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首页 布吉:中国皇帝忽必烈汗的僧侣们

布吉:中国皇帝忽必烈汗的僧侣们.pdf

布吉:中国皇帝忽必烈汗的僧侣们

燕云黯黯千秋色
2011-04-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《布吉:中国皇帝忽必烈汗的僧侣们pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheMonksofKublaiKhan,EmperorofChinaTHEMONKSOFKUBLAlKHANEMPEROROFCHINAORTHEHISTORYOFTHELIFEANDTRAVELSOFRABBANSAWMA,ENVOYANDPLENIPOTENTIARYOFTHEMONGOLKHANSTOTHEKINGSOFEUROPE,ANDMARKOSWHOASMARYAHBHALLAHAIIIBECAMEPATRIARCHOFTHENESTORIANCHURCHINASIATRANSLATEDFROMTHESYRIACBYSIREAWALLISBUDGE,KTMA,LITTD(CAMBRIDGE),MA,DLITT(OXFORD),DLIT(DURHAM),FSASometimeKeeperofEgyptianandAssyrianAntiquities,BritishMuseumCorrespondingMemberoftheAcademyofSciencesLisbonandCorrespondingMemberofthePhilosophicalSocietyofAmericaWithplatesandillustrationsinthetextLONDONTHERELIGIOUSTRACTSOCIETYManchester,TORONTO,MadridLISBON,BUDAPESTFirstpublishedinAllrightsreservedMadeinGreatBritainPrintedbyHarrisonSons,Ltd,StMartin'sLane,London,WCAssyrianInternationalNewsAgencyBooksOnlinewwwainaorg��������������������������������������������������TheMonksofKublaiKhan,EmperorofChinaTheMonksofKublaiKhan,EmperorofChinaTOTHERIGHTREVERENDFREDERICLLEWELYNDEANE,DDBISHOPOFABERDEENANDORKNEYBISHOPBELOVEDOFTHEOFFICERSANDMENOFTHEBATTLEFLEETATSCAPA,MASTEROFTHECRAFTOFTHEAPOSTOLIC“FISHERSOFMEN,”GREATFISHEROFFISHINICELAND,ANDTRUEANDLOYALFRIENDOFALLTHOSE“THATGODOWNTOTHESEAINSHIPSANDOCCUPYTHEIRBUSINESSINGREATWATERS”WITHTHEREVERENCE,SYMPATHYANDAFFECTIONATEESTEEMOFTHETRANSLATORTheMonksofKublaiKhan,EmperorofChinaCONTENTSPREFACEINTRODUCTIONTHENESTORIANCHRISTIANSANDTHEIRDOCTRINESTHEHERESYOFNESTORIUSPROGRESSOFNESTORIANISMTHECONVERSIONOFTURKESTANDOWNFALLOFTHENESTORIANCHURCHINCHINATHECREEDANDDOCTRINEOFTHENESTORIANSTHETRAVELSOFTHENESTORIANCHINESEMONKS,RABBANSAWMAANDMARKOSITHETRAVELSOFSAWMAANDMARKTHEPAIZAHORBULLOFTHEMONGOLKINGSIITHETRAVELSOFRABBANSAWMASAWMARETURNSTOMONGOLIAIIITHEPATRIARCHATEOFMARYAHBHALLAHAIIITHEILKHANSOFPERSIATHEDECLINEOFCHRISTIANITYINCENTRALASIAANDCHINATHEMODERNNESTORIANSTHECREEDOFMARYAHBHALLAHAIIIAPPENDIXATOINTRODUCTIONTHERISEANDFALLOFTHEFIRSTMONGOLEMPIRETHEMONGOLSANDCHRISTIANITYTHEMONGOLLANGUAGETHEPROGRESSOFMUHAMMADANISMINTHETHIRTEENTHCENTURYAPPENDIXBTOINTRODUCTIONTHENESTORIANSTELEATHSIANFUTRANSLATIONOFTHESYRIACTEXTITHEPRAYEROFTHESYRIANTRANSLATORCHAPTERITHEHISTORYOFRABBANSAWMACHAPTERIITHEHISTORYOFMARYAHBHALLAHA,THECATHOLICUSANDPATRIARCHOFTHEEASTCHAPTERIIIRABBANSAWMAANDRABBANMARKOSWISHTOGOTOJERUSALEMCHAPTERIVRABBANMARKISORDAINEDMETROPOLITAN,ANDISCALLEDMARYAHBHALLAHA,ANDRABBANSAWMABECOMESVISITORGENERALCHAPTERVYAHBHALLAHAISELECTEDPATRIARCHCHAPTERVITHEFALSEACCUSATIONSWHICHMARYAHBHSUFFEREDINTHEDAYSOFAHMADTHEKINGCHAPTERVII()ONTHEDEPARTUREOFRABBANSAWMATOTHECOUNTRYOFTHEROMANSINTHENAMEOFKINGARGHONANDOFTHECATHOLICUSMARYAHBHALLAHATHEJOURNEYOFRABBANSAWMATOTHECOUNTRYOFTHEROMANSINTHENAMEOFKINGARGHONANDOFTHECATHOLICUSMARYAHBHALLAHARABBANSAWMAINBYZANTIUMRABBANSAWMAINITALYANDINGREATROMETHEBELIEFOFRABBANSAWMA,WHICHTHECARDINALSDEMANDEDFROMHIMRABBANSAWMAINFRANSAORFRANGESTANRABBANSAWMAGOESTOTHEKINGOFENGLANDieEDWARDITheMonksofKublaiKhan,EmperorofChinaRABBANSAWMARETURNSTOROMETHERETURNOFRABBANSAWMAFROMROMEANDFROMMARPAPA,THECATHOLICUSPATRIARCHOFTHEROMANSANDOFALLWESTERNSCHAPTERVIIITHEGOODACTSOFKINGARGHAN,ANDHISDEATHCHAPTERIXKINGKAIKHATOANDMARYAHBHALLAHACHAPTERXTHEDEATHOFRABBANSAWMAANDOFTHEKINGSKAIKHATOANDBAIDUCHAPTERXITHEPERSECUTIONOFMARYAHBHALLAHAANDTHECHRISTIANSINMARAGHAHCHAPTERXIIKINGKAZANPAYSHONOURTOMARYAHBHALLAHACHAPTERXIIIFURTHERPILLAGEANDMURDERINMARAGHAHCHAPTERXIVREBELLIONSANDFIGHTINGSINTHEFORTRESSOFARBILCHAPTERXVMARYAHBHALLAHAFLOURISHETHANDFINISHESBUILDINGTHEMONASTERYOFMARAGHAHCHAPTERXVITHELOVEOFKINGKAZANFORMARYAHBHALLAHA,ANDHISDEATHCHAPTERXVIIKINGULJAITOANDMARYAHBHALLAHACHAPTERXVIIITHEMASSACREOFTHECHRISTIANSATARBILCHAPTERXIXTHEDEATHOFMARYAHBHALLAHABIBLIOGRAPHYFOOTNOTESTheMonksofKublaiKhan,EmperorofChinaPREFACETHEpresentvolumecontainsacompletetranslationoftheSyriacHistoryofthetwoNestorianChinesemonks,BarSawmaofKhanBalik(Pekin)andMarkos(Mark)ofKawshangThisremarkabledocumentisofgreatinterestandimportance,foritcontainsamassofinformationabouttheIlKhansofPersiaandtheirdealingswiththeMongolChristianswhichisfoundnowhereelseItdescribesveryfullytheeventswhichbroughtaboutthedownfalloftheNestorianChurchinChina,CentralAsiaand'IrakalAjami,andasthestatementsinitarethoseofacontemporaryeyewitnessoftheeventswhichhedescribes,theyareofveryspecialvalueItmaybenoted,’too,thatitsuppliesuswithanexampleofserendipity,whichisfarmoreremarkablethananymentionedintheoldPersianstoryofthethreeprincesofSarendib(Ceylon)SaultheBenjamitesetouttofindhisfather'sasseshefailedtofindtheassesbuthefoundakingdomThetwoChinesemonkssetouttogotoJerusalemtoprayattheTombofOurLordinJerusalem,wheretheyhopedtoobtaintheremissionoftheirsinsandtoobtainpeaceintheirsoulsTheyneverreachedJerusalem,buttheyoungermonk,Mark,foundhimselfmadefirstaMetropolitanBishopandlaterPatriarchandCatholicusoftheNestorianChurch,thedominionsofwhichextendfromChinaintheEasttoPalestineintheWest,andfromSiberiaintheNorthtoCeylonintheSouthTheeldermonkfoundhimselfappointedfirstVisitorGeneraloftheNestorianChurchthroughoutAsia,andlaterEnvoyExtraordinaryandPlenipotentiaryof'ArghnKhantotheKingofByzantium,thePopeofRome,theKingofFrance,andEdwardI,KingofEnglandTheHistoryofthesemonkswellillustratestheworkingsofDivineProvidenceinthedestiniesofthemenwhoareselectedtobeitsinstrumentsTheSyriactextofourHistoryis,onthewhole,good,andthetranslationofitgivenhereinhasbeenmadeasliteralaspossible:thereare,however,afewpassagesinwhichthetextiseitherdefectiveorgarbled,andthesehavebeencarefullypointedoutThetranslatoroftheoriginalPersiantextintoSyriacassumedthathisreaderswouldbewellacquaintedwiththegeneralhistoryoftheperiod,andthereforedidnottroubletosupplementhisworkwiththedetailswhichtheoccidentalreaderneedstounderstandthenarrativeIhavethereforecollectedanumberofthemostessentialfacts,bothhistoricalandarchaeological,andgroupedthemintheseriesofparagraphswhichformtheIntroduction,insteadofprintingthematthefootofthepageintheusualwayThisarrangementwillenablethereadertoperusethetranslationuninterruptedlyItseemedtometobeunnecessarytoannotatethepassageswhichdealwiththerelicsofthesaints,andtheirrestingplaces,forthecredulityofmanyChristianpeoplesintheXIIIthcenturyistoowellknowntoneedmentionItissurprisingtofindourauthorsolemnlyrecordingthathewasshownthestoneonwhichPetertheApostlewassittingwhentheCockcrew!MythanksareduetotheTrusteesoftheBritishMuseumforpermissiontoreproduceapageofBritMusMSOrientNotoDrLionelBarnettforpermissiontoexaminetheUighurMSSunderhischargetoSirJohnMurray,KCVO,forpermissiontoreproducethetwoplatesillustratingtheMongolPaizah,whicharegiveninYule'simmortaleditionofthe������������������toMrGHDring,ManagingDirectorofBernardQuaritch,Ltd,forpermissiontoreproducesixplatesfromMrFRMartin'sinvaluable��������������������������������vols,London,andtoMrADWaley,BA,oftheBritishMuseum,forpermissiontoreproducetheportraitofKublaiKhanfromhisworkonPersianArtTheportraitofChingizKhanIowetoMrETCWerner'sarticleintheJournalof,����������������������������������������������,vol,thethreeillustrationsoftheNestorianSteleatHsianfutoHavret'sgreatmonographonthesubjectandtheviewoftheMonasteryofRabbanHormizdatAlKtoMrCJRich's�������������������������������vol,London,,pThisworkhasbeenreadinproofbyDrCHIrwin,GeneralEditoroftheReligiousTractSociety,andIamindebtedtohimforseveralfriendlysuggestions,whichIhavegladlyadoptedEAWALLISBUDGE,BloomsburyStreet,BedfordSquare,London,WCIJuly,TheMonksofKublaiKhan,EmperorofChinaINTRODUCTIONACCORDINGtotheEcclesiasticalChronicleofBarHebraeus(edAbbeloosandLamy,tomeiii,Col)twomonks,ofUighurorigin,weresentfromChina“bythecommandofthegreatMongolkingKublaiKhanandorderedtogoandworshipinJerusalem”ItisnotclearwhetherthewordItranslateby“command”(�����)istobeunderstoodhereasamerepermittotravelwestwardsfromPekin,orasanImperialEdictorderingthemonkstogotoJerusalemButitiswellknownthattheMongolKhanswishedtogainpossessionofJerusalem,andtherecanbenodoubtthatthetwomonksweresenttotheWestaspropagandists,andtoobtainthehelpoftheChristiankingsofEasternEuropeTheeasewithwhichtheytravelledshowsthattheywereemissariesofKublaiKhan,andthattheywerearmedwithproofsofhisauthorityBarHebraeusgoesontosaythattheUighurmonksarrivedinKurdistan,butwereunabletoproceedfurtherwestbecausefightingwasgoingonandalltheroadswereblockedTheyturnedasideatMaraghah,whereMarDenha,whoowedhisappointmentasPatriarchtoDokuzKhatun,thewifeofHulaguKhan,wasstaying,andmadethemselvesknowntohimasmembersoftheNestorianChurchAftersomeconversationwiththemthePatriarch,forreasonsofhisown,consecratedoneofthemonks,whomhecalledYahbhAllAha,MetropolitanofChinaWhenMarDenhadied()YahbhAllahawaselectedPatriarchoftheEast,andBarHebraeus,thoughadmittingthatthenewPatriarchwasnotalearnedman,testifiestothegoodnessofhisdisposition,thesoundnessofhisbelief,andhisfriendshipfortheJacobitesButhetellsusnothingaboutYahbhAllaha'sfellowmonk,orwhatbecameofhim,andasBarHebraeusdiedin,his�������doesnotcontainanyaccountofthePatriarchateofYahbhAllaha,whichlasteduntilOntheseandmanyotherinterestingpoints'','dealingwiththehistoryofthatperiodscholarsremainedwithoutinformationuntilInMarch,,MrSalomon,aLazaristChaldeanofkurdistan,sawinthehandsofayoungTurkishNestorianinTekhama,aSyriacmanuscriptwhichheborrowedfromhimandread,andthenhadacopyofitmadeatUrmiyahThecontentsofthemanuscriptturnedouttobeanarrativeofthehistoriesandtravelsofthetwoUighurmonkswhoarementionedbyBarHebraeusMrSalomonsenthiscopytoFatherBedjan,whofoundthat

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布吉:中国皇帝忽必烈汗的僧侣们

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