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首页 【凯尔森】The Communist Theory of Law

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【凯尔森】The Communist Theory of Law

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(,,(Citation:HansKelsenTheCommunistTheoryofLawiContentdownloadedprintedfromHeinOnline(http:heinonlineorg)SunMar::YouruseofthisHeinOnlinePDFindicatesyouracceptanceofHeinOnline'sTermsandConditionsofthelicenseagreementavailableathttp:heinonlineorgHOLLicenseThesearchtextofthisPDFisgeneratedfromuncorrectedOCRtextTHECOMMUNISTTHEORYOFLAWReproductionbyPermmissionofBuffaloErieCountyPublicLibraryBuffalo,NYHeinOnlineHansKelsen,TheCommunistTheoryofLawiAUSTRALIATheLawBookCoofAustralasiaPtyLtdSydneyMelbourne:BrisbaneGREATBRITAINStevensSonsLimitedLondonINDIANMTripathiLtdBombayNEWZEALANDLegalPublicationsLtdWellingtonPAKISTANPakistanLawHouseKarachiUSAANDCANADAFrederickAPraegerIncNewYorkReproductionbyPermmissionofBuffaloErieCountyPublicLibraryBuffalo,NYHeinOnlineHansKelsen,TheCommunistTheoryofLawiiNootPraegerPublicationsinRussianHistoryandWorldCommunismTHECOMMUNISTTHEORYOFLAWBYHANSKELSENNEWYORKFREDERICKAPRAEGER,IncReproductionbyPermnmissionofBuffaloErieCountyPublicLibraryBuffalo,NYHeinOnlineHansKelsen,TheCommunistTheoryofLawiiiBOOKSTHATMATTERFirstpublishedinintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyFrederickAPraeger,IncWestothStreet,NewYorkNewrorkPublishedinGreatBritainbyStevensSonsLimitedOChanceryLaneLondonPrintedinGreatBritainbyBradfordDickensofLondonWCiAllRightsReservedLibraryofCongressCatalogCardNo:ReproductionbyPermmissionofBuffaloErieCountyPublicLibraryBuffalo,NYHeinOnlineHansKelsen,TheCommunistTheoryofLawivCONTENTSPrefacepageviiITHEMARXENGELSTHEORYOFSTATEANDLAWILENIN'STHEORYOFSTATEANDLAWSTUCHKA'STHEORYOFLAWREISNER'STHEORYOFLAWPASHUKANIS'THEORYOFLAWTHEREJECTIONOFPASHUKANIS'THEORYVYSHINSKY'STHEORYOFLAWIIGOLUNSKIIANDSTROGOVICH'STHEORYOFSTATEANDLAWSOVIETTHEORYOFINTERNATIONALLAWCONCLUSIONIndexReproductionbyPermnmissionofBuffaloErieCountyPublicLibraryBuffalo,NYHeinOnlineHansKelsen,TheCommunistTheoryofLawvReproductionbyPermmissionofBuffaloErieCountyPublicLibraryBuffalo,NYHeinOnlineHansKelsen,TheCommunistTheoryofLawviPREFACEITisaparadoxicalfactthatsocalledhistoricmaterialism,thatis,theeconomicinterpretationofsocialreality,inauguratedbyKarlMarx,hasinfluencedandisstillinfluencingthesocialscienceofourtime,includingtheantiMarxianschool,toamuchgreaterextentthanitsrepresentativesareawareThisfactmanifestsitselfinthewidespreadtendencytorejectanynormativeinterpretationofsocialphenomena,eveniftheyundoubtedlyfallwithintherealmofmoralityorlawThereexistsamongsocialscientistsacertainproclivitytoreducehumanrelations,whichinethicsandjurisprudencearepresentedasduties,responsibilities,rightsestablishedbymoralorlegalnorms,tofactualrelationsofpoliticaloreconomicpowerandtocharacterisevaluejudgmentsconcerningrightandwrong,justandunjust,aspropositionsaboutfactsobservablebyindividualorsocialpsychology,inoppositiontotheirinterpretationasjudgmentsconcerningconformityordisconformitywithanormpresupposedasvalidItisanantinormativetendency,basedontheunwillingnessorincapacityofrecognisingthespecificmeaningofanormoranormativeorderItjustifiesitselfbydenouncinganynormativeinterpretationas'unscientific'Thisintellectualattitudeisofparticularimportanceinthemodemscienceoflaw,whichtriestoreplacejurisprudencebylegalsociologyTheantinormativeapproachtosocialphenomenaisanessentialelementoftheMarxiantheoryingeneralandoftheMarxiantheoryoflawinparticularThequestionastowhetherthelawisasystemofnormsoranaggregateofsocialrelationshipsplaysadecisiveroleinthelegaltheorywhichintheSovietUnionhasbeendevelopedonthebasisoforthodoxMarxismThislegaltheoryisacharacteristicpartofthepoliticalsystemknownunderthenameofcommunismAcriticalanalysisofthecommunisttheoryoflawseemstotheauthorofthisessaytobeofvaluenotonlytoscientificjurisprudencebutfortheabovementionedreasonstosocialscienceingeneralTheSovietlegaltheory,towhichthesecondpartofthisessayisdevoted,isdominatedalmostexclusivelybypoliticalfactorsviiReproductionbyPermmissionofBuffaloErieCountyPublicLibraryBuffalo,NYHeinOnlineHansKelsen,TheCommunistTheoryofLawviiviiiPrefaceInaccordancewithMarx'theoryoftheideologicalsuperstructure,itwasfromtheverybeginningintendedasanideologicalweaponinthefightofsocialismagainstcapitalismSovietlegaltheoryadaptsitselfsubmissivelytoeverychangeinthepolicyoftheSovietgovernmentThefollowingexaminationofthistheorywillshowtheshamefuldeclineofasocialsciencethatisnotabletoemancipateitselffrompoliticsAtatimewheneverywherethepowerofthestateissteadilyincreasing,thefactmustbetakenmostseriouslythatthedegradationofsciencetoanaccompliceofpoweriseffectedintheSovietUnionundertheleadershipofintellectuallyoutstandingscholarsHenceitwaspossibletorestrictthepresentstudyofSovietlegaltheorytoareviewofthedoctrinesadvocatedbythemostprominentwritersSincethemaincontributionsofthesewritersaretranslatedintoGerman,FrenchandEnglishandonlythroughthesetranslationscantheyassumeinternationalimportancetheauthor,whohasnoknowledgeoftheRussianlanguage,wasabletobecomefamiliarwiththemwithoutapprehensionofhavingmissedanyessentialfeatureoftheirdoctrines'Finally,theauthorwishestomakeitasclearaspossiblethatheisnotdealingwithcommunistlawbutwiththegeneraltheoryoflawadvancedbywritersapplying,orpretendingtoapply,theprinciplesofcommunismandheisdealingwiththepolicyofthecommunistgovernmentoftheSovietUniononlyinsofarasthispolicyinfluencesthecommunisttheoryoflaw'HANsKELSENSeptember,AnEnglishtranslationofthemostimportantcontributionsofSovietwriterstothetheoryoflawhasrecentlybeenpublishedinSovietLegalPhilosophy,byVILenin,PIStuchka,MAReisner,EBPashukanis,JVStalin,AYVyshinsky,PYudin,SAGolunskii,MSStrogovich,IPTraininTranslatedbyHughBabbWithanintroductionbyJohnHazardTheTwentiethCenturyLegalPhilosophySeries,Vol,Cambridge,Mass,HarvardUniversityPress,I(London,GeoffreyCumberlege)AstotherelationshipbetweenthelegaltheoryofSqvietwritersandtheeconomicpolicyoftheSovietgovernment,cfthestudy:RudolfSchlesinger,SovietLegalTheory,ItsSocialBackgroundandDevelopment,nded,London,RoutledgeKeganPaulLtd,ReproductionbyPermmissionofBuffaloErieCountyPublicLibraryBuffalo,NYHeinOnlineHansKelsen,TheCommunistTheoryofLawviiiCHAPTERITHEMARXENGELSTHEORYOFSTATEANDLAWPrimacyofeconomicsoverpoliticsintheMarxiantheoryofthebourgeois(capitalist)stateTHEMarxiantheoryoflawisinseparablyconnectedwiththetheoryofstate'Itisbasedontheassumptionthattheeconomicproductionandthesocialrelationshipsconstitutedbyit(theProdttktionsverhaeltnisse)determinethecomingintoexistenceaswellasthedisappearanceofstateandlawNeitherphenomenonisanessentialelementofhumansocietytheyexistonlyunderdefiniteeconomicconditions,namelywhenthemeansofproductionareattheexclusivedispositionofaminorityofindividualswhouseormisusethisprivilegeforthepurposeofexploitingtheoverwhelmingmajorityThisimpliesthedivisionofsocietyintotwogroupsofantagonisticeconomicinterests,two'classes',theclassoftheexploitingownersofthemeansofproductionandtheclassoftheexploitedworkersThisisespeciallythesituationofasocietywheretheeconomicsystemofcapitalismprevailsandsocietyissplitintothetwoclassesofthebourgeois(capitalists)andtheproletariatThestatetogetherwithitslawisthecoercivemachineryforthemaintenanceofexploitationofoneclassbytheother,aninstrumentoftheclassofexploiterswhich,throughthestateanditslaw,becomesthepoliticallydominantclassThestateisthepowerestablishedforthepurposeofkeepingtheconflictbetweenthedominantandthedominatedclass'withintheboundsof"order"'This'order'isthelaw,whichaccordingtothisviewalthoughsomethingdifferentfromthestate,isinessentialconnectionwiththestateThestateis'normallythestateofthemostpowerfuleconomicallyrulingclass,whichbyitsmeansbecomesalsothepoliticallyrulingclass,andthusacquiresnewCfmySozialismusundStaat,Aufl,Leipzig,,andmyThePoliticalTheoryofBolshevism,UniversityofCaliforniaPress,BerkeleyandLosAngeles,FriedrichEngels,DerUrsprungderFamilie,desPrivateigentumsunddesStaatesInternationaleBibliothek,Stuttgart,io,petseqiiReproductionbyPermmissionofBuffaloErieCountyPublicLibraryBuffalo,NYHeinOnlineHansKelsen,TheCommunistTheoryofLawTheCommunistTheoryofLawmeansofholdingdownandexploitingtheoppressedclass''Thatmeansthatthepoliticalpowerofthebourgeoisieistheeffectofitseconomicpower,thatthebourgeoisiebecomesthepoliticallyrulingclassbecauseitistheeconomicallyrulingclassThisprimacyofeconomicsoverpoliticsisquiteconsistentwithMarx'economicinterpretationofhistoryingeneralandofpresentsocietyinparticularAsocietysplitintoclasses,saysEngels,'needsthestate,thatmeansanorganisationoftheexploitingclassformaintainingtheexternalconditionsofitsproduction,especiallyforholdingdownbyforcetheexploitedclass'Thedominanceofoneclassovertheother,whichistheessenceofthestate,isidenticalwiththeexploitationofoneclassbytheother,thedominantclassbeingessentiallytheexploitingclassRealityandideologyTheinterdependencewhichaccordingtothiseconomicormaterialisticinterpretationofsocietyexistsbetweentheeconomicconditionsontheonehand,andstateandlawontheother,isofdecisiveimportanceforthetheoryofstateandinparticularforthetheoryoflawItisusuallyassumedthatMarxdescribesthisinterdependenceinthewellknownmetaphorofapoliticalandlegal'superstructure'setupabovetherelationshipsofproductionconstitutingtheeconomicstructureofsociety'Ideologies'formthesuperstructure,whereasthebasis,thesubstructure,representssocialrealityInhisworkZurKritikderpolitischenOekonomie(ContributiontotheCritiqueofPoliticalEconomy)hesays:'InthesocialproductionwhichmencarryontheyenterintodefiniterelationsthatareindispensableandindependentoftheirwilltheserelationsofproductioncorrespondtoadefinitestageofdevelopmentoftheirmaterialpowersofproductionThesumtotaloftheserelationsofproductionconstitutestheeconomicstructureofsocietytherealfoundation,onwhichriselegalandpoliticalsuperstructuresandtowhichcorresponddefiniteformsofsocialconsciousnessEngels,DerUrsprungderFamilieetc,pIoEngels,HerrnEugenDiihringsUmwiilzungderWissenschaft(AntiDiihring),Stuttgart,,pKarlMarx,ZurKritikderpolitischenOekonomie,herausgegvKarlKautsky,Stuttgart,i,plvReproductionbyPermmissionofBuffaloErieCountyPublicLibraryBuffalo,NYHeinOnlineHansKelsen,TheCommunistTheoryofLawTheMarxEngelsTheoryofStateandLawThe'superstructures'are'formsofsocialconsciousness',whichhelatercharacterisesas'ideologicalformsinwhichmenbecomeconscious'ofsocialrealityItisusuallyassumedthatMarxunderstandsby'legalandpoliticalsuperstructures'lawandstateEngels,eg,interpretstheMarxianformulainthestatementthat'theeconomicstructureofsocietyformstherealbasis,bywhichthetotalsuperstructureoflegalandpoliticalinstitutionsaswellasreligious,philosophicalandotherideas(Vorstellungsweisen)ofeachhistoricalperiodinthelastanalysismaybeexplained''Ifthisinterpretationiscorrectand,hence,lawhasthenatureofanideology,themeaningofthistermisoftheutmostimportanceforaMarxiantheoryoflawInhisfragmentaryworkEinleitungzueinerKritikderpolitischenOekonomie(IntroductiontotheCritiqueofPoliticalEconomy)Marxsaysthatinthestudyofsocialscienceitmustbeborneinmindthatsocietyisgiven'asinrealitysoinourmind''Socialideologyasaformofsocialconsciousnessissocietyasitisgiveninthehumanmind,incontradistinctiontosocietyasitisgiveninrealityInDasKommunistischeManifest(CommunistManifesto)MarxandEngelsreferto'thechargesagainstcommunismmadefromareligious,aphilosophicaland,generally,fromanideologicalstandpoint',thusmeaningbyideologyinthefirstplacereligionandphilosophyThen,theymaintainthat'man'sideas,views,andconceptions,inoneword,man'sconsciousnesschangeswitheverychangeintheconditionsofhismaterialexistence,inhissocialrelationsandhissociallife'Hence'ideology'meansthecontentofman'sconsciousness,theideasmanformsinhismindofreality,especiallyofsocialrealityButmostlyMarxusestheterm'ideology'notinthiswidersenseasidenticalwith'idea',butinanarroweranddecidedlydeprecatorysenseByideologyhemeansafalseconsciousness,anincorrectincontradistinctiontoascientificallycorrectideaofsocialrealityHesays,inconsideringsocialtransformations:'thedistinctionshouldalwaysbemadebetweenthematerialtransformationwhichcanbedescribedwiththeprecisionofnaturalscience,andthelegal,political,religious,FriedrichEngels,DieEntwicklungdesSozialismusvonderUtopiezurWissenschaft,Aufl,Berlin,,pMarx,ZurKritikderpolitischenOdkonomie,pxliiiReproductionbyPermmissionofBuffaloErieCountyPublicLibraryBuffalo,NYHeinOnlineHansKelsen,TheCommunistTheoryofLawTheCommunistTheoryofLawestheticorphilosophicinshortideologicalformsinwhichmenbecomeconscious'ofthesetransformations'Justasouropinionofanindividualisnotbasedonwhathefancieshimself,sowecannotjudgesuchaperiodoftransformationbyitsownconsciousness''The'ideological'consciousnessisfalsebecauseitisdeterminedbythesocialsituationofthemanwhosemindreflectsthesocialreality,especiallybytheinterestsofthesocialgroup,orclass,towhichthemanbelongsMarxhastherathernaiveepistemologicalviewaccordingtowhichman'sconsciousnessreflectslikeamirrortherealobjectsInhismainwork,DasKapital,Marxsays,inoppositiontoHegel'sviewthatrealityisareflexofidea:'Withme,onthecontrary,theideadasIdeellelisnothingbutthematerialtransformedandtranslatedinthemindofmandasimMenschenkopfumgesetzteunduebersetzteMaterielle''AndEngelswritesinhispamphletLudwigFeuerbachundderAusgangderklassischenPhilosophie:'Weconceiveofideasaspicturesofrealthings'andinhisDieEntwicklungdesSozialismusvonderUtopiezurWissenschaft:'thoughtsareonlymoreorlessabstractimagesoftherealthingsandevents'Anideologyisaformofconsciousnessthatreflectssocialrealityinadistortedway,itcounterfeitssomethingthat,inreality,doesnotexist,itveilsrealityorsomethinginitinsteadofunveilingit,itisadeceptionandevenselfdeceptionand,aboveall,itisanillusiveconsciousnessHencethereisalwaysanantagonismorconflictbetweentherealityandtheideologicalconsciousnessmanhasofthisrealityand,sinceMarxspeaksofconflictsorantagonismsasof'contradictions',thereisalwaysacontradictionbetweenrealityandideologyTheepistemologicaldoctrinewhichisatthebasisofMarx'theoryofideologyisformulatedinthesefamousstatements:'Themodeofproductioninmateriallifedeterminesthegeneralcharacterofthesocial,politicalandspiritualprocessoflifeItisnottheconsciousness(Bewusstsein)ofmenthatLoccit,plvlviMarx,DasKapital(Volksausgabe,herausgegvonKautsky,Aufl),I,pxlviiFriedrichEngels,LudwigFeuerbachundderAusgangderklassischenPhilosophie,MarxistischeBibliothek,Bd,PEngels,DieEntwicklungdesSozialismussvonderUtopieetc,pReproductionbyPermmissionofBuffaloErieCountyPublicLibraryBuffalo,NYHeinOnlineHansKelsen,TheCommunistTheoryofLawTheMarxEngelsTheoryofStateandLawdeterminestheirexistence(Sein)but,onthecontrary,theirsocialexistence(geselischaftlichesSein)determinestheirconsciousness'Althoughthesecondsentenceissupposedtoexpressthesameideaasthefirst,thetwoarenotquitethesameInthefirstsentenceonlythe'modeofproduction'isthedeterminingfactor,inthesecond,itistheentire'socialexistence'Inthefirstsentencenotonlythe'spiritual'butalsothe'social'and'political'processoflifeisthedeterminedfactorinthesecond,itisonlythe'consciousness'whichisidenticalwiththespiritualprocessoflifeBythe'social'and'political'processoflifelawandstateassocialinstitutionsmaybeunderstoodandthis'social'and'political'processoflifeasdistinguishedfromthe'spiritual'processoflifeinthefirstsentencemayverywellbeconceivedofaspartofthe'socialexistence'ofmenreferredtointhesecondsentenceHencethereisastrangeambiguityastothemeaningoftherelationshipbetweenrealityandideology,whichmakesthefoundationofMarx'theoryofcognitionhighlyproblematicalThisambiguityplaysaparticularpartinthetheoryofstateandlawwhenthequestionariseswhetherthesesocialphenomenabelongtothesubstructure,ie,therealbasis,ortotheideologicalsuperstructureIfMarx'sociologicaltheoryofknowledgeistakeninitssecondversion(thesocialexistenceofmendeterminingtheirconsciousness)thequestionariseswhetheraconsciousnessotherthananideological,ie,false,illusiveconsciousnessispossibleatallSinceman'sconsciousnessis'ideological'inthissensebecauseitisdeterminedbyman'ssocialexistence,theanswermustbeinthenegativeHencetherecanbenotrue,ie,objectivetheoryofrealityingeneralandofsocialrealityinparticularItisevidentthatMarxcannotmaintainhisfundamentalposition,fortheverystatementthatthesocialexistencedeterminestheconsciousnessofmenmustclaimtobeatrueandthatmeansanobjectivetheoryofthehumanconsciousness,notdeterminedbythesocialexistenceoftheonewhomakesthisstatementTherecanbenodoubtthatMarxpresentshisownsocialtheoryasanonideological,correctdescriptionofsocialreality,asascience'InanabovequotedstatementMarxmakesacleardistinctionZurKritikderpolitischenOek

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【凯尔森】The Communist Theory of Law

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