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首页 【后现代女性主义作家】Postmodern+Feminist+Writers

【后现代女性主义作家】Postmodern+Feminist+Writers.pdf

【后现代女性主义作家】Postmodern+Feminist+…

yunyun
2011-04-09 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【后现代女性主义作家】Postmodern+Feminist+Writerspdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

eIIlinistritersWSKOTISWARIPostmodernFeministWritersThJsOnePostmodemFeministWritersDrWSKottiswariSARUPSONSNEWOELHIIlPublishedbySARUPSONSf,AnsariRoadDaryaGanj,NewDelhiIITel:,,Fax:Email:sarupandsonsinhotmailcomPOSTMODERNFEMINISTWRITERSt>EditorslSiEditionISBNSSPRINTEDININDIAPublishedbyPrabhalKumarSharmaforSarupSons,LaserTypeseningalChitraComputersandPrintedatMehTaOffsetPrinters,DelhijmaterlaaDEDICATEDTOMyDearMotherforBeingMyGuidingLightlIIeurrjmater~PrefaceAsaPostgraduateTeacherandResearchGuide,IcameacrossthevastfictionalcorpusofwomenwritersacrossculturesandIwasextremelyimpressedbythevarietyofthemesandtechniquesusedbythesewriterstoforegroundfeministideologyWhatparticularlycaughtmyattentionwasthesubtlewayinwhichthesewritersmadeuseofthecurrentliterarytheorieswhileattemptingtocriticallyconfrontpatriarchyAnoticeablefactor,however,isareluctanceamonglearnersandscholarstoviewliteraryworksfromatheoreticalstandpointSuchatheoreticalapproach,Ifeel,isnecessaryifonehastoauthoritativelyassesstherelativemeritsofaliteraryworkespeciallyifithappenstobeaworkwrittenbyawomanFeministwritingsbecomedoublysignificantwhenviewedinthelightofworkswrittenbymaleauthorsAperusalofthesolidandimmenseworkswrittenbyMargaretAtwood,aCanadiannovelistjToniMorrisonjanAfricanAmericannovelist,GitaHariharanandShashiDeshpandewhoareIndiannovelistsmademethinkinnovativelyofhowthesewriterswereinfluencedbytheirrespectivecultureswhichjinturnmadethemadoptdifferenttechniquesandthemestohighlighttheirfeministviewsThetitlePostmodernFeministWritersstruckmeasappropriatesinceallthesewriterstakenupforstudyare,irionewayortheother,stronglyinfluencedbypostmodernideologyItisthemodestaimofthepresentbooktostudythemajorthemesofthesefournovelistsinthelightofthelatestjmaterlaaviiitheoriesThediscussionislargelyillustrativeandtheaimhasbeentounderstandtherelevanceofthesefeministwriters'thematicconcernstofeminismandpo~tmodernism·bothbeingrelevantideologiesofthepresentcenturyIamthankfultoSARUPANDSONS,NewDelhi,forhavingconsentedtopublishmybookIthankmymother,WSJaya,myhusbandNSukumaran,mychildrenMahalakshmyandSenthilKumarandmysoninlawUnnikrishnanfortheirconstantsupportwithoutwhichaworkofthiskindwouldnothavebeenpossiblejmater~IntroductionWhenJeanFrancoisLyotarddefinedthepostmodernconditionasastateofincredulitytowardmetanarrativshesetthestageforaseriesofdebatesabouttheroleandfunctionofmetanarrativesinourdiscoursesofknowledgeEversinceLyotard'sdefinition,thecloseconsensusanddifferencesbetweenFeministandPostmodernistideologiescametolightsincethemetanarrativethathasbeentheprimaryconcernoffeministsispatriarchyThisbookintendstoexplorethemuchdebatedproblematicsofpostmodernistandfeministideologiesbyexaminingcertainkeytextswrittenbywritersacrosscultureslikeMargaretAtwood,aCanadiannovelist,ToniMorrison,anAfricanAmericannovelist,andtwoIndiannovelists,ShashiDesbpandeandGitaHariharanThefirstchapterwouldhighlightthetheoreticalframeworksofPostmoderWsmandFeminismtherebypointingoutthevariousperspectivesfromwhichtheworksofthefournovelistswouldbeanalysedChaptertwoandthreewouldbedevotedtoAtwoodandMorrisonrespectivelywhilethefourthchapterwouldtakeupthetwoIndiannoveliststogetherThefifthchapterwouldsumuptheconclusionarrivedatafteracloseexaminationoftheworkstakenupforstudyjmater~AbbreviationsUsedintheBookTheEdibleWomanWomanLifeBeforeMaoManTheHandmaid'sTaleTaleLadyOracleOracleTheRobberBrideBrideAliasGraceGraceInSearchofocrMother'sGardensGardensTheBluestEyeEyeSongofSolomonSolomonTarabyBabyTheThousandFacesofNightNightWhenDreamsTravelTravelWritingfromtheMarginMarginTheDarkHoldsnoTerrorsTerrorsRootsandShadowsRootsAMatterofTimeTImeTheSoundandtheFuryFuryThatLongSilenceSilencejmater~ContentsPrefaceTntroductjonTheoretjcalModules·PostmodernjsmFemjnismNexuspostmodernismjntheCanadianContextMargaretAtwoodasaPostmodernistpnstmndernjsmjntheAmericanContext=ToniMorrisonasaPostmodernistPostmodernismintheIndianContextGjtaHariharanandShashiDeshpandeasPostmodemjstsConclusionBibliographyIndexvjjyjmater~TheoreticalModules:PostmodernismFeminismNexusThefeministliterarycriticismoftodayisthedirectproductofthewomen'smovementortbe'sThismovementwas,inimportantways,literaryfromthestartinthesensethatitrealizedthesignificanceoftheimagesofwomenpromulgatedbyliteratureandsawitasvitaltocombatthemandquestiontheirauthoritySimilarlypostmodernityischaracterizedbysmallerandmultiplenarratives,whichquestionmetanarrativeslikePatriarchy,Capitalism,liberalHumanismandMarxismWhilepostmodernismisagainstclassicalrealismandthefierceasceticismofnineteenthcenturyworks,FeminismisagainsttraditionalrepresentationofwomenBothFeminismandPostmodemismhaveworkedtomakeusunderstandthedominantmodesofrepresentationatworkinoursocietyCulturalproductioniscarriedonwithinasocialcontextandanideologyIfthepersonalispolitical,thenthetraditionalseparationbetweenprivateandpublichistorymustberethoughtInotherwords,feministsbavereconsideredboththecontextofhistoricnarrativeandthepoliticsofrepresentationPostmodernismcanbeseenasacomplementaryandsustainingforceinfeministtheoryandpoliticsAgainsttheabsolute,unitaryconceptionofknowledgethatispartofthejmaterlaaPostmodemFeministWn'tersmodernepisterne,thepostmodernistsproposeasystemofdiscoursesthatarehistoricalandcontextualSuchadiscoursetheorydemandsanewwayofconceptualizingtruthandpoliticalactionthatbreaksdowndualisticcategorizationsContemporaryFeminismalsoquestionstheconceptofrationalityandtheunitarydefmitionoftruthThepostmodernperceptionasenunciatedbyDerridaattemptstoemphasizedifferencenotintermsofbinaryoppositionsbutinmultiplicitiesandpluralitiesThisprovidesaradicallynewwayoftalkingaboutfeminity,masculinityandsexualityDerrida'sdisplacementofthebinarylogicsetsupforfeminismadiscoursethatspeaksinamUltiplicityofsexualvoicesInopeningupunlimitedpossibilitiesofmeanings,thewomanwriterexposesherselftohumanexperienceuncircumscribedbypurelyfeminine,feministorfemaleexperienceOneofthemajorcomponentsofpostmodernismisthedecanonizationofallexistingmastercodes,conventions,institutionsandauthoritiesAnytextthatseekstodisplacethedominantdiscoursebecomespostmodemPostmodemismassumesdifferentnuancesinthehandsofmenandwomenwritersDecentringofwomanisalmostakintothedecentringofmaninthepostmodernistepistemeinwhichtherearenoessentialsubjectsorobjectsbutonlyindividualscaughtinanetworkofhistoricalandpsychologicalpowerrelationshipsThedominantthemeofcontemporarywomen'sfictionisthereconstructionofanewhistoryandaprivatespaceasawayofgrapplingwithpatriarchyFeminismhasrefocusedattentiononthepoliticsofrepresentationandknowledgeandalsoonpowerDecolonizationasametaphoracquiresmultipledimensionsinpostcoloniallpostmodernlfeministwritingsItmeanstheIleedtoliberatetheselffromalltraditionalstructuresFeministwritingischaracterizedbythesingularityandclarityofitsresistancetothegenderrootedaspectsofanytraditionthatpossesseditonceorisnowpossessingitThis,inturn,leadstotheconstructionofaprivatekingdomofsubjectivepowersItchallengesauthority,stereotypes,iconsjmater~TheoreticalModules:PostmodemismFeministNexusandsexistvaluesNoexpressionorculturalvalueisprivilegedovertheotherItisadesperateactofselfdefinitionandfindinga"roomofone'sown"ReconstructionofmeaningsisbroughtoutleadingtoradicaldefinitionsoffreedomandselfhoodItwasperhapsJeanFrancoisLyotard'sreflectionofpostmodernismasthequestioningofmasternarrativesthatprovokedasparkofresponseamongfeministcriticsLyotard'smodelofpostmodernismsuggeststhepossibilityofconjunctionwiththealreadyexistingfeministprojectofquestioningthebasicmasculinevaluesofwesternculturewhichhadworkedtooppresswomenandsuppressthefeminineInGynesis,AliceJardinehasmadetheconnectionbetweenthepostmodernist"crisesoflegitimation"ofthe"master(European)narratives"andthefeministcritiqueItiswidelyrecognizedthatlegitimacyispartofthatjudicialdomainwhich,historically,hasdeterminedtherighttogovern,thesuccessionofkings,thelinkbetweenfatherandson,thenecessarypaternalfiction,theabilitytodeterminewhoisthefatherinpatriarchalcultureThecrisesexperiencedbythemajorwesternnarrativeshavenot,therefore,beengenderneutralTheyarecrisesinthenarratiyesinventedbymen()Whathasbeenforearliercommentatorsalamentablelossofmasterybecame,inJardine'sview,adeconstructionoffalselyuniversalizinghierarchyofvaluesdominatedbyWesternmiddle·classwhitemalesByunderminingthemasternarratives,postmodernismseemedtocreatenewspacesforpluralism,marginalityanddifferences,valuesalsostressedbyfeministsThusthereisacloseintersectionbetweenthethreepopularismsofourtimesPostmodernism,PostcolonialismandFeminismThecommonbasisofthethreemovementsisinwhatLindaHutcheoncalstheirshared'"'excentric"positionandtheirfirmsuspicionofcentralizingtendenciesTheliterarytext'sself·reflexivityhasledtoageneralbreakdownoftheconventionalboundariesbetweentheartsItisalsoclearthatotherboundariesarebeingchallengedtoo,includingthosebetweengenresandeventhosebetweenartandwhatjmaterlaaPostmodemFeministWn"terswecalllifeor'reality'Itisalmostatruismtodaythatwomen'swritinginparticularhasledthewayinthenewexplorationsof(andagainst)bordersandboundariesThepostmodernistquestioningoftotalizingstructuresproposedbyLyotardwouldseeminevitablylinkedtoanewconceptofsubjectivity,onethatwouldnecessarilyputintoquestionwhatJanetPatersonhasreferredtoasthe"mythoftheunitarysubject"PatersonseesthisquestioningasacentralcharacteristicofthepostmodernnovelAssheputsitTheactofenunciationisnotonlycharacterizedbytheputtingintoplaceofanarrative"I"butbyapluralityofnarrativevoicesThesevoicesmaybecutinhalf,doubled,fragmentedThesevoicesrarelyproduceaunifieddiscourseTheyrefuse,onthecontrary,toadmitasinglevisionandasingleauthorityandtheysubvertallnotionsofcontrol,ofdominationandoftruth(they)allowaputtinginOOquestionatthelevelofsayingofnotionsofauthorityandatotalizingvision()SubjectivityintheWesternlibenilhumanisttraditionhasbeendefInedintermsofrationality,individualityandpowerinotherwords,itisdermedintermsofthosedomainstraditionallydeniedwomenwhoarerelegatedinsteadtotherealmsofintuition,familialcollectivityapds,ubIpissionIfwomenhavenotbeenaHow'edaccessto(male)subjectivity,thenitisverydifficultforthemtocoqtestit}Vi!lenmustdefInetheirsubjectivitybeforetheycanquestionit,theymustfirstasserttheselfhoodtheyhavebeendeniedbythedominantcultureTheir(Feminists)doubledactof'inscribing'andchallengingsubjectivityhasbeenoneofthemajorforcesinmakingpostmodernismaresolutelyparadoxicalenterpriseThecriticalstancesofFeministsandPostmodernistsaresimilarbecausebothunderlineandunderminereceivednotionsoftherepresentedsubjectParodyisusuallycQosideredc~ntraltopostmodernismPostmodernBrtrummagesthroughtheimagereservesofthepastinsuchawayStoshowthehistoryoftherepresentationsWithparody,aswithanyformofreproduction,thenotionofthejmater~TheoreticalModules:PostmodernismFeministNexusoriginalasrare,singleandvaluableiscalledintoquestionAsLindaHutcheonputsitParodyisatypicalpostmodernparadoxicalformbecauseitusesandabusesthetextsandconventionsofthetraditionItalsocontestsboththeauthorityofthattraditionandtheclaimsofarttooriginalityItsimultaneouslyexploitsandundercutsseveralrecognizabletraditionsoftherepresentationofwomen:thepassivefemaleonherpedestalisherepoisedforaction,completewithunglamorousbathingcaptheeroticpinupbathingbeautynowrefusestoengagethegazeofher(coDventionallymale)viewerTheunevenlyhungcanvasbackdropcallsattentiontoitselflbacJcdrop,pointingtotheentirephotograph'sexistenceConstructionnotreflectionofwomansubjectandalsoasobjectByret:aingthetextsofthepastofliteratureorevenofhistorypotmodernnovelssimilarlyuseparodytoquestionwhethertherecaneverbesuchathingasafinal,definitive'inscription'ofseltboodorsubjectivityinfiction(lt:)RelatedtotheproblemofpostmodernismandsubjectivityhasbeentheequallyconflictualrelationshipofpostmodemismandhistoryAsfeministswerestrugglingtouncovertheburiedtracesofwomen'spast,theywereconfrontedwithapostmodernismdefinedinlargepartbyitscriticsashostileorindifferenttohistoryYet,asLindaHutcheonhasbeenconcernedtodemonstrate,postmodernismcanmoreconvincinglybeconstruedasanefforttoreexaminethehistorical'masternarratives'inordertoquestiontheirclaimstomastery,exposinghis:toriographyasahumanconstruction,notunlikethewritingoffictionThisdoesnotmeanthatarthaslostitsmeaningandpurposebutthatitwillinevitablyhaveanewanddifferentsignificancePostmodemParodydoesnotdisregardthecontextofpastrepresentationitcitesbutusesironytoacknowledgethefactthatweareinevitablyseparatedfromthatpasttodayHutcheonplacesParodywithinthegreaterfieldofironyas"theironicuseofintertextualreferences"(:)ThereiscontinuumbetweenthepastandthepresentbutthereisalsoironicdifferencedifferenceinducedbythatveryhistoryPostmodernParodyisthus,bothdeconatructivelycriticalandconstructivelycreativeAs·a:ImaterlaaPostmodernFeministWritenformofironicrepresentation,parodyisdoublycodedinpoliticaltermsitlegitimizesandsubvertsthatwhichitparodiesPostmodernparodicstrategiesareoftenusedbyfeministwriterstopointtothehistoryandhistoricalpowerofthoseculturalrepresentationsInfeministart,writtenorvisual,thepoliticsofrepresentationisinevitablythepoliticsofgenderThewaywomenappeartothemselves,thewaymenlookatwomen,thewaywomenarepicturedinthemedia,thewaywomenlookatthemselves,thecriteriaforphysicalbeautymostoftheseareculturalrepresentationsPostmodernparodyisakindofcontestingrevisionorrereadingofthepastthatconfirmsandsubvertsthepoweroftherepresentationsofhistoryParody,itbecomesclear,arisesoutofaparadoxicalconvictionoftheremotenessofthepastandtheneedtodealwithitinthepresentInATheoryofParodyTheeachingsofventiethCenturyArtForms(),LindaHutcheonconcentratesonthewaysthatcertaintwentiethcenturyartformsofferparodicallusionstotheartofthepastHowever,sheconcludesthatitiswrongtodefineparodybyitspolemicalrelationtotheparodiedtext(thebypotext,inGenette'sterms),sincemanyofthecontemporaryartworksthatshediscussessimplydonothavethatpolemicaledgetothemUseofparodyis,therefore,aparticularartisticpracticewhichcanworkbothways:towardstheimitatedtextortowardsthe·world'ForexampleinsectionIIIofTheWasteland,EliotmakesaparodicallusiontoSpenser'sProthalamionSweetThames,runsoftlytillIendmysongSweetThames,runaoftly,forIspeaknotloudorlongButatmybackinacoldblastIhearTherustleofthebones,andchucklespreadfromeartoear(Eliot:)Eliot'sparodyofSpenserhasasitspolemicaltargetnottheProthalamion,butthecontemporary('s)stateoftheThames,London,andindeedcivilizationSpenser'spoemprovidesEliotwithakindofstandardbywhichtojmater~TheoreticalModules:PostmodemismFeministNexusmeasuretheuglinessofthemodernworldandthebridalsongofthehypotextmeasuresthesordidnessofthe'ssexualrelations,indicatedbythedetritusthatflowsdowntheriver,including'othertestimonyofsummernights'HeretheparodyisdirectedtowardstheworldanditdrawsontheauthorityoftheparodiedtexttoestablishitsownevaluativestanceAmajorthemeinfeministtheoryonbothsidesoftheAtlanticforthepastdecadehasbeenthedemandthatwomenwritersbe,inClaudineHermann'sphrase"thievesoflanguage"or,inotherwords,"femalePrometheus's"Thoughthelanguagewomenspeakandwritehasbeenanencodingofmaleprivilege,whatAdrienneRichcallsan"oppressor'slanguage"whichtransformsthedaughtertothe"invisiblewoman"intheasylumcorridoror"silentwoman"withoutaccesstoauthoritativeexpression(Landy),womenmustalsohaveitintheirpowerto"seizespeech"andmakeitsaywhattheymean(Landy)Revisionistheactoflookingback,ofseeingwithfresheyes,ofenteringanoldtextfromanewcriticaldirectionForWomen,Revisionismorethanachapterincriticalhistoryitanactofsurvival(Landy)Revisiondoesnotsimplymean,"lookingback"norisitamere"actofsurvival"RatherifreferstoarevisionistremakingofthepastandreinventionofanewtraditionsomuchsothatitbecomesaDactofcreation,transcreationMythologyseemsaninhospitableterrainforawomanwriterInmythsonefindsnotonlydeitiesofpurethoughtandspiritualitywhoaresuperiortoMotherNaturebutalsothesexuallywickedVenus,Circe,Pandora,Medea,EveetcWheneveranartistemploysafigureorastorypreviouslyacceptedanddefinedbyaculture,hesheisusingmythandthepotentialisalwayspresentthattheusewillberevisionistthatis,thefigureortalewillbeappropriatedforalteredends,oldvesselfilledwithnewwineinitiallysatisfyingthe·thirstoftheindividualpoetbutultimatelymakingculturalchangepossibleMythbelongsto"highculture"andishandeddownthroughtheagesbyreligious,literaryandjmaterlaaPostmodernFemi

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【后现代女性主义作家】Postmodern+Feminist+Writers

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