem(Italyabandonedproportionalrepresentationinfavourofthissystembeforethelastelections)Inmanyways,ItalyhasactedasabarometerforWesternEuropeinINTRODUCTIONviithepostwarperiod,reflectinggeneraltrendsinamoreacuteformWhentheMarxistleft'sstarwasrisinginthelatesixtiesandearlyseventies,itseemedtorisehigherinItalyandwhenapathyandageneraldisorientationonthelefttookoverintheeighties,Italyseemedtooutperformothercountriesinitscynicismanditscontemptforapoliticalsystemwhosecorruptionwasbecomingincreasing­lyclearWhilethelefthasbeenweakinAmericaforsometime,thistrendtowardsthesuppressionoftheleftrightdistinctionthroughanatrophyoftheleftisamorerecentdevelopmentinEuropeTheeightieswitnessedRepublicancontroloftheWhiteHouseandConservativedominanceinBritainandinHelmutKohlbecamechancellorofWestGermany,apositionhestillholdsAsaleadingeconomistcommentedontheBritishsituation:'Conservatismwasnotonlyhege­monic,itseemedtheonlygameintownanywhereOlEvenwheretheleftretainedthereinsofpower,itwasnotinaradicalmood,andwhereitwasinopposition,itssocialismwasincreasinglymutedEverywheretherightappearedtohavetakentheinitiative,andwhenthedecadeculminatedwiththedramaticdemiseofcommunism,itwasperhapsnotaltogethersurprisingthatsomepeoplebegantotalkwitheuphoriaof'theendofhistory'andthefinalvictoryofaparticularformofstatenamely,thecapitalist'liberal'democracyThistrendcontinues,andtodayweseetheleftallianceinItaly,whichisdominatedbytheexcommunists,beingledbyanexChristianDemocrattechnocratanduniversitylecturer,withapro­grammeofcutsinpublicspending,privatizationsandgreaterflexibilityintheworkforceNorbertoBobbiosetsoutinthisbook,firsttorefutetheideathattheleftrightdistinctionisinanywayathingofviiiINTRODUCTIONthepast,andthentoargueforhisowndefinitionofthatdistinctionThechallengetotheleftrightdistinctionanditssurvivalIntimeswhentheleftandtherightappearevenlybalancedwithamoreorlessequalpossibilityofholdingtheallegi­anceoflargesectionsofsocietyandthereforeattainingpowerthequestionofwhetherthedistinctionisrelevantdoesnotreallyariseButwheneithertheleftortherightbecomessopowerfulthatitseemstobe'theonlygameintown',thenbothhavetheirreasonstoconniveinthedestructionoftheleftrightdistinctionThedominantsideclearlyhasaninterestinarguingthat'thereisnorealalternative'Lessobviously,theweakersidealsohasaninte�estinrejectingoratleastplayingdownthedifferenceascanbeseenfromthetacticscurrentlybeingadoptedbysomepartiesoftheleftIfitfeelsthatitstraditionalpolicieshaveattractedsomuchpublicopprobripm,itmaydecidetorecycleitselfassomethingtotallynew,somethingwhichgoesbeyondthetraditionaldistinction(neitherleftnorright,orcombiningthepositivevaluesofbothsidestoproduceamodern,innovativemovement)Whileitisclearlytherightwhichhasbeenintheascendantintheeightiesandnineties,BobbioemphasizesthattherehavebeenperiodsinhistorywhenitwastherightthatwishedtodissolveitselfinordertosurviveAfterthefallofFascism,therewasawaveofsupportforcollectivistidealsparticularlyinthosecoun­trieswhichhadexperiencedNazioccupationInordertobecomeapowerfulforceinpolitics,suchtraditionalistpartiesastheItalianChristianDemocratshadtocastINTRODUCTIONixthemselvesasneitherleftnorright,andpayatleastlip­servicetosuchvaluesassocialcohesionThefactthatalltheseclaimstohavesupersededtheleftrightdistinctionfailtomaterializeoncethepartiesinquestionmovefromtherealmofrhetorictothatofpracti­calpoliticsbegsthequestionofwhythedistinctionhasprovedsoenduringThefirstandmostimportantpointhereisthat'left'and'right'arenotabsoluteterms,asBobbiodiscussesatlengthinchapterThereisaclearexampleofthisfundamentalcharacteristicinBritishpoliti­calhistory:Chartismisrightlyconsideredaleftwingmove­mentofthefirsthalfofthelastcentury,butfiftyyearsafteritsdemise,itsdemandforuniversalmanhoodsuffragewouldhavebeenlessthanradicalinlightoftheincipientsuffragettemovement,andwouldnowappeardownrightreactionaryThesimplefactisthatwhatisleftorrightinoneperiodisnotnecessarilysoinanotherThisisproofnotoftheiremptinessaspoliticalterms,butsimplyoftheirrelativityLeftandrightdonotrepresenttwosetsoffixedideas,butratheranaxiswhichshiftsconsiderablyfromonegenerationtothenextAllwordschangetheirmeaningslightlyovertime,butwhilesocialism,forinstance,isanchoredtosomeformofcommonownership,theleftrightdistinctionexistedbeforesocialismbecameamajorforceinEuropeanpolitics,andcontinuedtoexistincountrieswhichclaimedtohaveadoptedsocialismasthebasisfortheireconomicsystemsThedistinctionhasalsoprovedenduringbecausepoliticsisbyitsnatureantithetical,andthedevelopmentofdemo­cracyhasassistedtheformationofpartiesandthegrowthofbipartisansystems,oratleastthepolarizationaroundtwomainpoliticalblocksBobbiooftenreferstothedistinctionxINTRODUCTIONasadyad,bywhichhemeansadistinctioncoveringthewholeofthepoliticaluniverse(everythinginpoliticsmustbeeitherleftorright)whosetwincomponentsareantithe­tical(nothinginpoliticscanbebothleftandrightatthesametime)TheleftrightmetaphororiginatedintheFrenchNationalAssemblyof,andprovedextremelyappropriateLeftandrightrepresentaspatialdyadwithwhichweareallfamiliar(anobjectmustbeeitheronourleftoronourright,andcannotbebothfurthermore,thereisanareadirectlyinfrontofuswhereitisnotveryclearwhethertheobjectinquestionisontheleftortheright,andthiscanbeequatedwiththecentre)butthereisnoreasontobelievethathistorycouldnothavecomeupwithanalternativemetaphor,andindeedtherelativepositionsoftheFrenchdeputiesinrelationtothepresidentwereonlychance(althoughthepositionofmoreconservativenohlestotherightwasperhapsareflectionoftheirdwindlingprivileges)Clearlythesuccessofleftandrightisduenottothefelicityofthemetaphor,whateveritsforcefulnes!"huttothefun­damentalnatureofthepoliticaldistin�tionwhichithascometoexpressThenatureofthedistinctionHavingdefendedthedistinction,BobhiothenmovesontoarguethatthelefttendstowardsequalityandtherighttendstowardsinequalityThistheoryhascausedconsider­abledebateintheItalianpress,andthealternativepropo­salsarediscussedindetailinBobhio's'ReplytotheCritics'attheendofthehookAmorerecentexamplewillsufficeINTRODUCTIONxitodemonstratethesimplicityandeffectivenessofBob­bio'ssuggestedcriterionforthedistinctionWhenAles­sandroPizzorno,auniversityprofessor,wasinterviewedinFebruary,heexpressedhisdisagreementwiththeequalityinequalitycriterion,andsuggestedinclu­sionexclusioninitsplaceTheattractionofsuchadistinc­tioninaworldofincreasingeconomicpolarizationisclearTheessentialquestionforPizzornoismembershipofacollectiveidentity,butBobbio'sresponsewasthatalthoughinclusionexclusionisavaliddistinction,itisonlypartial,andisinanycaseentirelycoveredbytheequalityin­equalitydistinctionAwardingfullcitizen'srightstoimmi­grantscouldbeseenasanexampleofinclusion,butitalsomeansthatsocietynolongerperceivesadifferenceofna­tionalityasjustifyingadifferentallocationofcitizens'rights,andisthereforealsoegalitarianInclusionexclu­sioncoversdiscriminationbetweendiscretegroups,butcannotdealwithmoregraduateddistinctionsFreehealthcareisclearlyanegalitarianpolicy,becauseitgivesthosewithlowerincomesaccesstoanessentialservice,butitisnotinclusionPizzornoputforwardhiscriterionbecauseofaparticularlypressingprobleminthelatetwentiethcen­tury,butpracticallyacceptedthelimitationsofhisownargumentwhenheadmittedthat'historicallyBobbioisright'Fewpoliticalphilosopherswhohavedealtwiththissub­jecthavefailedtonotethecloseassociationbetweenequalityandthefundamentalconceptofjusticeBobbioarguesthatjusticerelatestotwoprinciples:legality(ad­herencetothelaw)andequality(treatinglikeaslike)Whilejusticeisanideal,equalityisarealityIntheseven­tieshewrote:xiiINTRODUCTIONItisnotinitselfeitherjustorunjustthattwobilliardballsareperfectlythesameugualiTherealmoftheapplicationofjustice,orrathersociallyandpoliticallysignificantequalities,istobefoundinsocialrelationsbetweenindividualsandotherindividuals,groupsandothergroups,orindividualsandthegroup,accordingtothetraditionaldistinctionwhichgoesbacktoAristotle,betweenretributivejustice(whichinvolvesrelationsbetweentheparts)anddistributivejustice(whichinvolvesrelationsbetweenthewholeandthepartsorviceversa)BeforeexammmgBobbio'scriterionanyfurther,itisnecessarytoclarifythemeaningsof'equality'and'in­equality',and,aswearedealingwithatranslation,tobesensitivetotheoriginalItalianandhowthismaydifferfromtheEnglishWhileinItalianthereisnothingstrangeinstatingthatbilliardballsareuguali,inEnglishtosaythattheyareequalisnonsensicalAnItaliandictionarywillgivethefirstmeaningofugualeas'identical'orthesame­nessoftwoormoreobjects,whileanEnglishonewillstartwith'ofthesamevalueoramount�Thisambivalencehasinformedmuchofthedebateoverthenatureofequality,andposestheimportantquest�onofwhethertheoppositeofequalityis'inequality'or'difference'Trans­lationhasspreaddebates,termsandambivalencesfromonelanguagetoanother,particularlyinthefieldofpoliticalphilosophy,and'difference'isnowproposedasanoppositeto'equality'inEnglish,principallyasanantiorpostso­cialistvalueTheconfusionsurroundingtheseterms,wherebyequality,asthesupposedoppositeofdifference,isidentifiedwithuniformityandasingleworldview,hasbecomethejustificationforthe'postmodernist'equationoftheleftwithtotalitarianismThishasbeencounteredbyargumentsthatequalityanddifferenceareentirelycom­patibleINTRODUCTIONxiiiThequestionofwhethertheoppositeof'equality'is'difference'or'inequality'isessentiallyamatterofhowyoudefine'equality'Bobbiomakesclearthatonlyindogmaticutopiantheoriesdoesequalityevermean'equalityforeveryoneineverything',animposedorregimented'sameness'acrosssociety,whichappearstobesomethingsimilarto'simpleequality'asdefinedbyMichaelWalzerInfact,justasBobbioarguesthat'equalityforeveryoneineverything'issoimpracticalastobemeaningless,soWalzerstatesthat'equalityliterallyunderstoodisanidearipeforbetrayal'"Bobbiohasinventedthewordegualitaristafortheadvocateofthisrigidformalequality,andthavetranslatedthisas'egalitarianist',whichseemedthelogicalparallelneologisminEnglishEgalitarianismcanthereforebedividedintoakindofutopianregimentationandamorepragmaticapproachwhichasksthreefundamentalquestions:BetweenwhomInwhatOnwhatbasisAllsocialorganizationinvolvesele­mentsofequalityandinequality,andthedifferencebe­tweenleftandrightisaquestionofdegreewithinaparticularculturalandhistoricalcontextWhilein­equalitymaybeconsideredtheoppositeofthispragmaticequality,differencecouldbeconsideredtheoppositeofregimentedequalityDifferenceisapositivequality,par­ticularlyintheaffluentWest,becauseitimpliesthefree­domofeachindividualtodevelophisorherparticularnatureNorbertoBobbioisatpainstopointoutthatfeminismisnotaboutdifference,butisinfactaclassicexampleofanegalitarianstruggleWomenwontherighttovotebecausesocietyacknowledgedthattherewasnodifferencebetweenmenandwomeninthefieldsofpoliticsandcitizenshipxivINTRODUCTIONwhichcouldjustifytheirdisqualificationfromvotingrightsOtherformsofdisqualificationhavegraduallybeenremoved,and,leavingasidethequestionofhowmuchremainstobedone,mostpeoplewouldagreethatthisegalitarianstrugglehasgivenwomenmorefreedomtode­veloptheirownindividualnaturesthaninthepastThusegalitarianismtoocouldfairlyclaimtocreateconditionsforindividualchoiceBobbioquotesMassimoCacciari,aleadingItalianphilosopher,whoarguespreciselythis:'Equalityisapartofourqualityoflife,likeincome,theenvironmentandpublicservicesEqualitymakesdiversitypossible,andmakesitpossibleforeveryonetocountasaperson,quiteunlikethatabstracttotalitarianideaofequalitywhichmeanstheeliminationofthosewhoarenotthesame'Freedomisabouttheindividualandtheindividual'sabilitytobedifferentorautonomouswithinclearlydefinedlimitswhichfallshortofthestateofnatureWhileequalityisasocialgood,freedomisanindividmllgood,asBobbioconvincinglyargues('Iamfree'isanintelligiblestatement,while'Iamequal'isnot)Freedommaybeclaimedbybothleftandright,butoneofthecentralargumentsofthisbookisthatfreedomdoesnotbelongexclusivelytoeitherTheotherdistinctionBobbiodividesthepoliticaluniversealongtwofundamentalaxes:thepreviouslydiscusseddistinctionbetweenequalityandinequality,asexpressedbytheterms'left'and'right',andthedistinctionbetweenlibertyandauthoritarianismINTRODUCTIONxvTheidealoflibertyistheothergreatidealwhichhasguidedEuropesincetheEnlightenmentLiberty,inthemodernsense,representsacompletebreakwiththepastandwiththeorganicconceptofthestate,theAristotelianmodelwherebythewholeismoreimportantthanthepartsBobbioisunusualontheleftinperceivingindividualismnotasanegativevalue,butasaproductofthemodernstate,therejectionoftheorganicconceptofthestateandthedevelopment,howeverimperfect,ofhumanrightsWithoutgoingintoallthecategoriesofhumanrightswhichBobbiohasdefinedelsewhere,t°itwillbesufficientforthisargumenttostatethatthetwoprincipalcategoriesarelibertarianrightsandsocialrights,whichtosomeextentareinconflictwitheachotherTheleft,whichisgenerallyassociatedwithsocialrights,haslongaccusedtherightofbreakingupthecommunitythroughitsoveremphasisontheindividual'slibertarianrightsattheexpenseofthecommunity'swiderinterestswhiletherighthasaccusedtheleftofthesamething,onthegroundsthatitissupposedtohaveunderminedreligionandtraditionalvalues,whichbindsocietytogetherThislatterargumentisratherweakbecause,asBobbiopointsout,thereareplentyofrightwingatheistsandleftwingbelieverstheassociationoftherightwithtraditionalismisunderstandable,butoftenmisleadingMorerecently,therighthascomeupwiththemorecoher­entargumentthattheimplementationofsocialrightsinthemodernwelfarestatehasunderminedthesenseofcom­munitybyremovinganindividual'spersonalresponsibilityforhisfamilyandcommunityLeavingasidethequestion­ableconceptofapreviousgoldenageinwhichthecom­munitycaredforallitsweakermembers,itiscertainlytruethatthewelfarestatetendstotreateachcitizenasanxviINTRODUCTIONindividualItraisestaxesfromtheindividualatnationallevel,anddistributesbenefitstotheindividual,usuallyinaccordancewithclearlydefinednationalcriteriaAccordingtoBobbio,in

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【博比奥】Left_and_Right__The_Significance_of_a_Political_Distinction

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